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Portfolio in curriculum development

  1. 1. PORTFOLIOinCURRICULUMDEVELOPMENTSubmitted to:Mrs. Maria Aida ManilaSubmitted by:Lourise Archie C. Subang
  3. 3. SELF INTRODUCTION Everyone has its own story to tell about one’s life. And for me it goes like this… My name is Lourise Archie C. Subang. I was born late in the evening of May 23,1993 in Brgy. Dakit, San Francisco, Southern Leyte. I am the eldest among the fivechildren of Mr. Eduvino J. Subang and Ms. Rosalita J. Corporal. My siblings are Rey C.Subang (15 yrs. old), Darren C. Subang (12 yrs. old), Fern C. Subang (9 yrs. old), andLeila Subang (6 yrs. old). As a background of myself, I was born and raised in a “god-fearing household”(of which both my parents’ families were also god-fearing household). Together weattended regular church services and other religious activities in our church, theUCCP-LIFE Dakit Evangelical Church. Evangelical Christians is my denomination. My elementary education took place in the town’s central school, the SanFrancisco Central School. I finished as the class valedictorian of our batch, 2004-2005. My secondary life was quite different, however. To make the story short,granted by His favor, my God, Jesus Christ, I was privileged to take up my freshmanyear in Palompon, at the Northern Leyte College. The remainder of my secondaryeducation was spent on Celestino Artigo Ablas Sr. Academy Inc. (CAASAI), however. Igraduated as the salutatorian in my batch, 2008-2009. I’m back here in Palompon to pursue and hopefully finish my college life.Currently I am staying at the Shepherd’s Fold Youth Center. Also, I’m a scholar of thisyouth center. This center also helps me to hone the necessary skills I needed for myprofession through its programs of which I am part of. Currently, I am now a junior college student studying at the PalomponInstitute of Technology taking up the course of Bachelor of Secondary Education(BSEd) major in Mathematics. How privileged I am to be a part of this famouseducational institution. Still the rest of the story is just to be written. But ever thanks be to my God,Jesus Christ for allowing me to be on of his children. All the things I had, has, and willbe doing is all for his glory!!!
  4. 4. STATEMENT OF GOALS OF LEARNINGThe following is my statement of goals:As a student studying this profession I should be able to: 1. Perform diligently all the required tasks and activities to the best of my God-given abilities. 2. Be a role model in applying all the principles, concepts as well as the work ethics that are related to this profession in and out campus. 3. Enjoy the company of my fellow classmates and help promote conducive learning environment for all. 4. Learn as much as possible from the surroundings I am and share to them all the pieces of advices for their betterment. 5. Let love and its characteristics abound in all aspects and opportunities I can have. 6. Above all, in all that I will undertake I will glorify my God, Jesus Christ!As a future teacher I should be able to: 1. Perform diligently all the required tasks and activities to the best of my God-given abilities. 2. Be a role model to my colleagues in applying all the principles, concepts as well as the work ethics that are related to this profession in and out campus. 3. Enjoy the company of my fellow faculty and help promote conducive learning environment for all especially to my future students. 4. Learn as much as possible from the surroundings I am and share to them (colleagues and my future students) all the pieces of advices for their betterment. 5. Inculcate to all my constituents (parents, faculty, pupils and community partners) that there is no easy, smooth ride to success and that intellectual honesty, morale and respect are valuable for one’s integrity. 6. Let love and its characteristics abound in all aspects and opportunities I can have. 7. Bring them to Christ. Meaning, all success, sufferings and satisfactions can be obtained only if they’ll have first an intimate relationship with Him. 8. Above all, in all that I will undertake I will glorify my God, Jesus Christ!
  5. 5. INTERVIEW RESULTS QUESTION: What is curriculum?School Principal “This forms the structural backbone of all the educational institutions in all theirdegrees or programs of study they offered. Meaning, it comprises the basics of featuresof the curriculum. Moreover, curriculum it formulated from an elite roster of eligible“makers” that ranges from school administrators, educational agencies’ representatives,teachers as well as concerned community personnel. It is also the blueprint of the wholeeducative process of imparting information and making a difference in the students’lives. “ ARLENE C. SUBANG, CAASAISecondary Teacher “Basically, this is composed of the list of subjects to be taken up by the learnerthat falls under one program of discipline. Moreover, it is a self-sufficient study thatreadily facilitates the extensive and ordered manner of delivering information andconcepts, facilitating the students to be able to grasp them and guiding the students aswell in properly applying these learning not just inside the ‘four corners’ but as well totheir personal lives.“ JESSELE C. ARTIGO, CAASAICollege Teacher “A list of subjects that are related and interconnected and is systematically laidout to provide a concrete, sustainable and attainable structure all for realizing the needsof its constituents. Also, it is one of the integral parts of the whole teaching-learningprocess and is therefore has a great share of the whole success or demise of the wholeevent. “ SUSAN S. ENTOMA, PITStudent Teacher “A rigid, maximum output-oriented and self-reliant study that aims for the holisticimprovement for all its constituents (teachers and pupils alike). Young may be its nature(for it’s only in early 1900s this study starts) but lasting is its impact to the society. Madeby the society, for the society is what it lives for. Teaching and learning processes areaimless without this tool. All in all the curriculum has been and will always be anindispensable tool for the whole educational community. “ ANDRES BANTE, BSED-MATH, PITNon-Education College Student “Curriculum is any type of college course taken up any student .This have manytypes and each type is suited for each student corresponding their specific needs andinterests and is aimed for the betterment of the students themselves. “ ROXANNE JOY C. GALAGAR, BUSINESS AD., COLLEGE OF MAASIN
  6. 6. SAMPLE LESSON PLAN1. Lesson Title: Rain Forests2. Subject Area:Language Arts , Math , Science , Art , Social Studies , Music , Drama , Technology3. Grade Level: 3-54. Time: 6 week projectLesson Summary:Students will: 1. Receive an overview of lesson (teacher power point presentation) 2. Learn about the layers of the rain forest (teacher created power point presentations), 3. Create a paper rain forest in the classroom including animals drawn with information cards researched by students using Amazing Amazon Trail CD-ROM, 4. Take notes on teachers presentation and write a paragraph in a book to make a layer book of the rain forest, 5. Take a videotape of creating the rain forest, make a storyboard and use editing equipment to create a documentary type video about the layers of the rain forest. 6. Create Power Point Presentations (have them for open house) using research done at specific sites on the internet, Encarta, Grolier and World Book CD-ROMs and Rain Forest library books. 7. Write a newsletter about the rain forest to inform students at the school. 8. Inform email buddies of rainforest information and their projects. 9. Visit the class website to see selected published projects teacher has uploaded5. Objectives: 1. Students will use note taking, report writing, storyboard writing, keyboarding, Power Point and video editing skills previously learned. 2. Students will be learning about another environment, creating products to enhance learning. 3. Students will use prior knowledge of other environments to help them know what, where, and how to research. 4. Students will understand the need to take care of the environment for their future and share the information with email buddies and school friends using a newsletter. 5. Students will use research and note taking to learn of a new environment. 6. Students will write a report on a specific part of the environment. Students will also write a book telling about the layers of the forest. Writing rubric will be used for evaluation. 7. Students will give an oral report using a power point presentation. Students and teacher will evaluate using a rubric.6. Prerequisite Skills: 1. Simple research skills 2. Keyboarding 3. How to use Amazon Trail CD-ROM to get information 4. How to use scanner, digital camera, video camera and editing equipment 5. How to create a newsletter using MS Publisher
  7. 7. 6. How to create PPT presentation 7. How to use URL to move on the internet7. Materials and Resources: Technology: Computer(s) , Television , VCR , Video Camera , Scanner , Printer , Digital Camera , Internet Connection , Multimedia Software , Word Processing Softwar , Image Processing Software , Web Page Development Software , Desktop Publishing Software , Internet Web Browser , E-mail Software , Encyclopedia on CD-ROM Printed Materials: Variety of library books on the rain forest Into the Rain Forest by The Nature Company Rain Forests by Joy Palmer Supplies: Premade books for Layer books, (seeRain Forest Layer Book) Butcher paper to make paper rain forest Crayons, markers or colored pencils Scissors Handouts Push pins, staplers and staples Paint for paper rain forest leaves Others: Computers Software-Amazing Amazon Trail, MS Word, MS Publisher, MS Power Point, Encarta, Grolier, World Book or other research software or books Digital Camera, scanner, video camera and video editing equipment Access to the internet.Video- National Geographic "Rain Forest"8. Procedures: 1. Teacher introduces overall 6 week unit with Power Point Presentation. 2. Students view National Geographic Video. 3. Teacher presentation of Power Points describing each layer of the rain forest. Students take notes and write a paragraph about the layer in their rain forest book. Students draw and color the layer on the outside of the book. (Students will later use the notes to create a script for the video) 4. Run 5 different stations. Station 1. 5 students create the specific layer (this is done after the teacher gives the presentation for the day)of the rainforest using butcher paper.(see Paper Rainforest) Station 2. 5 students video tape the process of making the layer of rainforest. Students should use some wide angle shots and some close ups of flowers and animals. Station 3. 4 students research animals using Amazing Amazon Trails CD- ROM. (work in partners using 2 computers) Station 4. 4 students research subjects for power point presentations. (students work as partners using 2 computers) . Specific subjects are: RAIN FOREST PRODUCTS (www.ran.org/ran/kids_action/index1.html) (, WHERE ARE RAIN FOREST (www.nosweat.com) 5. (ANIMALS OF THE RAIN FOREST (http://168.238.53/amazon/index.htm (http:/kids.osd.wednet.edu/marshall/homepage/animal.html), (http:/hyperion.advanced.org),PLANTS OF THE RAINFORESTS ((http://hyperion.advanced.org) (www.pbs.org/tal/costa_rica/variety.html) (http://168.238.53/amazon/index.htm (http://kids.osd.wednet.edu/marshall/homepage/plants.html), WHAT IS
  8. 8. HAPPENING TO THE RAIN FORESTS (http://168.238.53/amazon/index.htm (http://www.ran.org/ran/kids_action/index1.html), Station 5. Students drawing and coloring animals and flowers for the rain forest layer. Students will have a chance to be at a different station each day. When Power Point Presentations or paper rainforest is done, students will start writing storyboard and script for video. Then they will do the editing. 6. Students have 2 times a week when they will be able to take turns as partners to use the internet for research in the library and will have scheduled times to work on the computers to finish research and Power Point Presentations. At the beginning of the period, students will email their buddies. 7. Students will present oral reports using Power Point Presentation and evaluate peers. 8. Students will use created rain forest to enjoy a quite place to read. 9. Finished rain forest layer books will be on desks at open house. 10. Students will watch and critique video. 11. Students will visit the class webpage to enjoy seeing selected projects published.9. Conclusion/Evaluation of Lesson: 1. Writing will be evaluated using writing rubric. 2. Power Point Presentations will be evaluated using teacher created rubric, student evaluation form and oral report rubric. 3. Video will be evaluated for cooperative group work, for content, and for technical work using point charts.10. Modification for Differentiated Instruction: Special Needs: 1. Student can be partnered with more experienced computer user. 2. This and extra teacher time helps these students to be successful. 3. The student are not expected to have as much information or show in their presentations Gifted Student: 1. Creative thinking on emphasis of project can stimulate more web searches and more interesting information on the slides. Slides can be added to bring in appropriate emphasis. Actual science experimenting will also be encouraged for these students. 2. Exploring the people of the rainforest might be of interest to the student. The student could add to the class storyboard, dress up like a native rain forest inhabitant to add a segment to the video. Resource Material: http://www.comfsm.fm/pt3/techhelp/lessonexample.htm
  9. 9. SAMPLE COURSE SYLLABI LBYCH17 SYLLABUS General Chemistry Laboratory 1 for Chemistry and Biochemistry Majors Let integrity and uprightness be my protection for all my hope, O Lord, is You. Psalm 25Co-Requisite INOCHE1 No. of units 2Faculty TermE-mail School Year 2008-2009Time/ Day RoomConsultation HoursImportant Dates to Remember: Last Day for Dropping of Subjects Final Exam Week Midterm Exam Week Course Card Dist. DayObjectives: At the end of the course, the students should be able to: 1. Observe, collect, record and interpret experimental data and make sound conclusions based on logical and scientific arguments. 2. Report data and results reflecting the reliability of the instrument and equipment used to make the measurement 3. Apply significant figures in measurements and related chemical calculations 4. Collect data that is reproducible and within an acceptable margin of error 5. Use common glassware and equipment and practice good laboratory skills and techniques 6. Write and read the chemical formulas of simple inorganic compounds and interpret balanced chemical equations
  10. 10. 7. Classify matter, separate mixtures using separation procedures such as filtration, evaporation, sublimation and distinguish chemical and physical properties/changes 8. Prepare solutions from an experimental procedure 9. Apply the basic principles, laws and theories of Chemistry to experiments, practical situations and appreciate the role of Chemistry in everyday life 10. Identify unknowns by evaluating their properties, performing physical and chemical transformations and comparing these data with known standards. 11. Observe laboratory safety procedures and the proper use, storage and disposal of chemicals and reagents. 12. Show awareness towards the ill-effects of improper waste disposal to health and to the EnvironmentCourse A course developing basic laboratory skills. It includes experiments andDescription exercises illustrating the concepts covered in General Chemistry 1. A more detailed discussion of topics not extensively covered in the lecture is provided through additional experiments and exercises.Manual: E. J. Slowinski, W. C. Wolsey and W. L. Masterton, Chemical Principles In The Laboratory, 8th ed., Brooks/Cole, USA, 2005.References Beran, J. A., Laboratory Manual for Principles of General Chemistry, 7th ed., U.S.A., John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2004. Brown, Theodore L., LeMay, Eugene H., Bursten, Bruce E. Chemistry: The Central Science, 9th ed., New Jersey: Prentice Hall, International, 2003. Chang, Raymond, Chemistry, 8th ed., McGraw-Hill, Inc., Boston, 2005 Hein, Morris, Judith Peisen, Leo R. Best and Robert L. Miner, Foundation of Chemistry in the Laboratory, 11th ed., U. S. A., John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2004. Kotz, Z and Paul Treichel Jr., Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity, 5th ed., Thomson-Brooks/Cole, Australia, 2003. Masterton, William L., Hurley, Cecile N. Chemistry: Principles and Reactions, 5th ed., Thomson-Brooks/Cole, California, 2004. Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 3rd ed. (International Edition). Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2003 Zumdahl, Steve S. and Zumdahl, Susan A. Chemistry, 5th ed., Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Co. 2000. COURSE OUTLINE Schedule Details of Laboratory Activities Laboratory Orientation Meeting Laboratory Policies, Guidelines and Course Requirements No. 1 Check-In Procedure Problem Set 1: Chemical Symbols and Names of Elements Meeting Seminar: Safety in the Laboratory No. 2
  11. 11. Risks and Hazards What is a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)? Website: http://physchem.ox.ac.uk/MSDS/ Dry Lab: Significant Figures, Scientific Notation, Rounding Off Numbers (Exercise 1 and 2) The Periodic Table and Chemical Formula Writing (Exercises 3 and 4) Skills Development 1: Measurements and Evaluation of Data (Handout)Meeting Websites: http://genchem.rutgers.edu/balance3b.html No. 3 http://www.explorelearning.com/index.cfm?method=cResource.dspExpGuide&Resou rceID=385Meeting Dry Lab: Chemical Nomenclature I: Binary Inorganic Compounds (Exercises 5 and 6) No. 4 Chemical Stoichiometry I. Writing Balanced Chemical Equations (Exercise 7)Meeting Skills Development 2: Noting Details: Pigments: Natural Indicators (Handout) No. 5 Skills Development 3: Laboratory Techniques and Operations (Handout) Use of the Bunsen Burner and The Separation of Mixtures Websites: http://ch185.semo.edu/labsafe/bunsen9.html.Meeting No. 6 http://www.sfu.ca/chemistry/students/courses/chem110- 111/techniques/gravity_filtration.htm http://www.ic.sunysb.edu/Class/che133/techniques/gravfilt/ http://orgchem.colorado.edu/hndbksupport/filt/filtration.htmlMeeting Experiment 1: The Densities of Liquids and Solids (Lab Manual, page 1) No. 7Meeting Dry Lab: Chemical Nomenclature II: Binary Inorganic Compounds No. 8 Chemical Stoichiometry II. Writing Balanced Chemical EquationsMeeting Experiment 4: Determination of a Chemical Formula (Lab Manual, page 23) No. 9 Problem Set 2: Chemical Nomenclature III: Molecular Binary Compounds (Exercise 11
  12. 12. and 12) Dry Lab: Chemical Nomenclature IV: Oxoacids and Oxoanions (Exercise 13)Meeting Chemical Nomenclature V: Ternary Compounds (Exercise 14)No. 10 Problems Set 3: Review on the Concept of the Mole and Percent CompositionMeeting Dry Lab: Elemental Analysis (Exercise 15)No. 11Meeting Experiment 5: Identification of a Compound by Mass Relationships (Lab Manual, pageNo. 12 29)Meeting Experiment 6: Properties of Hydrates (Lab Manual, page 35)No. 13Meeting Dry Lab: Graphical Representation of Data (Exercise 16)No. 14Meeting Experiment 9: Molar Volume of Carbon Dioxide Gas (Handout)No. 15 Website: http://dwb.unl.edu/Chemistry/MicroScale/MScale16.htmlMeeting Dry Lab: Gas Laws (Chapter 5, Chemistry by Raymond Chang)No. 16Meeting Experiment 11: The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen (Lab Manual, page 69)No. 17 Experiment 12: The Alkaline Earths and the Halogens – Two Families in the PeriodicMeeting TableNo. 18 (Lab Manual, page 79)Meeting Experiment 13: The Geometrical Structure of Molecules-An Experiment UsingNo. 19 Molecular Models (Lab Manual p. 87)Meeting Dry Lab: Solutions: Concentration Units and Preparation of Solutions (Exercise 17)No. 20 Experiment 19: Molar Mass Determination by Depression of the Freezing PointMeeting (Handout)No. 21 Demonstration Activity: Electrolytes and NonelectrolytesMeeting Dry Lab: Colligative Properties (Exercise 18)
  13. 13. No. 22Meeting Dry Lab: Reactions in Aqueous Solutions (Chapter 4, Chemistry by Raymond Chang)No. 23 Double Displacement Reactions and Net Ionic Equations (Exercise 19 and 20)Meeting Special Interest Activity: Ice-Cream Making (Handout)No. 24 Week 13 Review /Check-Out Week 14 Final Exam WeekGRADING SYSTEM:MIDTERM GRADE FINAL GRADEPre-Lab Reports (Journal) 15% Pre-Lab Reports (Journal) 15%Advance Study Assignments (ASAs) 15% Advance Study Assignments (ASAs) 15%Final Reports (D&C/SD Sheets) 25% Final Reports (D&C/SD Sheets) 20%Laboratory Performance 25% Laboratory Performance 20%Quizzes/Exercises 20% Quizzes/Exercises/Problem Sets 15% Exam 15% TOTAL 100% TOTAL 100% Passing Grade: 60% (GPE=1.0)
  14. 14. De La Salle University Manila Chemistry Department CHENTWO SYLLABUS (General Chemistry 2 for COE)Faculty TermE-mail School Year 2008-2009Time/ Day RoomConsultation Consultation RoomHoursPre-requisite of CHENONE No. of Units 2the Course A continuation of General Chemistry 1 (CHENONE) covering elementary chemicalCourse thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, acid-base theories andDescription applications, reduction-oxidation reactions and electrochemistry.Course Objectives At the end of the course, the student should be able to 1. understand the nature of energy, its various forms and the energy changes that occur during chemical reactions 2. relate the change in internal energy to heat and work and differentiate the heat of the reaction measured at constant pressure (change in enthalpy) and constant volume (change in internal energy) 3. relate the First Law of Thermodynamics to the study of thermochemistry 4. correctly write rate expressions and rate laws for reactions and determine the order of the reactions given experimental data 5. show how the factors like concentrations, temperature, the process by which the reaction takes place and the presence of a catalyst influence the rate of the reaction 6. understand the concept of equilibrium and predict how the position of an equilibrium state is affected by factors such as concentration, temperature, etc. 7. calculate equilibrium constants and equilibrium concentrations 8. differentiate Arrhenius, Bronsted and Lewis definitions of acids and bases 9. understand the concept of pH and use it as a measure of the acidity of a solution 10. write ionization equations and calculate the equilibrium concentration of weak acids and weak bases 11. describe the acidic and basic properties of salts 12. identify and balance redox reactions 13. calculate cell potentials and predict direction of redox reactions from the cell potential data. “It is the Lord who gives wisdom; from Him comes knowledge and understanding. He provides help and protection for righteous, honest men. He protects those who treat others fairly, and guards those who are devoted to Him” Proverbs 2:6 – 9Textbook Chang, Raymond, GENERAL CHEMISTRY: THE ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006
  15. 15. Online Resources The student is encouraged to utilize the online resources provided by the textbook at its website www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/chang. The Online Learning Center contains an animation center, simulation center, interactive center, interactive self assessment quizzes, chapter summaries, key equations, flashcards and tutorials.Assessment and Midterm Grade Final GradeEvaluation Problem Sets, Seatwork, 20% 15% Problem Sets, Seatwork, Quizzes Quizzes Long Exams 80% Long Exams 60% Total 100% Final Exam 25% Total 100% Passing Grade: 60% (Grade Point Equivalent: 1.0) COURSE OUTLINE No. of Lecture Topics Hours Chapter 6: THERMODYNAMICS 5.0 The Nature of Energy and Types of Energy Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions Introduction to Thermodynamics Enthalpy of Chemical Reactions Calorimetry Standard Enthalpy of Formation and Reaction Interactivity: Conservation of Energy Animation: Heat Flow Review Questions/Problems: 6.1- 6.3, 6.7, 6.8, 6.11-6.19, 6.21, 6.22, 6.24, 6.25, 6.26, 6.27, 6.30- 6.34, 6.39, 6.41, 6.45, 6.46, 6.48, 6.54, 6.62, 6.64, 6.66, 6.68, 6.70 LONG EXAM 1 Chapter 14:CHEMICAL KINETICS 5.0 The Rate of a Reaction The Rate Laws Relation Between Reactant Concentrations and Time Activation Energy and Temperature Dependence of Rate Constants Reaction Mechanisms Catalysis Interactivities: Rate Law; Mechanisms and Rates Animations: Activation Energy, Orientation of Collision, Catalysis Review Questions/Problems: 14.1, 14.2, 14.5 14.12, 14.15-14.18, 14.20, 14.24 14.29,
  16. 16. 14.33 14.35, 14.40, 13.43, 13.44,13.45, 13.46, 14.58, 14.64 LONG EXAM 2Chapter 15: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 5.0 The Concept of Equilibrium Ways of Expressing Equilibrium Constants What does the Equilibrium Constant Tell Us? Factors that Affect Chemical EquilibriumInteractivities: Determining Extent – Equilibrium Constant, Concentration from EquilibriumExpressionAnimations: Chemical Equilibrium, Le Chatelier’s PrincipleReview Questions/Problems: 15.1 15.9, 15.13 15.17, 15.24, 15.26, 15.29, 15.30, 15.32 15.35,15.40, 15.44, 15.46, 15.49, 15.51, 15.52, 15.54, 15.56, 15.58, 15.62 LONG EXAM 3Chapter 16: Acids and Bases 4.0 Bronsted Acids and Bases The Acid-Base Properties of Water pH A Measure of Acidity Strength of Acids and Bases Weak Acids and Acid Ionization Constants Weak Bases and Base Ionization Constants Acid-base Properties of Salts Lewis Acids and BasesReview Questions/Problems: 16.1 16.5, 16.8, 16.11, 16.13, 16.16, 16.18, 16.22, 16.26, 16.31,16.32, 16.34 16.36, 16.40, 16.42, 16.44, 16.46, 16.54, 6.56, 16.58, 16.73, 16.74, 16.79, 16.86 LONG EXAM 4 (Optional)Chapter 19: REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY 4.0 hrs Redox Reactions Galvanic Cells Standard Reduction Potentials Spontaneity of Redox Reactions The Effect of Concentration on Cell EMF Batteries Corrosion Electrolysis ElectrometallurgyInteractivities: Redox Reactions – Oxidation States for Nitrogen, Redox Reactions – Oxidizedor Reduced?Animation: Galvanic CellsReview Questions/Problems: 19.2, 19.3, 19.5, 19.6, 19.12, 19.14, 19.16, 19.18, 19.22, 19.24,19.26, 19.39, 19.40, 19.43 19.46, 19.54References: Brown, Theodore L., LeMay, Eugene H., Bursten, Bruce E.. Chemistry: The Central Science, 11th ed., New Jersey: Prentice Hall, International, 2009. Brady, J. E., F.A. Senese and N.D. Jespersen, , F. Chemistry, 5th ed., Hew Jersey:
  17. 17. John Wiley and Sons, 2009. Chang, R. Chemistry, 9th ed. (International Edition), New York: McGraw Hill, 2007 Eubanks, L.P., Middlecamp, C.H., Pienta, N.J., Heltzel, C.E., Weaver, G.C. Chemistry in Context, 5th ed., Boston: McGraw Hill, 2006. Hill, John W. and Doris K. Kolb. Chemistry for Changing Times, 11th ed., New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2007. Kotz, John C., Treichel, Jr., Paul M., Weaver, Gabriela C. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, 7th edition. Australia: Brooks/Cole-Cengage, 2009. Masterton, William L., Hurley, Cecile N. Chemistry: Principles and Reactions, 6th ed., Canada: Brooks/Cole-Cengage, 2009. Moore, John W., Stanitski, Conrad L., Jurs, Peter C. Chemistry: The Molecular Science, 3rd ed., Australia: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning, 2008 Silberberg, M.S. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th ed., (International Edition), New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006 Whitten, K.W., Davis, R.E., Peck, M., L., Stanley, G.G. General Chemistry, 8th ed., Australia, Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2007.JCRobles/2008 December 14
  18. 18. ARTICLE RELATED TO CURRICULAR PROBLEMS AND INNOVATIONSIssues in Philippine Education: In RetrospectBy Engr. Herman M. Lagon They say that education is the best social leveler. They say that it is the very answer topoverty, corruption, hate, and ignorance. If it really is like many people believe it is, then thestudy of the key educational, ergo curricular, issues in the Philippines is a significant endeavorthat needs serious pair of eyes, ears and hands.According to the IBON Facts and Figures, theliteracy rate in the Philippines has regressed a lot over the last ten years. This is attributed tothe dwindling quality, relevance and accessibility of education—the very basic rights of theFilipino youth as etched vividly in the Constitution.Despite the good things that Department ofEducation has reported such as the increased number of classrooms and students, the factremains that the crowding 1:70 classroom ratio, the decreasing aptitude of students and thedecadence of the values of the young, among hundreds others, hamper the progress of thestate of education of the country.From http://www.ph.net/htdocs/education/issue.htm,education in the Philippines may be summarized into the following four issues: 1. Quality–There was a decline in the quality of the Philippine education, especially at the elementary and secondary levels. For example, the results of standard tests conducted among elementary and high school students, as well as in the NCAE and Board Exams for college students, were way below the target mean score. 2. Affordability–There is also a big disparity in educational achievements across social groups. For example, the socioeconomically disadvantaged students have higher dropout rates, especially in the elementary level. And most of the freshmen students at the tertiary level come from relatively well-off families. 3. Budget–The Philippine Constitution has mandated the government to allocate the highest proportion of its budget to education. However, the Philippines still has one of the lowest budget allocations among the ASEAN countries. This, not to mention the corruption component in the same institution that must abhor such act. 4. Mismatch–There is a large proportion of “mismatch” between training and actual jobs. This is the major problem at the tertiary level and it is also the cause of the existence of
  19. 19. a large group of educated unemployed or underemployed. Here, also to consider is the degenerating educational mindset of working abroad or of working for employment no matter what it takes, with no regard to other more valuable intentions like social work, inventiveness and entrepreneurship leading to public service and better self- actualization.The following are some of the reforms proposed: 1. Upgrade the teachers’ salary scale. Teachers have been underpaid; thus there is very little incentive for most of them to take up advanced trainings. 2. Amend the current system of budgeting for education across regions, which is based on participation rates and units costs. This clearly favors the more developed regions. There is a need to provide more allocation to lagging regions to narrow the disparity across regions. 3. Stop the current practice of subsidizing state universities and colleges to enhance access. This may not be the best way to promote equity. An expanded scholarship program, giving more focus and priority to the poor but deserving, maybe more equitable. 4. Get all the leaders in business and industry to become actively involved in higher education; this is aimed at addressing the mismatch problem. In addition, carry out a selective admission policy, i.e., installing mechanisms to reduce enrollment in oversubscribed courses and promoting enrollment in undersubscribed ones. 5. Develop a rationalized apprenticeship program with heavy inputs from the private sector. Furthermore, transfer the control of technical training to industry groups which are more attuned to the needs of business and industry.The macro-level educational issues and concerns above can be better understood when themicro-level concerns—mainly curriculum issues—are put into the equation. This way, peoplecan understand the state of education more and eventually face and nip the problems in thebud.Curriculum managers and educational experts are always looking for better ways to achievebetter learning through teaching. However, since curriculum innovations seemed to be difficultfor many, issues and concerns have been raised about curricular innovations. The newness ofthe idea to the users raises issues which need to be addressed. Certain aspects need to beclarified in order to overcome the attitude and feelings that create some concerns.Perter Oliva’s Developing the Curriculum (Seventh Edition) reveals 12 curriculum issues. Theseare 1. Academic Area Initiatives, 2. Alternative Schools, 3. Bilingual/Bicultural Education, 4.Censorship, 5. Gender, 6. Health Education, 7. Diversity, 8. Privatization, 9. Provision forExceptionalities, 10. Religion in Public Education, 11. Scheduling Arrangements, and 12.Standards and AssessmentClearly, there is no discrete separation in these twelve categories. On one sense, they are allinterrelated and bear close relationship with each other. Some items enumerated, howevermay not be fit for the Filipino audience.
  20. 20. In the Curriculum Development book of Purita Bilbao et al., it enumerates a number of fitterand more relevant Curricular Issues and Concerns. 1. Poor Academic Performance of Learners. How does the performance of learners relate to the curriculum? Our basic education curriculum was prepared by experts in the field of curriculum making and the subject specialization. The written or intended curriculum is well crafted and all elements of the curriculum are considered. But why are Filipino learners lagging behind from their counterparts the southeast in the TIMMS? Why can’t our schools significantly raise the level of performance of the learners’ vis-à-vis national standards? Issues on the varied implementation of the curriculum among schools and teachers seem to be one of the reasons for the prevailing low performance of schools all over the country. There is perennial complaint about books and other instructional materials. Overcrowded classrooms do not provide a good learning environment. In addition, the teacher has been identified as one of the influencing factors in the varied implementation of the curriculum. Issues like ill prepared teachers, poor attitude towards change and low morale have been thrown to teachers. Leadership support to an effective implementation of the curriculum. Perhaps if these are not addressed, then the outcome of the curriculum which is academic performance if schools will be low. 2. No Sense of Ownership. Most of the curricular innovations are handed down from the top management. Those who are going to implement simply tow the line or follow blindly. Sometimes the implementers lack full understanding of the change or modifications that they are doing. The goal is unclear, thus there are a lot of questions in the implementation as well as evaluation from the concerned persons. Because of this concern, there is little support that comes from the stakeholders. They just leave the school to do it on their own, thus giving the classroom teacher a burden. 3. Curricular Bandwagons Only. In the desire of some schools to be part of the global educational scenario, changes and innovations are drastically implemented even if the school is not ready. Some schools for example implement a curriculum that is technology-dependent when there is not enough computers in the classroom. There are no internet connections either. How can correct and apt scientific experimentations happen if there are no laboratory tools, equipment or chemicals in the first place? But they have to show that they are also keeping abreast of the development even if their equipment are insufficient. RESOURCE MATERIAL: http://www.thenewstoday.info/2010/01/05/issues.in.philippine.education.in.retrospect.html
  21. 21. EDUCATIONAL INNOVATIONS IN THE PHILIPPINESQUESTION: Philippine education has been a target of reform for the past 100 years or so since thearrival of the Thomasites. It has been said that our educational system is the moststudied sector of our society. Of course, the need for change in education has been afunction of the changing needs of people and society. Enhancing the quality of theproducts of education – namely, our students; raising student test scores to be on apar with those of other countries; improving the quality and standards of the teachingprofession are some of the motives for change/reform through the years. Collectively,these motives issue a call to action. Educations, reformers, theorists, businesspeople,practitioners, parents and administrators heard the call. They answered the call witha plethora of innovations, programs, models, theories, policies, legislation, mandates,and so on. The result is hundreds of educational innovations. Identify at least three (3)educational innovations which should have been continued and adopted/adapted bythe present government.A. The Improved Emphasis on Extension (Outreach, Community-OrientedPrograms)Providing knowledge for knowledge’s sake is a principle that had been abandoned bymany educational philosophers. Without concrete and evident benefits to the society,schools would just be seen as impractical institutions. Rendering support, assistance, and services to people in the community, especiallythe marginalized sector, has become part of many school’s co-curricular and extra-curricular programs. Today, college students in the Philippines have to take NationalService Training Program (NSTP) subjects, in which two of the options are LiteracyTraining Service (LTS) and Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS) which are bothgeared towards helping people in the community. Well established universities,especially the ‘elite’ ones, also have foundations for outreach projects and provideassistance to poor public schools in far-flung areas through ‘adopt-a-school’ programs. Not only does this undertaking inculcate in the hearts and mind of the students thevalues of altruism, sympathy, compassion, and concern for others, it also conveys thatacademic institutions are essential part of the society which is there always ready andwilling to extend a helping hand for the welfare of the people.B. The shift to School-based managementSchool-based management, which is a form of ‘decentralization,’ improves theadministration of school system. As many responsibilities and decision-making overschool operations is transferred to principals, teachers, parents, some students, andother school community members, school problems are addressed more closely andthoroughly by people who have firsthand insight about the issues. Educationalsupervision also becomes ‘better-tuned’ as school systems and programs are bettermonitored and teacher performance and student learning are better evaluated.Furthermore, school-based managers are better motivated and get higher morale sincethey possess more independence to act and decide.
  22. 22. C) The Introduction of Alternative Learning Systems (ALS) and TESDAprogramsThe importance of the different forms of Alternative Learning Systems (ALS) andvarious TESDA programs cannot be overemphasized. In fact, a great way to convert aschool to become ‘customer-driven’ is to offer these educational innovations. Forinstance, since many want to become call center agent, courses specifically for such aprofession could be offered through TESDA programs. ‘Ladderized’ education, Diploma courses, and the like cater to students whoseeconomic capacity cannot allow them to finish 4-year or 5-year courses. On the otherhand, ETAP and on-line education (distant learning) provide educational opportunity tothose who are already working. Indeed, through various ALS and TESDA programs, a) people can earn theirdiplomas more quickly; b) students can repeat failed courses without theembarrassment of being in a class with younger students; c) educational opportunitiescan be provided to people with physical disabilities, those who have jobs during normalschool hours, and those living in remote regions; d) education can be offered despiteshortage of classrooms, qualified teachers, and instructional materials (especiallythrough e-learning); and e) students can have access to variety of enrichment courses,and can participate in internships, sports, or work and still graduate with their class. Jensen dG. Mañebog. “EDD: Educational Innovations in the Philippines”@www.OurHappySchool.com
  23. 23. REFLECTIVE JOURNALEPISODE 1 QUESTION: Look deeper into the concepts, nature and purposes of the curriculum. ANS: The concept of curriculum is a broad idea to be just taken in one semester. It requires thelearner/student to take more time to fully grasp about its underlying principles. On the otherhand, knowing what really curriculum implies is truly challenging yet satisfying. To fullycomprehend the elements/features and functions, one should consider its history and thereasons behind this indispensable educational tool. Curriculum and its views greatly affects on how the learning environment, objectives,teaching methodologies and evaluation tools will be put together. It is also can be an indicatorof the student’s performance. So with this in mind, one should be thoroughly familiar and expert enough to handle,implement, innovate or even create a new curriculum to fully facilitate the whole teaching-learning process. In turn, making the use of all resources be more memorable and enjoying.EPISODE 2 QUESTION: My reflections on what the curriculum is made of. ANS:EPISODE 3 QUESTION: I like teaching because… ANS: I like teaching not only because I can help facilitate learning of the information andconcepts they need to learn from the books, notes or other teaching materials but because ofthe difference I will make as a result of teaching and modeling what I teach them. This isespecially true in values formation. Values are better caught than taught. So, when I teachmathematical concepts I should present them in the simplest and clearest way, doingreinforcement as much as they are needed for students to master the concepts at the end of thecourse. At the same time, I should be a model of intellectual and moral honesty and academicscholarship.EPISODE 4 QUESTION: What do I like best in these curriculum designs? ANS: Subject-centered design Model – material oriented; learning is measured on the amountof information the learner can get; teacher centered; teacher as the sole source of informationin the learning process; the standard given by the teacher should be followed strictly; only theelementary level of the cognitive skills are fully developed; degree of difficulty is systematicallyset. Learner-centered Design Model – learner’s needs oriented; child-centered; leans on theeducational philosophy “learning is activated by the learner him/herself”; learner has thefreedom to perform the tasks fin the learning process thereby making the process more
  24. 24. meaningful and less pressured; systematic in approach; both teacher and learner learns; doesn’tconsider time as one of its main guideline to be followed/ observed throughout the learningprocess. Problem-centered Design Model – problem/situation oriented; aimed to develop theanalytical and critical thinking skills of the learners; problem is the main catalyst of the learningprocess; teacher provides the types of problems and its corresponding solution yet still considersthe learner’s approaches in coming up with the same answer; problems are practical and life-related in nature; follows a progressive level of difficulty; as a result, the learners drawsrelationships, patterns between and among the problems encountered.I like best in these curriculum designs: Subject-centered – the big amount of information a learner has access to. Learner-centered – the degree of freedom in acquiring learning each learner has. Problem-centered – the diverse level of difficulty offers enough challenge, interest andmotivation the learner can undertake.EPISODE 5 QUESTION: as a teacher, I need to understand fully well the dimensions of curriculumdesign because… ANS: First, it is an integral part of the curriculum’s whole picture. With this in mind, itsimportance to the whole teaching-learning process is therefore be treated with utmostattention. Second, understanding fully all the guidelines in curriculum design enable theconstituents (learners and teachers) to acquire the maximum amount of learning. Third, all the needs regarding the whole teaching-learning process from the differentlearning objectives, learning experiences, teaching methodologies and assessment tools will beproperly planned, implemented and evaluated. Lastly, all related resources such as time, energy and materials/tools will beappropriately allocated to help promote maximum usage for the optimum learning outcomeboth the teachers and students can experience.EPISODE 6 QUESTION: My reflections on the features of the curriculum. ANS:EPISODE 8 QUESTION: State your commitment as a student regarding curricular innovation. ANS:
  25. 25. PALOMPON INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYVISION To produce morally upright, academically preparedand competent seafarers, technicians, technologist, andeducators in Northwestern Leyte, in the region and thecountry.MISSION PIT as an institution of excellence in technological,maritime, teacher education and allied courses inNorthwestern Leyte and beyond.GOAL Make PIT an educational institution where studentsget trained to excel in their areas of specializationthrough quality instruction, development-orientedresearch, need-oriented extension and productionprograms for accelerated socio-economic developmentand improved quality of life in Northwestern Leytecommunities, the region and the country.