NON-PROJECTED PICTURES by: Analyn G. Zarzua BSED II-A
Definition of non-projected picturesare those which require no projection material or any electric power.are mostly composed of study prints, charts, posters, maps, flash cards, photographs, textbook illustrations, and illustrations found in magazines and newspapers. they are all much the same except that study prints are mounted and curriculum oriented.
Uses of non-projected pictures• Educators, scholars, and students may use or display nonprojected images in connection with lectures or presentations in their fields.• Motivates the students• Presents matter symbolically• Presents abstract ideas in visual form• Creates problems and stimulates thinking
The Guidelines to be Followed
Relevance The direct relevance of an image towhat is being read or heard is vital. Becausesight is the most receptive sense for mostpeople, an obscure or irrelevant image willdistract from other messages being given.Further, to be useful and add to the learningcontext, an image used in teaching must relateto both the substance of the lecture and theneeds of the students.
The most valuable image will complement what is being said. For example, an image may be used to: • explain a technical term (or simply to spell it), • trigger the description of an example or short anecdote so that the lecturer may elaborate on a new idea, • obtain a response from the students (multiple- choice questions may be used, or a problem posed by a projected image), or • link one argument with the next.
An intelligent balance In tertiary teaching, a productiveimage will challenge the viewer to thinkbecause it will represent a balancebetween being easily understood andposing a question or problem whichneeds resolution. Images used in this waywill not simply support a presentationbut challenge the viewer to respond.
Clarity Visual clarity assists interpretation. It is essential to the image and the message it represents. There are a number of ways to promote visual clarity:• Carefully select the image with its background. A white (or clear) background for a black image is not the most successful for projection because the bright light is tiring on the eyes. Either a yellow background for a black image or a dark blue background for a white or yellow image is preferable.
• Consider the shape, size and spacing of letters. A bold, simple and lower case lettering style is most legible.• Omit distracting detail and include selective emphasis. Attention to these elements of clarity will make visual information more accessible. The corollary of this is that, when they are drawn clearly, the gradual revelation of details will facilitate an explanation and allow for a greater amount of visual information to be presented.
• Simplicity of lay-out: It refers to the arrangement of the elements of the image.• Efficient use of colors: (i) Use bold illustrations, (ii) Avoid fancy lettering style, (iii)Proper use of color• Neatness: The graph should be neat, clean and artistic. It should be of good quality.
• Accuracy: The scales and the measurement of the graph should be accurate and intelligible to the students.• Drawing and paper: The image should be properly drawn. The paper should be good. The pencil that is used should also be good.• Hints: The hints should be properly explained. The marks on the image should be such that the students may know them by themselves.
Advantages of non-projected pictures• Do not need a power source and apparatus to make them seen either on the wall or screen.• They can be viewed straight as they are.• They are flexible.• They have visual appeal and are easy to move.• They can be carefully stored and preserved for use in the future.• They display specific information.
• They can be used at all levels of learning.• Pictures can also maintain high level of interest in the lesson.• Numerous• Inexpensive• Readily accessible to the teacher• They have an educational value.• Easy to carry.
Disadvantages of non projected pictures:• It may become outdated.• They cannot present motion materials effectively as a result, their ability to engage all of our senses for a total learning experience is quite limited.• Copies may wear out when overused. Picture quality may diminish overtime.• They are difficult to revise and update if produced in a hardbound format.• Easy to damage.• Not interactive.
• Not visible to all the students in the class.• Misinterpretation.• Takes up the time of the teacher if she has to prepare the materials.• Images lose their charm, if it contains too much matter on it.• Poor use of color combination, improper spacing and margins creates confusion in the minds of the students.• If used for a prolonged period it becomes boring for the students.• If the picture is not drawn neatly, it looses it purpose.
What are their impact to the learner or learning process?
• Students learn in a variety of different ways, some students need visual aids, some need to creatively stimulated, others need to be constantly entertained in order to keep them from falling asleep or disrupting the class.• Visuals or just one way out of many to meet the needs of all students.• Design developmentally appropriate learning opportunities that apply technology-enhanced instructional strategies to support the diverse needs of learners.
• Reasoning can be developed through the use of images. Students might be asked to explain the sequence, patterns or logic in a series of images that relate to a particular process.• Skills of analysis and synthesis can be taught and developed using images. Students can be involved in the dissection and classification of diagrammatic information or assembling a series of seemingly unrelated images into meaningful information.
• Cause-and-effect relationships can be seen more clearly when the information is presented visually.• Identification of sequence in processes or procedures and the recognition of errors can be taught with the assistance of well-drawn images.• Students can be asked to make judgments based on a series of given criteria when part of the information is presented visually.
Aims to develop the power of observation, identification, quick comprehension and retention. to help students improve their ability to find and use information.
Objectives• To develop students’ reasoning and analysis skills and other higher order thinking skills.• To easily motivate the students for better learning.• To promote greater student participation.
How to prepare the materials?1. Decide the theme.2. Decide the most suitable words to provide a title or a slogan.3. Sketch some layouts and decide on the best.4. Gather all needed material to prepare the picture.5. Prepare the lettering.6. Add desired objectives.7. Give the finishing touches and erase the smudge marks.