Definition: It is a representation of amanageable, real event inwhich the learner is an activeparticipant engaged in learninga behavior or in applyingpreviously acquired skills orknowledge.
Guidelines:• need not have a winner.• applied to the study of issues rather than process.• we use simulation to make our classes interactive and to develop the decision-making skills and knowledge construction skills.
10 GENERAL PURPOSES OF SIMULATION IN EDUCATION1. To develop changes in attitudes2. To change specific behavior3. To prepare participants for assuming new roles in the future4. To help individuals understand their current roles
5. To increase the students’ ability to apply principles6. To reduce complex problems or situation to manageable elements7. To illustrate roles that may affect one’s life but that one may never assume8. To motivate learners9. To develop analytical processes10. To sensitize individuals to another person’s life role.
•Simulations engage the learners by thrusting them into the learning experience. These kinds of interactions actively engage learners to analyze, synthesize, organize, and evaluate content and result in learners constructing their own knowledge. The following section looks at the
• Allow Learners to Learn by Doing• Allow Learners to Practice Tasks That Might Otherwise Be Too Expensive, Dangerous, or Impractical• Engage Learners in Active Exploration and Learning• Simplify Complex Concepts, Processes, and Situations• Motivate Learners• Set the Stage for Future Learning and Provide Practice and an Opportunity for Knowledge Integration
• Simulations Can Result in Inefficient and Ineffective Learning Behavior• Simulations Can Be Difficult to Design• Simulations May Oversimplify• In simulations for Software Applications, it Can Be Difficult to Find Realistic and Meaningful Activities• Simulations Are Expensive to Develop• Simulations Can Be Technically Challenging to Distribute
ROLE OF THE TEACHER1. To raise ones consciousness about the concept and principles underpinning the simulations and their own reactions.
2. He/She assumes assistance functions such as: – Explaining- learners should understand the rules and understand the implications of each move. – Refereeing- teacher should control students participation to be sure that these benefits are realized. – Coaching – gives advise to enable them to play better. – Discussing-leads the students in discussing how closely the game simulates the real world.
FOUR BASIC GROUPING OPTIONS WE CAN USE IN SIMULATIONS• Individuals in Large Groups Put students in evenly numberedrows with boys and girls in alternate rows(as much as possible). This arrangementis used when all students are having acommon learning activity such as a lectureor film that likely precedes on of thecooperative learning activities.
• Study Pairs Students form these byturning pairs of rows to face eachother. Note that in the diagram,the pairs have some spacearound them to give them theillusion of privacy.
• Triads or Quads Even rows turn to face eachother and then spread apart toform threes and/or fours. Again,these groups have a little spacearound them to give them theillusion of privacy.
• Activity Groups Combine the trios and/or quads into small Activity Groups of six to eight members.
THREE MAIN CONCEPTS OF SIMULATION:(1) Students take roles which are representative of the real world and involve them making decisions in response to their assessment of the situation that they have been placed in.(2) Students experience simulated consequences which relate to their decisions and their general performance in the simulation.(3) Students monitor the results of their actions and are encouraged to reflect upon the relationship between their own decisions and the resulting consequences of their actions.
More examples in different areas• City and urban simulation• Classroom of the future• Disaster Preparedness and SimulationTraining• Engineering, technology or processsimulation• Space Shuttle Countdown Simulation• Finance simulation• Flight simulation• Military simulations