Definition:1. A self made multimedia projects that you can use for your instruction or discussion. It can be approached in two different ways: As an instructive tool , such as in the production by the students of a P.P presentation. As a communication tool when students do a multimedia presentation to stimulate a television news show.
2. An application which usesassociative relationships amongstinformation contained within multiplemedia data for the purpose offacilitating access to, and manipulationof, the information encapsulated bythe data.
3. A hypermedia project is one which unites multimedia with hypertext, a non-sequential, non-linear method of display created for use on the web.
PURPOSE “The purpose of hypermedia isto provide access to and manipulation ofinformation.”
The use of hypermedia must be carefully guided by teachers and other educational professionals to ensure that students are learning and focusing on valuable curricular concepts. Hypermedia can be a great tool to help facilitate differentiations of instruction in the classroom, but there are some pitfalls as well.
Advantages:• One of the major advantages of hypermedia is the ability to quickly follow associations and look up related material.• References can be traced both back-wards and forward in a way which can be difficult and time consuming with printed media. In addition, the user can annotate the material and create new references.
• Information can also be structured in a variety of ways. Multiple organizations of the same material allow for specialized structures for different user categories. (Conklin 1986, 1987).• Hypermedia has a strong potential for learning applications since learning by exploration (Papert 1980) might be facilitated in a natural way. The student can browse the material and find new information as she explores a subject area.
• Another possible advantage of hypermedia for learning applications is that hypermedia systems is usually considered as fun to use. Even though this might be a result of the novelty of the medium, the potential for visual richness and high degree of feedback could be regarded as positive by the users.
Disadvantages:• Ease of browsing might increase the risk that the learner skips through the material much to hasty, and thus get a shallow and fragmented conception of the subject.• The risk of getting disoriented can result in confusion rather than understanding, especially if the user jumps around between different nodes in a more or less random manner.
• Using a hypermedia system involves a certain cognitive overhead (Conklin 1986, 1987). The problems is that the user has to interact with the system in order to accomplish anything, which can be more or less complex.• The author of a research paper, for example, might suddenly want to make an note on a new idea which she comes to think of. If this is complicated and requires many steps it is possible to loose track of the idea and partly forget it. There is also a risk the one loses track of what one was writing in the first place.
Hypermedia in an educational setting include the fact that it takes a tremendous amount of time to initially develop hypermedia lessons.• Hypermedia involves students who already have focusing on specific tasks. Those students who have trouble focusing on assignments in general may be overwhelmed by hypermedia lessons. They may lose focus entirely or may learn a little bit about a lot of things, but they might miss the central purpose of an assignment.
1. What two components are necessary for a hypermedia program to be successful?2. What are the essential features of hypermedia? (Structure of Hypermedia)3. What learning should features of hypermedia support?
Hypermedia must have a clear andwell-reasoned purpose. Hypermedia must be designed inaccordance with that purpose.
The Essential Features of Hypermedia (Structure of Hypermedia)(1) A database of information Consisting of many pages, each of which contain objects (information elements) that are linked to other objects or pages. Information elements (text, pictures, audio, video, etc.)(2) Multiple media for presentation of the information. Media: e.g. text, pictures, audio, video.(3) Multiple methods of navigations, including hyperlinks Navigation devices (methods) may include hyperlinks, words, images, menu, buttons, indexes, maps, tables of content, timelines, and word search functions. The navigation techniques used are those that make sense for the content.
Features to support learning are those that facilitate it directly. These features are those which enhance motivation, encoding and retention of the knowledge, or use of knowledge. (1) Motivation: (Two motivation theories: ) – Keller and Suzuki (1998): attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. – Malone and Lepper (1987): challenge, curiosity, control, and fantasy.• The most applicable to hypermedia are probably attention, confidence, and control. – Attention: through good display design and selection of different media. – Confidence: through support for orientation and navigation. – Control: through a good user interface that makes actions like navigation and selecting user options easy to do.
(2) Encoding and Retention• Encoding and Retention can be facilitated – through the use of organizers (advance organizers, diagrams within the program, and summaries at the end). – By good organization and sequence. – By scaffolding – Through interactions.(3) Using Knowledge (by interactions) • Use of knowledge is best enhanced by using it, so interactions for practice, exploration, and construction best enhance the future use of knowledge in a hypermedia. • By interactions we do not mean navigation actions, but those activities of the learner that are intended to enhance involvement, motivation, attention, and learning. • Interactivity in hypermedia is that it should be driven by the main purpose of the program.
4. What purpose of facilitation do learningstrategies in hypermedia program have?What techniques do the hypermediaprograms have to facilitate the purpose? Learning strategies are activities engaged in by the learner and largely at the learner’s own initiation. (e.g. online activity: rereading material; off-line activity: take notes) A hypermedia program features should encourage, support, and enhance a good repertoire of learning strategies.
• Learning strategies in hypermedia programs serve purpose of facilitating: – Metacognition – Searching and navigation – Learner orientation – Encoding – Recall – Comprehension and application of knowledge
The main features and techniques possible inhypermedia programs facilitating learning strategiesfor the purposes described above are: • Electronic notebooks • Cognitive mapping • Conceptual models • Coaching and cueing • Visualization and graphing • Collaboration • Bookmarks • Self-tests • Calculators • Multiple views and role-playing • Repeating/reviewing • Giving problems • Cut-and-paste • Play games • Printout