COMPUTER AS A TUTOR Computer is the one of the wonders of human ingenuity, even in its original design in the 1950`s to carry out complicated mathematical and logical operation. With the invention of microcomputer, the PC become the tool for programmed instruction. Educators saw much use of the PC. It has become affordable to small business, industries and homes. They saw its potential for individualization in learning especially as individualized learning is a problem since teachers usually with a class of forty or more learners. They therefore devised strategies to use computer to break the barriers to individualized instruction.
RULE OF THE TEACHER
Decide the appropriate learning objectives.
Plan the sequential and structures activities to achieve objectives.
Evaluate the student`s achievement by ways of tests the specific expected outcomes.
RULE OF THE LEARNERS
Understand the instruction for computer activity.
Retain in mind the information and rules for the computer activity.
Apply the knowledge and rules during the process of computer learning.
THE RULE OF THE COMPUTER
Acts as a sort of tutor.
Provides a learning environment.
Deliver learning instruction.
Reinforces learning trough drill-and-practice.
CAI Integrated WITH LESSONS
CAI computer learning should not stop with the drill and practice activities of students. In effect, CAI works best in reinforcing learning through repetitive exercises such that students can practice basic skills or knowledge in various subject areas. Common types of drill and practice programs include VOCABULARY BUILDING, MATH FACTS, BASIC SCIENCE, and HISTORY or GEOGRAPHY FACTS .
In these programs, the computer presents a question or problem first and the student is asked to answer to the question or problem. immediate feedback is given to the student's answer. after a number of practice problems and at the end of the exercise, the students get a summary of his OVERALL PERFORMANCE.
SUGGESTIONS IN INTEGRATING DRILL AND PRACTICE PROGRAMS WITH THE LESSONS
Use drill and practice programs for basic skills and knowledge that require rapid or automatic response by students
(multiplication table, letter and word recognition, identification of geometric shapes, etc.).
Ensure that drill and practice activities conform to the plan/ curriculum.
Limit drill and practice to 20- 30 minutes to avoid boredom.
Use drill and practice to assist students with particular weakness in basic skills .
In integrating computer programs in instruction, use tutorial software associated with cognitive learning. While practice exercise or learning-by-doing is still the heart of each tutorial, the tutorial software should be able to:
Teach new content or new information to students ( inasmuch as CAI provides practice on old or already learned content).
Provide comprehensive information on concepts in addition to practice exercises.
Can be effectively used for remediation, reviewing, or enrichment.
Allow the teacher to introduce follow- up questions to stimulate students learning.
Permits group activity for cooperative learning.
Simulation software materials are another kind of software that is constructivist in nature. These simulation program:
Teaches strategies and rules applied to real-life programs/situations.
Asks students to make decision on models or scenarios.
Allows students to manipulate elements of a model and get the experience of the effects of their decisions.
While relating to low-level learning objectives(e.g. basic spelling or math skills), instructional computer games add the elements of competition and challenge.
PROBLEM SOLVING SOFTWARE
These are more sophisticated than the drill and practice exercises and allow students tom learn and improve on their problem solving ability. Since problems cannot be solved simply by memorizing facts, the students have to employ higher thinking skills such as logic, recognition, reflection, and strategy-making.
MULTIMEDIA ENCYCLOPEDIA AND ELECTRONIC BOOKS
Eyewitness Children's Encyclopedia
the Eyewitness Children's Encyclopedia promotes learning by stimulating children's natural desire to explore. A variety of fantastically rendered 3D landscapes transport children to virtual worlds- from the rain forest to the inside of the Earth, from their backyard to deep space -in which every scene and object is linked to brilliantly presented in-depth information. Far more than just a collection of information, the Eyewitness Children's Encyclopedia is an absorbing interactive experience that will set children on a path to lifelong learning!
5 main subject areas: Nature, History, Geography, Science & Culture
Over 750,000 words of text
Over 5,000 screens and pop-ups
Over 100 digital maps
Over 100 videos and animations
Exclusive links to web site with constantly updated contests, puzzles, mystery guests
The multimedia encyclopedia can store a huge database with texts, images, animation, audio and video. Students can access any desired information, search its vast contents or even download/print relevant portions of the data for their composition or presentation. The example is the eyewitness Children`s encyclopedia.
Electronic books provide textual information for reading, supplemented by other types of multimedia information. These are useful for learning, reading, spelling and word skills.