Scope - all the contents, topics, learning experiences and organizing threads comprising the educational plan - refers to the cognitive, affective and psychomotor content and its depth and breadth
The scope of the curriculum can bedivided into chunks called units, sub-unitsor chapters as the case may be and isguided by the general curriculum objectives.The division of the content may use thedeductive or inductive principle. Topical arrangement or content outlineof the curriculum may follow some designas thematic, linear or logical.
Sequence - a vertical relationship among the elements of the curriculum that provides continuous and cumulative learning Contents and experiences are arranged inhierarchical manner where, the basis can eitherbe logic of the subject matter or on thedevelopment patterns of cognitive, affectiveand psychomotor domains.
Four Principles of Sequence (as introduced by Smith, Stanley and Shore, 1957) 1. Simple to complex learning 2. Prerequisite learning 3. Whole to part learning 4. Chronological learning
Major Principles for Organizing Content in Units (Posner and Rudnitsky, 1994) 1. World-related sequence a. Space c. Physical attributes b. Time 2. Concept-related sequence a. Class relations b. Propositional relations 3. Inquiry-related sequence 4. Learning-related sequence a. Empirical prerequisites c. Difficulty b. Familiarity d. Interest
Continuity Vertical repetition and recurring appearancesof the content provide continuity in the curriculum.This process enables the learner to strengthen thepermanency of learning and development of skills.
Integration “Everything is integrated and interconnected.Life is a series of emerging themes”. This is theessence of integration in curriculum design.Organization is drawn from the world themes fromreal life concerns. Subject matter content ordisciplined content lines are erased and isolationis eliminated.
Articulation This can be done either vertically orhorizontally. In vertical articulation, contentsare arranged from level to level or grade tograde so that the content in lower level isconnected to the next level. Horizontalarticulation happens when the association isamong or between elements that happen atthe same time like social studies in gradesix is related to science in grade six.
Balance Equitable assignment of content, time,experiences and other elements to establishbalance is needed in curriculum design. Toomuch or too little of these elements maybedisastrous to the curriculum. Keeping thecurriculum “in balance” requires continuousfine tuning and review for its effectivenessand relevance.
Guidelines in Curriculum Design Curriculum design committee should involve teachers, parents, administrators and even students School’s vision, mission, goals and objectives should be reviewed and used as a bases for curriculum design The needs and the interest of the learners, in particular, and the society in general, should be considered
Alternative curriculum design should consider advantages and disadvantages in terms of costs, scheduling, class size, facilities and personnel required The curriculum design should take into account cognitive, affective, psychomotor skills, concepts and outcomes