1) Pathology that interrupts physical or mental processes,2) Impairment that limits a person’s ability to function and that may result in,3) Functional limitation relative to the ability to perform or engage in life task and,4) disability to perform socially expected activities.- Nagi (1969)
Medical approach Social model lack of physical, sensory It is not a medical problem but an exclusion or mental functioning. from every day life. Clinicians describe The disabled do not need disabled to have: treatment, but acceptance. Low self esteem The disabled want: Undeveloped life skills Change in society Acceptance Poor education accessibility to public Poor relationships with places families and society. Different learning styles, text phones, Braille More negative for the etc. disabled. More positive for the disabled.
Words to avoid. Preferred. The disabled, Disabled people, Deaf* The handicapped, The deaf, people, People with a hearing The hard of hearing. Deaf impairment, Deaf* without and dumb, Deaf, mute, A speech, Person without speech, person with a speech mute, The blind, The impairment. Blind visually impaired, Victim of people, People with visual Suffering from, impairments. Afflicted by, Wheelchair (Person who has, Person with, bound. Person who has experienced Person who lives with) Confined to a wheelchair Wheelchair user. Disabled Invalid, Person with a person, Person with learning disability Mentally difficulties (or learning handicapped, Backward, disabilities) Person with Retarded, Simple, Mongol, Downs Syndrome Person with Spastic, Crazy, mad, cerebral palsy Mental health issues, Mental and emotional mentally ill Normal, distress, Mental health Able-bodied ,Special needs. survivor Non-disabled Access requirements.
Race and ethnicity influence people’s attitudes about life and personal identity for both disabled and non disabled. The resilience of disabled persons is manifest in the art, music, literature and other expressions of their lives and their culture, drawn from the experience of disability (Brown 1996). There are many ethnic backgrounds within the Disabled people. The disabled all validate and celebrate their lives and of the disabled people. Self affirming slogans are a symbol of their culture. The disabled promote independence and equality (Riddell & Watson, 2003).
Disabilities throughout history have always been viewed in a negative manner. Whether it was killing the disabled, accusing them of having evil entities in them, curses or just a sinner people of all ages with disabilities were treated inhumanely.Greek Police attempting to stop theDisabled people from assembling inpublic places. (Dec 3, 2010)
Disabilities throughout history have always been seen in a negative manner: Neolithic tribes- believed disabilities were caused by evil spirits, they performed skull surgeries to release the supernatural entities. Greeks- believed the disabled were inhuman Romans- abandoned disabled babies to die. Persians- wanted a perfect world without the disabled. The Disabled were banned from even practicing their faith in Temples in Ancient Hebrew times. Blindness was seen as a punishment for sin. 1924 under BUCK vs. Bell the supreme court passed forced sterilization of Disabled people.
In1912 a French noble prize winner in medicine created the “Humane Disposal” or euthanasia of Disabled people. The Holocaust is well known for the extermination of the Jews but little for the “perfection plan” of Hitlers large extermination of the disabled. Between 75,000 -200,000 Disabled Germans were killed.
o The Elizabethan poor Law defined the Disabled as“worthy poor” in contrast to the lazy, unmotivated“unworthy poor. ”oDisabled war veterans were seen as Hero’s and acceptedby society because their disability was brought forth by agood deed being society service.o1960s CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT gave rise to many rightsbased on race, sex, religion sexual orientation, andnational origin, but it wasn’t until much later the Disabledwith helped.o1973 Rehabilitation Act prohibited the discrimination ofthe disabled in federal agencies and organizations andthose places with federal contracts.o1990 THE ADA- Americans Disabilities Act. Arouse from 3major Civil Rights Movement Laws passed to finally protectthe Disabled people of hate crimes and discriminatoryremarks anywhere.
54 million people have a disability. They represent 19 percent of the civilian non-institutionalized population By age : 5 percent of children 5 to 17 have disabilities. 10 percent of people 18 to 64 have disabilities. 38 percent of adults 65 and older have disabilities. Persons with disabilities are more likely to be victims of violence or rape, according to a 2004 British study, and less likely to obtain police intervention, legal protection or preventive care. 59%of people 21 to 64 with difficulty hearing were employed. The corresponding percentage for those with difficulty seeing was 41 percent. 6% of disabled workers 16 and older who used public transportation to commute to work. In addition, 69 percent of people with a disability drove alone, 13 percent carpooled, 4 percent walked and 3 percent used a taxicab, motorcycle, bicycle or other means.
On average, 19 % of less educated people have disabilities. 19 %of children with disabilities in developing countries do not attend school, says UNESCO Students with disabilities have a higher risk of depression than the nondisabled. Research indicates that violence against student children with disabilities occurs at annual rates at least 1.7 times greater than for their peers without disabilities. A 2004 United States survey found that only 35 per cent of working-age persons with disabilities are in fact working, compared to 78 per cent of those without disabilities. One third of the employers surveyed said that persons with disabilities cannot effectively perform the required job tasks. The second most common reason given for not hiring persons with disabilities was the fear of costly special facilities.
More than 50 million—which is about 1 in 5—Americans report having some level of disability. The U.S. Census 2000 counted 49.7 million people with some type of long-lasting condition or disability impairment or condition does not define individuals, their health, or their talents and abilities. DISABLED PEOPLE: Experience difficulties or delays in getting the health care they need. have not had an annual dental visit. have not had a mammogram in past 2 years. have not had a Pap test within the past 3 years. have not engage in fitness activities. are more likely to Use tobacco. Are more likely to be overweight or obese. are more likely to Have high blood pressure. Experience symptoms of psychological distress. Receive less social-emotional support. Have lower employment rates.
http://www.va.gov/ Older Disabled opa/feature/vanews veterans struggle /vanews.asx with respect. These The link provided are people that above shows how have served our veterans age 55 or country. older come together Door to door Disabled or not and transportation with partake in accessible ramps communal are being put to use exercise, games, wo more now. rk and conference’s (watch video) to help get them active.
Teachers lack the Immobility- education correct training for providers are not specific Disabled physically accessible. students They cost the school Young students and enormous amounts and adults require much the funds are not needed medical available. attention throughout Bullying- Many Disabled the day that school people have have yet to have a staff inappropriate for these necessities. behaviors, which can be Schools lack appropriate allowed for in class but equipment necessary which may create for students with difficulties or hearing and vision aids embarrassment for the student in public. Some students have a disability ignored by STARING- by non- parent and struggle Disabled people causes academically until low self esteem and school personal insecurities. addresses situation.
First I believe it is important for the school and teachers to be aware of their students current health and of any Disabilities. This can affect the health and well-being of people with disabilities of any ages. How to Improve the conditions of daily life in the class rooms: Encouraging communities to be accessible so all can live in, move through, and interact with their environment. Encouraging community living. And nonjudgmental stares. Removing barriers in the environment. Teachers should reinforce policy and make sure others are respectful. Also promote equality and an environment that is tolerant and understanding of differences and disabilities. Through this reinforcement the Main focus should be always be education.
Class age- college Construct the survey- students. pass it out to each In small groups – other in the class conduct possible room, then to peers survey questions on campus. about Disabled Purpose- the purpose peopled. of the survey is raise>These questions should awareness of what vary and not only people may “think” pertain to the stereo they know. Realize typical physical what is false, what disabilities but the stereotypes are everything across the and to educate! spectrum.
the small groups should come together in class and cross analyze their results and those of their peers on campus. The next task should be to prepare a day of awareness on campus. Searching for guest speakers to talk about how they have lived with their disability, and find resources for those who are living with a disability and are not treating themselves because of fear of exclusion by society. This day of awareness could be combined with our campus Rally Around Diversity Day. So it is reinforcing diversity, respect and acceptance for all people, not only pertaining to Race or Ethnicity but also people with Disabilities.
Veterans Crisis Line- 1-800-273-8255 www.veteranscrisisline.net center for universal design Removing Barriers to Health Clubs and Fitness Facilities conferences for the blind MCDHH local Massachusetts Social Security Administration (SSA) field office. Disability Rights Healthy People for the Disabled and Non- Disabled
medical model picture social model picture disabilityinfo.org Mass Rehab Commission MRC http://www.socialsecurity- disability.org/social-security-disability- resources/worcester - helps disabled around Worcester, Ma.
Brown,S.E. (1996). Deviants, invalids, and anthropologist: Cross-Cultural perspectives on conditions of disabilities in one academic discipline. Disability and Rehabilitation, 18(5), 273-275 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics. DATA 2010 [Internet database]. Hyattsville, MD: CDC; 2010 [cited 2010 Sep 30]. Available from: http://wonder.cdc.gov/data2010/focus.htm Disability Rights Commission: Disability Discrimination Act - Best Practice Trainers Resource Pack 2002. http://ddsg.org.uk/taxi/medical-model.html http://ddsg.org.uk/taxi/social-model.html Lum, D. ( 2011). Culturally competent practice. (4th ed.). Belmont, California: Cengage. DOI: www.cengage.com Nagi,S.Z. (1969). Disability and Rehabilitation. Columbus,OH: Ohio state University Press.
Riddell,S.,& Watson,N.(Eds.). (2003). Disability, culture and identity.Londo: pearson Ridley,C.R., Baker,D.M.,& Hill,C.L.(2001).Critical issues concerning culture compentence. The Counciling psychologist, 29(6), 8822-832 US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy people 2010 (conference ed, in 2 vols). Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2000. Available at http://www.healthypeople.gov. World Health Organization (WHO), Commission on Determinants of Health. Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the determinants of health. Final report. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2008