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The Imagineering Model: What Disney Theme Parks Can Teach Us About Instructional Design
 

The Imagineering Model: What Disney Theme Parks Can Teach Us About Instructional Design

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A presentation (in Notes View format) about applying Imagineering (theme park design) techniques to instructional design. Presented at the SALT New Learning Technologies Conference on February 23, ...

A presentation (in Notes View format) about applying Imagineering (theme park design) techniques to instructional design. Presented at the SALT New Learning Technologies Conference on February 23, 2011 in Orlando.

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    The Imagineering Model: What Disney Theme Parks Can Teach Us About Instructional Design The Imagineering Model: What Disney Theme Parks Can Teach Us About Instructional Design Document Transcript

    • The Imagineering Model What Disney Theme Parks Can Teach Us About Instructional Design Lou Prosperi OracleCopyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 1
    • Abstract This presentation examines several principles, practices, and techniques employed by Walt Disney Imagineering in the design and construction of Disney Theme parks, and explores how those same principles, practices, and techniques can be applied to the instructional design process. The presentation also includes a high-level overview of the Imagineering process and the parallels between that process and the traditional ADDIE model. Keywords: Instructional Design Imagineering This presentation is not endorsed by, sponsored by, or connected with The Walt Disney Company and/or Disney Enterprises, Inc. in any way. The mention of names and places associated with The Walt Disney Company and/or Disney Enterprises, Inc. are not intended in any way to infringe on any existing copyrights or trademarks of The Walt Disney Company and/or Disney Enterprises, Inc. but are used for educational purposes.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 2
    • Overview Introduction: What is Imagineering? The Imagineering Process The Imagineering Pyramid: Techniques and Practices The Imagineering Model Checklist Closing CommentsCopyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 3
    • Introduction What is Imagineering? In this section, we’ll look at what we mean by “Imagineering” to provide some context for the later sections of the presentation.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 4
    • What is Imagineering? Imagineering = Imagination + Engineering “We call it Imagineering – the blending of creative imagination and technical know-how.” -Walt Disney Just as the first Imagineers adopted techniques and principles from film-making when they developed the craft of Imagineering designing Disneyland, we can adopt the techniques and principles of Imagineering in instructional design. “There’s really no secret about our approach. We keep moving forward–opening new doors and doing new things–because we’re curious. And curiosity keeps leading us down new paths. We’re always exploring and experimenting… we call it Imagineering–the blending of creative imagination and technical know-how.” -Walt Disney Imagination = Gathering, Storing, and Recombining Information “Everyone goes through a process of gathering information, storing it, and recombining it with other thoughts to produce something new.” – Tony Baxter SVP, Creative Development, Walt Disney Imagineering As employed by Walt Disney Imagineering (WDI), “technical know-how” refers to disciplines used in creating theme part attractions. The principles and practices of Imagineering can also be applied to other creative endeavors and disciplines, including: • Marketing/Advertising • Product Design and Development • Game Design • Information Development • Technical Writing • Information Architecture and Design • Instructional DesignCopyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 5
    • The Imagineering Process How Did They Make That? In this section, we’ll look at the various stages in the Imagineering process, including: • How WDI uses the process • How the process can be applied outside the “Berm” to instructional design and curriculum development • Where applicable, parallels to the ADDIE model are notedCopyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 6
    • The Imagineering Process Overview Blue Sky Concept Development Architecture Models Construction Blue Sky Concept Architecture Models Construction The process presented in here is a simplification of a much more involved process. For example, the “Architecture” stage above comprises several related stages, including: • Facility Design • Ride Design • Show Design Similarly, the “Construction” stage comprises: • Construction and Production - construction of facility • Rockwork Engineering • Show Installation - installation of show elements • Test and Adjust • Etc.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 7
    • The Imagineering Process Before The Process Begins The process begins when WDI is presented (or confronted) with a Need of some sort. Every Need also has corresponding Requirements (theme, etc.) Constraints (time, budget, etc.) In instructional design, we often start with a Needs Analysis. (ADDIE: Analysis) Objectives, Audience, etc. Example: The current location of “Stitches Great Escape” in Tomorrowland in Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World has been home to four attractions: • Flight to the Moon (1971 – 1975) • Mission to Mars (1975 – 1995) - • ExtraTERRORestrial Alien Encounter (1995 – 2003) • Stitchs Great Escape (2003 – Present) In the case of each subsequent attraction, the Need was to update/replace an existing attraction. In addition, each was designed to work within the constraints imposed by the existing facilities (theatre-in-the-round). Other examples: Expedition Everest: Legend of the Forbidden Journey at Disney’s Animal Kingdom Theme Park (“Animal Kingdom needs a thrill ride that fits within the overall theme of the park.”) In instructional design, Needs Analysis asks questions such as: • What objectives/goals should the training address? • Who is the target audience? • What are the topics I need to address?Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 8
    • The Imagineering Process Blue Sky Brainstorming + Concept Design: (The Sky’s the Limit) Where ideas are born Concept Development Where ideas are fleshed out and further developed Architecture Where ideas begin to move from concept to reality Models Development of scale models of various scales and sizes Construction Physical construction and fabrication (includes Test and Adjust) Blue Sky - Objective: Determine what it is that will be built/developed. Brainstorming Rules: • Rule 1: There’s no such thing as a bad idea. • Rule 2: We don’t talk yet about why not. There will be plenty of time for realities later, so we don’t want them to get in the way of the good ideas now. • Rule 3: Nothing should stifle the flow of ideas. No buts or can’ts or other “stopping” words. We want to hear words such as “and,” “or,” and “what if.” • Rule 4: There’s no such thing as a bad idea. (We take that one very seriously.) from The Imagineering Field Guide to Disneyland Concept Designs can be expressed as, sketches, paintings, written descriptions, models, verbal pitches, etc. We also visit this stage when we need to brainstorm ideas based on work at another stage (more on this later). Concept Development - the follow up to Blue Sky, where the concept created in Blue Sky is further developed before Design/Architecture begins. Output includes concept paintings, drawings, text pieces, etc. Architecture - output includes elevations, blue prints, specifications, plans, color boards Models - help to identify potential design challenges WDI has recently moved to using computer models to streamline this stage even further. Construction - the move from 2D to 3D. Includes the Test and Adjust stage. Example: During Test and Adjust on the Crush-n-Gusher water slide at Typhoon Lagoon, lifeguards suggested changing the slides from 2 to 3 riders per slide.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 9
    • The Imagineering Process Instructional Design Blue Sky Where we start when a need is identified (“We need Implementer training for Product XYZ”) (ADDIE: Analysis) Concept Development Where we define the “Big Picture” of the course (or courses). (ADDIE: Analysis) Architecture Where the bulk of the course design takes place. (ADDIE: Design) Models Where the actual design and development work begins. (ADDIE: Development) Construction Where we put all the pieces together, and where the bulk of the course development work takes place. (ADDIE: Development) Blue Sky - how do we address the needs identified during Needs Analysis. Concept Development - at this stage, we: • Identify the number of courses we need to develop • Create high-level outlines and descriptions of the courses Architecture - at this stage, we create: • Design Documents • Detailed Outlines • Test Plans At this stage, we define: • Exercises we plan to include • Sample data we need to develop Models - at this stage, we create: • Initial drafts • Exercises/Labs • Prototypes and/or demonstrations • Test/Training Data This stage often takes place in parallel with the Construction stage. Construction - at this stage, we create the various drafts (review, final, etc.) of course materials. This stage also encompasses the review and revision process This stage often takes place in parallel with the Model stage.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 10
    • Beyond Construction Openings and Evaluations After Construction is complete: The ride or attraction is opened to the public The training must be delivered to audiences (ADDIE: Implementation) Once an attraction has been open a while, customer surveys are used to solicit feedback Once the training has been delivered, we need to solicit feedback from students (ADDIE: Evaluation) Openings: Attraction openings include previews, “Soft” openings, and Grand Openings. With instructional design, “openings” include “Train the Trainer” and a First (or Beta) Teach. Evaluations: Feedback on attractions can lead to: • Refurbishments • Redesigns • Closings (!) Feedback on training courses typically leads to: • Revisions • CorrectionsCopyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 11
    • The Imagineering Process At first glance, the process seems straight forward enough… Blue Sky Concept Architecture Models Construction …but the process also is flexible and iterative. Blue Sky Concept Architecture Models Construction In many cases, we can simply follow the process stage by stage from beginning to end. However, there are times when we reach a stage, and have to go back to a previous stage to re- think or re-visit what we did previously. It’s also possible that new ideas might arise in a latter stage and cause us to go back to a previous stage to better take advantage of the new idea. For example, if new ideas arise during Concept Development, we might go back to Blue Sky to work out the best way to integrate the new idea into the overall design. Likewise, if problems arise during Architecture, we might go back to Concept Development to work out the best way to address the problem in the design. This flexibility isn’t unique to this process. The point here is that the processes we follow in our work aren’t carved in stone, and can be adjusted when needed.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 12
    • The Imagineering Process Macro and Micro Another strength of this process is that it works at both the macro level (the overall project), as well as the micro level (each small piece of the project) Blue Sky Concept Architecture Models Construction Blue Sky Concept Architecture Models Construction Concept Blue Sky Concept Architecture Models Construction Blue Sky Concept Architecture Models Construction Example: When creating curriculum for a complex subject, you might begin the process at the “macro” level (“Create implementer training for product XYZ”), but then realize you need to create multiple courses. In such a case, you might then adopt the process at the “micro” level, where you follow the process in the creation of each individual course.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 13
    • Putting It Together, Take It Apart Don Hahn on the Creative Process Screen it Discuss it Get the sinking feeling that you don’t know what you’re doing Weep openly Tear it apart Correct it Re-board it Rebuild it Screen it again Repeat as necessary from The Alchemy of AnimationCopyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 14
    • The Imagineering Pyramid: Techniques and Practices In this section we’ll look at a number of techniques and practices employed by WDI, and how these techniques (and the principles that underlie them) can be applied to instructional design.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 15
    • The Imagineering Pyramid Techniques and Practices Plussing The “It’s a Small Hidden World” Effect Mickeys Forced “Read”-ability Kinetics Perspective Pre-Shows and Weenies Transitions Storyboards Post-Shows The Art of Long, Medium, Attention to It’s All About Theming the Show and Close Shots Detail the Story The bottom tier of the pyramid includes the foundation, or “cornerstones” of Imagineering. These techniques serve as the foundation upon which all other techniques and practices are based. The second tier includes techniques focused on navigation and guiding/leading the audience, including how to grab their attention, how to lead the audience from one area to another, and how to lead the audience into and out from an attraction. The third tier includes “pervasive” techniques that are used throughout the parks in different ways. You’ll find examples of these in nearly every land and/or attraction. The fourth tier includes practices focused on reinforcing ideas and engaging the audience. It is the use of these techniques which helps make visits to Disney parks memorable. The top tier contains a fundamental practice employed in all the other techniques.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 16
    • The Art of the Show Staying Focused on Your Objective "Designing the guests experience is what Walts Imagineers came to call "the art of the show…“ -John Hench Objective: to put on a “show” for the Guests Creative Intent: what the designers want to accomplish Instructional design Objective: developing an effective learning experience Creative Intent: the specific educational goal of a course (functional knowledge, technical knowledge, etc.) "Designing the guests experience is what Walts Imagineers came to call "the art of the show,” a term that applies to what we do at every level, from the broadest conceptual outlines to the smallest details, encompassing visual storytelling, characters, and color.” -John Hench The Disney “Show” includes everything Guests see, hear, smell, or come in contact with when they visit Disney Parks or Resorts. The concept of a “show” is used by Imagineers when they discuss the parks and attractions: • Onstage vs. Backstage • Good Show vs. Bad Show Designers are the guardians and arbiters of the creative intent of the environment. Example - Bibbidi Bobbidi Boutique: • An environment that men find uncomfortable • Young girls should think that Cinderella might show up at any moment Instructional Design Keeping the focus on the goal of developing an effective learning experience: • Remembering who your target audience is • Every lesson, exercise, demonstration, etc. should add something significant to the learning experience “How does this (topic, demo, quiz, etc.) enhance or support the student’s learning experience?” • The “greatest idea” in the world is both worthless and useless if you can’t find an effective way to express it within the context of your trainingCopyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 17
    • It’s All About The Story Knowing and Using Your Subject Matter “Story is the essential organizing principle behind the design of the Disney theme parks.…” -John Hench Every detail of a park attraction is informed by its story (or theme). Instructional Design Identifying the primary subject around which the training is to be designed Knowing the purpose of the training you’re designing Knowing what does and does NOT fit “Story is the essential organizing principle behind the design of the Disney theme parks.…When we design any area of a Disney theme park, we transform a space into a story space. Every element must work together to create an identity that supports the story of that place….” -John Hench Story is the fundamental building block of everything WDI does. Note that not all rides or attractions necessarily tell a story (as in a narrative), but every attraction is based in some way on upon a story of some sort. Also, an attractions story is not always (or even often) a fully formed or fleshed out narrative (as in having plot, characters, with a a beginning, middle, and end, etc.). Sometimes the "story" behind an attraction is perhaps better described as a "theme" or "concept" than what we often think of when we hear the word "story." For example, there is no actual story behind Its a Small World, The Haunted Mansion, or Pirates of the Caribbean, three of the best known attractions ever built by WDI. What all three attractions share, however, is the fact that each is built upon a strong "concept" or "core idea" that informs their every detail. Instructional Design Identifying the “Story” or “Big Picture” of your curriculum: • The primary subject around which the training is to be designed • The purpose of the training you’re designing This includes knowing what does and does NOT fit. • Eliminate “tangential” topics where possible • Example: Training on applications which leverage multiple technologies (Java, VB, etc.) is NOT the place to teach about those technologies.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 18
    • Attention to Detail Paying Attention to Every Detail "The minute details that produce the visual experience are really the true art of the Disney themed show, its greatest source of strength.” -John Hench "A detail should only be used if it is essential to the story in some way.” -John Hench Instructional Design Accurate and appropriate details support the learning experience Incorrect or inconsistent details interfere with the learning experience There is a balance between not enough and too much detail "The minute details that produce the visual experience are really the true art of the Disney themed show, its greatest source of strength. The details corroborate every story point, immersing guests into the story idea. …if one detail contradicts another, guests will feel let down or even deceived. This is why he (Walt) insisted that even details that some designers thought no guest would notice– such as the replicated period doorknobs on Main Street, U.S.A.–were important. Inappropriate details confuse a storys meaning.” -John Hench Examples: • Clothing on the figures (in the Hall of Presidents) are authentic reproductions of their respective eras, including the braces on Franklin Delano Roosevelts legs. • “… there are thirty-three shades of white in my palette–do you have a favorite?” • Movie film motif at the All Star Movies Resort "A detail should only be used if it is essential to the story in some way. There is a big difference between being overwhelmed with detail that really amounts to clutter, and the feeling of perfection that is real storytelling. As designers, we must not make the mistake of thinking that a "big look" with lots of detail is enough.” -John Hench Instructional Design Details draw attention to themselves, so they need to be correct. Knowing the appropriate level of detail. Other techniques/practices directly related to Attention to Detail include Theming and Long, Medium, and Close Shots.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 19
    • Theming Using Details to Strengthen Your Story “It’s All About The Story” + “Attention To Detail” Selecting the right details to support the story or theme Ensuring that everything in an attraction fits its “story” or theme Instructional Design Striving to make sure that the training delivers its message in a clear and consistent manner, one that supports and (if possible) enhances the learning experience Inconsistent theming can distract and confuse your audience Theme is the fundamental nature of a story in terms of what it means to WDI. Theming is what set Disneyland apart and made it the first “theme park” and not just another amusement park. Props, sets, costumes, and other decorative elements are all part of the theming of an attraction. Levels of theming: • Land-level (Fantasyland vs. Adventureland) • Attraction-level (Maharajah Jungle Trek vs. Expedition Everest) Instructional Design Striving to make sure that the training delivers its message in a clear and consistent manner, one that supports and (if possible) enhances the learning experience Consistent use of: • Language and terminology • Templates and Styles • Fonts, colors, logos, etc. The next page is an example of inconsistent theming.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 20
    • Theming Using Details to Strengthen Your Story • Theming means making sure everything in an attraction fits its “story” or theme • Theme is the fundamental nature of a story in terms of what it means to Disney Imaginers • Props, sets, costumes, and other decorative elements are all part of the “look and feel” of an attraction • Levels of Theming: • Land-level (Fantasyland vs. Adventureland) • Attraction-level (Maharajah Jungle Trek vs. Expedition Everest) An extreme example of bad theming in presentation design, featuring: • Inconsistent use of fonts, colors, and styles • Inconsistent use of animation • Inconsistent and incorrect terminology.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 21
    • Long, Medium, and Close Shots Moving from General to Specific “Long views establish an idea, medium views continue to support the idea, and close-ups provide elements that reinforce the story” -John Hench How details are organized and arranged Instructional Design Moving from the General to the Specific when presenting information Long, medium, and close shots work like zooming in on details, or narrowing of the “camera” lens. Examples of this technique can be found throughout all Disney parks, but some specific examples include: • Cinderella Castle (Magic Kingdom) • The Tree of Life (Animal Kingdom) • The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror (Disneys Hollywood Studios) Instructional Design Using differing levels of detail, moving from the General to the SpecificCopyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 22
    • Weenies Leading and Guiding Your Audience Walt Disney’s term for a visual element used to draw people into and around a space Weenies should be: Big enough to be seen from a distance Interesting enough to encourage a closer look Instructional Design Highlighting specific objectives / exercises in a course Outlining the overall learning objective of the course “Imagineers have found that people respond to a wienie at the end of a corridor because it beckons them to continue further in their journey….The wienie promises that you will be rewarded for the time and effort to takes to walk down that corridor.” -John Hench “The Matterhorn at Disneyland, the Tree of Life at Disneys Animal Kingdom, and Big Tillie, the stranded ship at Typhoon Lagoon, are all effective wienies: they set the stage, establish a mood, and draw the eye.” -John Hench Weenies are important when laying out a sequence of story points in an organized fashion. Other examples (Walt Disney World): • Cinderella Castle (Magic Kingdom) • Spaceship Earth (Epcot) • The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror (Disney’s Hollywood Studios) • Expedition Everest: Legend of the Forbidden Mountain • Astro Orbiter (Tomorrowland) Instructional Design Explaining the promise of the training to the audience • What they will learn • What sorts of examples the course will includeCopyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 23
    • Transitions Making Change as Seamless as Possible Allowing the audience to travel from scene to scene, attraction to attraction, or “land” to “land” while avoiding drastic, abrupt change Instructional Design Determining the “best” order and sequence in which topics should be addressed in the training Storyboarding can help with this Transitions are used between lands, and even within attractions where applicable. For example, the transition from Main Street, USA to Adventureland should be a smooth one. Transitions make use of “three-dimensional cross-dissolves,” providing subtle sensory clues that indicate change is happening. “As guests walk from Main Street into Adventureland, walkway surfaces change from concrete to cut stone, wrought-iron hand railings give way to bamboo, Main Street’s music yields to growls and howls.” -John Hench Instructional Design Creating transitions involves: • Moving from General to Specific (i.e. employ Long, Medium, and Close Shots) • Covering the basics first, then add layers of detail • Discussing general applications of an idea before specific examples Sometimes training needs call for a different ordering than might be employed in real world practice. For example, complex or detailed steps in the midst of a process might be better addressed as separate topics.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 24
    • Storyboards Seeing the Big Picture “Storyboards enable us to design sequences of experiences that take guests to peak moments.” -John Hench Allow designers to see the entire sequence of events in a story or ride, and re-arrange as needed during development Instructional Design Using storyboards to outline the entire classroom experience (lecture, quizzes, exercises, etc.) provides a visual tool to allow designers to “see” the entire course Storyboards are large pin-up boards used to post ideas, or to outline the story points of a ride or film • Each story point or idea is on an individual sheet of paper or card • Ideas can be easily moved and re-arranged Instructional Design When using storyboards in curriculum development: • Each “event” (topic, sub-topic, quiz, etc.) can be on an individual card • Events can be re-arranged easily Storyboarding can be done using physical storyboards, or software tools. Mind Mapping is a form of storyboarding. Storyboard is related to our previous technique Transitions.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 25
    • Pre-Shows and Post-Shows Introducing and Reinforcing Leading the audience into and out of attractions Pre-Shows prepare the audience for what they are about to experience Post-Shows reinforce key ideas and themes Instructional Design Pre-Shows: Identifying objectives and goals, introducing topics Post-Shows: Summarizing key points, soliciting questions Many attractions make use of Pre-Shows and Post-Shows. Pre-Shows can include: • Themed areas in the queue • Short films or presentations (Test Track, Mission: Space, Stitches Great Escape) Post-Shows can include: • Themed areas • Follow-up activities (games, kiosks, etc.) – Mission: Space, Spaceship Earth, The Seas with Nemo and Friends Instructional Design Pre-Shows identify what students should know (or know how to do) after each section of your training, including: • What is the topic of this section • How the topic relates to other topics (both those that have come before, and those that are coming after) Post-Shows summarize and reinforce the material covered in each section of your training.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 26
    • Forced Perspective Using the Illusion of Size A theatrical technique where the designer plays with scale in order to affect the perception of the audience. Structures or objects appear larger or smaller than they really are Instructional Design Adjusting (or forcing, as the name implies) the perspective of your audience to help them understand something Forced perspective is used throughout the parks in many different ways. One of the more classic uses is on Main Street, USA, where the buildings appear larger than they really are: • First-floor facades are built at 90% of full size • Second-floors facades are built at 80% of full size • Third floor are still slightly smaller Forced perspective is also used in most Weenies, including Cinderella Castle, and Expedition Everest. Forced perspective can also be used to make objects appear smaller than they are. Snow White’s Grotto in Disneyland’s Fantasyland (see photo above) is an example of this. Instructional Design In curriculum, design, forced perspective is often used to make topics/subjects seem smaller or simpler than they are. Forced perspective is a means of simplifying complex subjects/topics via • “Big Picture” overviews • Diagrams • Metaphors • Etc. Forced Perspective is related to “Read”-ability, our next technique.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 27
    • “Read”-ability Simplifying Complex Subjects In ride systems (particularly “dark rides”), guests pass through scenes quickly, and there is only a short time to convey a message The audience must be able to immediately understand each scene WDI solves this by creating images or scenes that can be “read” quickly by audiences Instructional Design Using various devices to convey complex ideas Graphics/Illustrations Examples Metaphors “Read”-ability is used in many attractions and areas within the parks, but is most prominently used in classic dark rides such as Pirates of the Caribbean and The Haunted Mansion. Some of the best known uses of this technique in Pirates of the Caribbean include: • Pirate Chess • Dunking the Mayor • The Wench Auction • The Jail Scene Instructional Design While not (usually) constrained by time, we still need to make sure the audience can quickly (and easily) understand the subject matter Save this for complex topics. This is not necessary for every idea or topic.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 28
    • Kinetics Keeping Things Moving Movement and motion in a scene that give it life and energy Can come from moving vehicles, active signage, changes in the lighting, special effects, or even hanging banners or flags that move around as the wind blows Instructional Design Keeping the training “moving” by combining different types of content There are very few “still” places in Disney Theme Parks. Imagineers use kinetics to keep the atmosphere “alive” and vibrant. A commonly seen use of kinetics is found in water fountains. Kinetics is used both inside and outside attractions. WDI often designs areas where multiple types of motion “overlap”, such as movement in both foreground and background. Instructional Design Different types of content can include: • Animation (but don’t over do it) • Demonstrations (live and recorded) • Hands-On Exercises (guided or independent) • Interactivity (quizzes, polls, Q&A, etc.)Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 29
    • The “It’s a Small World” Effect Using Repetition and Reinforcement Disney theme parks and attractions are designed to be memorable One visit to “It’s a Small World” is often all it takes to have the song stuck in your head for days. Instructional Design Employing repetition and reinforcement in the training “Repetition is the mother of skill.” It’s a small world, after all It’s a small world, after all It’s a small world, after all It’s a small, small world “It’s a Small World” by Richard M. Sherman and Robert B. Sherman Music and songs are just one way Imagineers make Disney parks memorable. They also use repetition, and other methods (as we discussed in Pre-Shows and Post-Shows) to help reinforce key themes and ideas. Instructional Design Finding ways to reinforce key ideas and concepts: • Repeating content in training materials • Using multiple (and different) means to communicate important ideas (i.e. employing "Read"- ability)) • Performing the same tasks multiple times (for different exercises)Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 30
    • Hidden Mickeys Engaging Your Audience Hidden impressions (partial or complete) of Mickey Mouse in the designs of attractions, hotels, restaurants, and other areas Once you spot a Hidden Mickey, you never look at it the same way again Instructional Design Providing ways for students to come to learning on their own Many guests at Disney parks enjoy the “hunt” for Hidden Mickeys The photos above are from “HiddenMickeysGuide.Com: A Field Guide to Walt Disney World’s Best Kept Secrets,” a website authored by Steven M. Barrett, who publishes a book about Hidden Mickeys. Instructional Design When designing courses, let students figure things out instead of simply telling them. Concepts, ideas, and distinctions that students work out on their own are more likely to be retained. Caveat: This does NOT mean you should leave important information out of your training. Examples include: • Questions that force students to think “outside” your training • Test and quizzes that combine related concepts in different waysCopyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 31
    • Plussing Consistently Asking “How Do I Make This Better?” “Plussing” is a term coined by Walt Disney that simply means to make something better. Improvement through iteration A continual focus on making things better Instructional Design Constant evaluation and revision based on feedback Continually ask “How can we make this better?” Walt Disney telling his workers to plus it, even when they think they had done their best, gave Disney films an extra edge when it came to quality animation. He employed this same philosophy in his live-action films, theme parks, and everything he did, and it has become a tradition within the Walt Disney Company in general, and within Walt Disney Imagineering especially. Instructional Design Remember: small changes can make a BIG differenceCopyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 32
    • The Imagineering Model Checklist Techniques and the Imagineering Process - Which techniques/practices apply to which stage in the Imagineering process? Imagineering Checklist Questions - Questions to help us utilize Imagineering Techniques and Practices when developing trainingCopyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 33
    • Techniques and the Imagineering Process Stages of the Imagineering Process Technique/Practice Blue Sky Concept Design Models Construct (Architecture) The Art of the Show ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ It’s All About the Story ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Attention to Detail ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Theming ♦ ♦ ♦ Long, Medium, and Close Shots ♦ ♦ ♦ Weenies ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Transitions ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Storyboards ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Pre-Shows and Post-Shows ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ It’s possible that every technique and practice outlined in this presentation can be applied during each stage of the process, but the tables on this page and the next outline the most likely places where the techniques and stages intersect.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 34
    • Techniques and the Imagineering Process Stages of the Imagineering Process Technique/Practice Blue Sky Concept Design Models Construct (Architecture) Forced Perspective ♦ ♦ ♦ "Read"-ability ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Kinetics ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ The “It’s a Small World” Effect ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Hidden Mickeys ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Plussing ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 35
    • Imagineering Checklist Questions Technique/Practice Questions The Art of the Show Are you focusing on your target audience? Do you evaluate how each element of the training contributes to the overall goals of the course? It’s All About the Story Do you keep the “Big Picture” in mind when developing content for your training? Have you excluded “tangential” topics where appropriate and/or necessary? Attention to Detail Have you verified the details in your training materials? Are you including too much detail? Too little? Theming Are you being consistent in your use of language and terminology? Are you being consistent in your use of templates and styles? Fonts? Colors? Etc.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 36
    • Imagineering Checklist Questions Technique/Practice Questions Long, Medium, and Close Shots Have you identified your establishing (long) and close shots? Are you presenting information in a way that moves from the general to the specific? Are you using different levels of detail to help guide your audience through the material in your training? Weenies Do you provide compelling reasons for students to participate in your training? Have you explained what skills your audience can expect to learn from your training? Transitions Are you guiding your audience from subject to subject in a manner that helps them learn? Have you identified areas where you need to differ from “real world practice” in order to clearly communicate to your audience?Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 37
    • Imagineering Checklist Questions Technique/Practice Questions Storyboards Have you outlined the entire classroom experience? Have you stepped back to “see” the entire course? Have you considered different ways to arrange the “events” of the course? Pre-Shows and Post-Shows Do you outline the learning objectives of the training? Do you introduce your topics and how they relate to the “big picture” and to other topics? Forced Perspective Are you trying to adjust your audience’s perspective to help them learn? Are you simplifying large or complex subjects? "Read"-ability Do you use examples, illustrations, or metaphors to help explain complex subjects?Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 38
    • Imagineering Checklist Questions Technique/Practice Questions Kinetics Is your training “active”? Does your training include hands-on exercises? Have you developed demonstrations that illustrate the concepts addressed in your training? Does your training include quizzes and/or polling questions, or other interactive activities? The “It’s a Small World” Effect Are you reinforcing key ideas and concepts? Are you using repetition to help reinforce ideas? Hidden Mickeys Are you providing ways for students to figure some things out on their own? Do you ask questions that force students to think “outside” your training? Plussing How can you make your training better? What little things can you add or change in your training that might improve the learning experience for your audience?Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 39
    • Closing CommentsCopyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 40
    • Closing Comments Instructional Design *is* a creative process. Useful ideas and insights can come from unlikely sources. A visit to the Disney Theme Parks can be fun, *and* research!Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 41
    • References - Books • Barrett, Steven M. 2009. Hidden Mickeys: A Field Guide to Walt Disney World’s Best Kept Secrets, 4th Edition. Branford, Connecticut. The Intrepid Traveler. • Disney Imagineers, The. 2005. The Imagineering Workout: Exercises to Shape Your Creative Muscles. New York, New York. Disney Editions, Inc. • Hahn, Don. 2008. The Alchemy of Animation: Making an Animated Film in the Modern Age. New York, New York. Disney Editions, Inc. • Hench, John. Peggy Van Pelt. 1998. Designing Disney: Imagineering and the Art of the Show. New York, New York. Disney Editions, Inc. • Imagineers, The. 2003. The Imagineering Way: Ideas to Ignite Your Creativity. New York, New York. Disney Editions, Inc. • Imagineers, The. Kevin Rafferty. 1996. Walt Disney Imagineering: A Behind the Dreams Look at Making the Magic Real. New York, Hyperion. • Imagineers, The. Melody Malmberg. 2010. Walt Disney Imagineering: A Behind the Dreams Look at Making More Magic Real. New York, New York. Disney Editions, Inc. • Kurti, Jeff. 2008. Walt Disney’s Imagineering Legends and the Genesis of the Disney Theme Park. New York, New York. Disney Editions, Inc. • Surrel, Jason. 2007. The Disney Mountains: Imagineering at Its Peak. New York, New York. Disney Editions, Inc. • Surrel, Jason. 2003. The Haunted Mansion: From the Magic Kingdom to the Movies. New York, New York. Disney Editions, Inc. • Surrel, Jason. 2005. Pirates of the Caribbean: From the Magic Kingdom to the Movies. New York, New York. Disney Editions, Inc. • Wright, Alex. 2008. The Imagineering Field Guide to Disneyland. New York, New York. Disney Editions, Inc. • Wright, Alex. 2007. The Imagineering Field Guide to Disney’s Animal Kingdom Theme Park at Walt Disney World. New York, New York. Disney Editions, Inc. • Wright, Alex. 2010. The Imagineering Field Guide to Disney’s Hollywood Studios at Walt Disney World. New York, New York. Disney Editions, Inc. • Wright, Alex. 2006. The Imagineering Field Guide to Epcot at Walt Disney World. New York, New York. Disney Editions, Inc. • Wright, Alex. 2005. The Imagineering Field Guide to the Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World. New York, New York. Disney Editions, Inc.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 42
    • References – Web Sites / Blogs • Barrett, Steven M. 2010. Hidden Mickeys Guide.com: A Field Guide to Walt Disney World’s Best Kept Secrets (located at: http://www.hiddenmickeysguide.com) • Spence, Jack. 2010. The “World” According to Jack (located at: http://land.allears.net/blogs/jackspence). AllEars.net: The Unofficial Planning Guide for Walt Disney World, Disneyland and the Disney Cruise Line. Photo Credits • “Long, Medium, and Close Shots” photos on page 22, “Weenies” photo on page 23, and “Forced Perspective” photo on page 27 are Copyright ©Jack Spence. Used with permission. • “Hidden Mickeys” photos on page 31 are Copyright ©Steven M. Barrett. Used with permission. Acknowledgements The author would like to thank the following people: • Steven M. Barrett, for the use of his Hidden Mickey photos. His Hidden Mickeys book and website are the ultimate resource when hunting for Hidden Mickeys. • Jason Grandt, for the wonderful and engaging stories he shared with my family and I during our “Lunch with an Imagineer” in August 2010. • Jack Spence and Allears.net, for the use of photos from “The “World” According to Jack.” His tours of Walt Disney World are some of the best out on the web, and his pictures are all worth a thousand words or more.Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 43
    • About the Author Name: Louis J. Prosperi Title: Documentation and Curriculum Manager Organization: Tax and Utilities Global Business Unit, Oracle Business Phone: 781-993-7545 Business Email Address: lou.prosperi@oracle.com Primary Responsibilities / Background: Lou Prosperi is the Documentation and Curriculum Manager for Oracles Tax and Utility Global Business Unit. Following a career in game design, Lou went to work as a technical writer and instructional designer and has been in that role for the last 12 years, providing user and technical documentation and training for enterprise applications used in the utilities industry. In his writing, Lou looks for ways to present complex technical subject matter in a manner that helps his audience learn more easily and efficiently. A self-proclaimed "Student of Imagineering," Lous current area of interest is how to apply the principles and practices employed by Walt Disney Imagineering to other fields, including instructional design. Education: Bachelor of General Studies, Roosevelt University, 1999 Other Contact Information: Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/lou.prosperi Twitter: www.twitter.com/louprosperiCopyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 44
    • Thank You!Copyright © 2011 Louis J. Prosperi 45