How can we ensure…? UTHSC-H limits carefully set from much experience Compare: other labs doing similar work Estimate meter + abstruse calculations Other calcs Measurement is probably best
TX radiation control limits UTHSC limits Dose-> depends on type, dose rate, time, area of body 6 rem -> to HP: not good but not much different from 4 rem -> physician: not much -> Lawyer: depends if defense or prosecutor -> regulator: BAD
If something happened here
Most interesting piece of this chart is the smallest Only 2% to result in readily apparent biological effects
Han 476 basic radiation safety training awareness
Radiation SafetyRadiation SafetyHAN 476HAN 476Stony Brook UniversityStony Brook UniversitySchool of Health Technology and ManagementSchool of Health Technology and Management
OutlineOutline History of RadiationHistory of Radiation Natural & Man-Made Background Sources ofNatural & Man-Made Background Sources ofRadiationRadiation FundamentalsFundamentals Exposure Limits & RegulationsExposure Limits & Regulations Detection of RadiationDetection of Radiation Safe Practices with RadiationSafe Practices with Radiation Biological Effects of RadiationBiological Effects of Radiation Where to Find Further InformationWhere to Find Further Information
First Known Human Use ofFirst Known Human Use ofUraniumUranium 79 A D79 A D Roman artisansRoman artisansproduce yellowproduce yellowcolored glass incolored glass inmosaic mural nearmosaic mural nearNaples, ItalyNaples, Italy
Radium Effects ConfirmedRadium Effects Confirmed 19251925 Suspicions developSuspicions developaround watch dialaround watch dialpainters’ jaw lesionspainters’ jaw lesions Dentists diagnose lesionsDentists diagnose lesionsas jaw necrosis due toas jaw necrosis due toradium deposits in jawradium deposits in jawbonebone Doctor notes boneDoctor notes bonechanges and anemia inchanges and anemia indial paintersdial painters
What is Radiation?What is Radiation?Radiation: energy in motionRadioactivity: spontaneous emission of radiation from thenucleus of an unstable atomIsotope: atoms with the same number of protons, but differentnumber of neutronsRadioisotope: unstable isotope of an element that decays ordisintegrates spontaneously, emitting radiation. Approximately5,000 natural and artificial radioisotopes have been identified
Types of RadiationTypes of RadiationNon-Ionizing Radiation: Radiation that does not have sufficientenergy to dislodge orbital electrons.Examples of non-ionizing radiation: microwaves, ultravioletlight, lasers, radio waves, infrared light, and radar.Ionizing Radiation: Radiation that has sufficient energy todislodge orbital electrons.Examples of ionizing radiation: alpha particles, beta particles,neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays.
Terrestrial RadiationTerrestrial RadiationCommon radionuclides created during formation of earth:–Radioactive Potassium (K-40) found in bananas,throughout the human body, in plant fertilizer andanywhere else stable potassium exists.–Radioactive Rubidium (Rb-87) is found in brazil nutsamong other things.Terrestrial radiation comes from radioactivity emitting fromPrimordial radio nuclides - these are radio nuclides left overfrom when the earth was created.
Terrestrial RadiationTerrestrial Radiation Greatest contributor isGreatest contributor is 226226Ra (Radium) withRa (Radium) withsignificant levels also fromsignificant levels also from 238238U,U, 232232Th, andTh, and 4040K.K. Igneous rock contains the highest concentrationIgneous rock contains the highest concentrationfollowed by sedimentary, sandstone and limestone.followed by sedimentary, sandstone and limestone. Fly ash from coal burning plants contains moreFly ash from coal burning plants contains moreradiation than that of nuclear or oil-fired plants.radiation than that of nuclear or oil-fired plants.42α ++
Consumer Products andConsumer Products andRadioactive MaterialRadioactive Material There are more sources of radiation in theThere are more sources of radiation in theconsumer product category than in any other.consumer product category than in any other. Television sets - low energy x-rays.Television sets - low energy x-rays. Smoke detectorsSmoke detectors Some more products or services:Some more products or services:treatment of agricultural products; longtreatment of agricultural products; longlasting light bulbs; building materials;lasting light bulbs; building materials;static eliminators in manufacturing; andstatic eliminators in manufacturing; andluminous dials of watches, clocks andluminous dials of watches, clocks andcompassescompasses
The Anatomy of the AtomThe Anatomy of the Atom
Ionizing radiationIonizing radiation Occurs from the addition or removal ofOccurs from the addition or removal ofelectrons from neutral atomselectrons from neutral atoms Four main types of ionizing radiationFour main types of ionizing radiation alpha, beta, gamma and neutronsalpha, beta, gamma and neutronsαα AlphaAlphaββ BetaBetaγγ Gamma (X-ray)Gamma (X-ray)nn NeutronNeutron
TimeTime Less time = Less radiation exposureLess time = Less radiation exposure Use RAM only when necessaryUse RAM only when necessary Dry runsDry runs (without radioactive material)(without radioactive material) Identify portions of the experiment that can be altered in order toIdentify portions of the experiment that can be altered in order todecrease exposure timesdecrease exposure times Shorten time when near RAMShorten time when near RAM Obtaining higher doses in order to get anObtaining higher doses in order to get anexperiment done quicker is NOT “reasonable”!experiment done quicker is NOT “reasonable”!
DistanceDistance Effective & EasyEffective & Easy Inverse Square LawInverse Square Law Doubling distance from source,Doubling distance from source,decreases dose by factor of fourdecreases dose by factor of four Tripling it decreases dose nine-foldTripling it decreases dose nine-fold More Distance = Less RadiationMore Distance = Less RadiationExposureExposure Tongs, Tweezers, Pipettes, PliersTongs, Tweezers, Pipettes, Pliers
ShieldingShielding Materials “absorb” radiationMaterials “absorb” radiation Proper shielding = LessProper shielding = LessRadiation ExposureRadiation Exposure Plexiglass vs. LeadPlexiglass vs. Lead
• Shielding used whereShielding used whereappropriateappropriate Significantly reducesSignificantly reducesradiation effectsradiation effectsLeadLeadPlexiglasPlexiglasRadiationRadiationShieldingShielding
Radiation use will be labeledlabeled on door, work area & storage area Research laboratories work with very low levels of radioactive materials Safety can check for potential contamination prior to work in a lab thatuses radioactive materials As a precaution: wear gloves, safety glasses and wash handswear gloves, safety glasses and wash handsRadiation PostingsRadiation Postings
Route of Entry for ExposureRoute of Entry for Exposure
Laboratory Wipe TestsLaboratory Wipe Tests Fill out form RS-8Fill out form RS-8 Draw map of laboratoryDraw map of laboratory Take wipes of surfaces (10 cmTake wipes of surfaces (10 cm22) throughout lab) throughout lab Run wipesRun wipes monthlymonthly for possible contaminationfor possible contamination Document all information on form and place inDocument all information on form and place inRadiation Safety BinderRadiation Safety Binder
Common UnitsCommon Units RadioactivityRadioactivity ExposureExposure Absorbed DoseAbsorbed Dose Dose EquivalentDose EquivalentUnits are Cool
RadioactivityRadioactivity Rate of Decay / Potential to DecayRate of Decay / Potential to Decay ““Strength”Strength” Curie (Ci) - 1 gram of radiumCurie (Ci) - 1 gram of radiumdisintegratesdisintegrates 3.7 X 103.7 X 101010disintegration/disintegration/second (dps)second (dps) Becquerel (Bq)Becquerel (Bq)= 1 disintegration/second (dps)= 1 disintegration/second (dps) 1 mCi = 37 MBq1 mCi = 37 MBq
ExposureExposure Radioactivity is measured in Roentgens (R)Radioactivity is measured in Roentgens (R) Charge produced in air from ionization byCharge produced in air from ionization bygamma and x-raysgamma and x-rays ONLY for photons in airONLY for photons in air Rather infrequently used unitRather infrequently used unit A measure of what is emittedA measure of what is emitted
Absorbed DoseAbsorbed Dose Energy deposited by any form of ionizingEnergy deposited by any form of ionizingradiation in a unit mass of materialradiation in a unit mass of material Roentgen Absorbed Dose (rad)Roentgen Absorbed Dose (rad) Gray (Gy)Gray (Gy) 1 Gy = 100 rad1 Gy = 100 rad
Dose EquivalentDose Equivalent Scale for equating relative hazards ofScale for equating relative hazards ofvarious types of ionization in terms ofvarious types of ionization in terms ofequivalent riskequivalent risk Damage in tissue measured inDamage in tissue measured in remrem(Roentgen Equivalent Man)(Roentgen Equivalent Man) Q:risk of biological injuryQ:risk of biological injury rem = Q * radrem = Q * rad Sievert (Sv)Sievert (Sv) 1 Sv = 100 rem1 Sv = 100 rem
What do we really need toWhat do we really need toknow?know? 1 R1 R ≈≈ 1 rad = 1 rem1 rad = 1 rem For gammas & betas*For gammas & betas* 1 rad1 rad ≠≠ 1 rem1 rem For alphas, neutrons & protonsFor alphas, neutrons & protons 1 rem = 1 rad * Q1 rem = 1 rad * Q
And why do we want to know it?And why do we want to know it? Dosage and dosimetry are measuredDosage and dosimetry are measuredandand reported in rems.reported in rems. All the Federal and State regulations areAll the Federal and State regulations arewritten in rems.written in rems. The regulators must be placated withThe regulators must be placated withreports in rems.reports in rems.
Why Establish OccupationalWhy Establish OccupationalExposure Limits?Exposure Limits? We want to eliminate ability ofWe want to eliminate ability ofnon-stochastic effectsnon-stochastic effects (Acute) to(Acute) tooccuroccur Example: Skin ReddeningExample: Skin Reddening We want to reduce theWe want to reduce theprobability of the occurrence ofprobability of the occurrence ofstochastic effectsstochastic effects (Chronic)(Chronic)to same level as otherto same level as otheroccupationsoccupations Example: LeukemiaExample: Leukemia Established fromEstablished fromAccident DataAccident Data
Whole BodyWhole Body Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE)Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) TEDE = Internal + ExternalTEDE = Internal + External Assume Internal Contribution ZeroAssume Internal Contribution Zero Unless Ingestion, Absorption or InhalationUnless Ingestion, Absorption or InhalationSuspectedSuspected Limit = 5 rem / yrLimit = 5 rem / yr
Ensuring Compliance toEnsuring Compliance toRadiation Exposure LimitsRadiation Exposure Limits Use the established activity limit for each isotopeUse the established activity limit for each isotope Compare with similar situationsCompare with similar situations Estimate with meterEstimate with meter CalculateCalculate Time, Distance, Shielding, Type, Energy, GeometryTime, Distance, Shielding, Type, Energy, Geometry MeasureMeasure TLD Chip, LuxelTLD Chip, Luxel BioassayBioassay
Who should wear radiationWho should wear radiationdosimeters or badges?dosimeters or badges? Those “likely” to exceed 10% of theirThose “likely” to exceed 10% of theirannual limit are requiredannual limit are required Those who would like a badgeThose who would like a badge Minors & Declared Pregnant Workers*Minors & Declared Pregnant Workers*
Types of Badges AvailableTypes of Badges Available
Rules, Rights & Responsibilities asRules, Rights & Responsibilities asa Radiation Workera Radiation Worker Department of State Health ServicesDepartment of State Health Services Radiation ControlRadiation Control Texas Regulations for Control ofTexas Regulations for Control ofRadiationRadiation In Accordance with Texas RadiationIn Accordance with Texas RadiationControl Act, Health & Safety Code, ChControl Act, Health & Safety Code, Ch401401 25 TAC (Texas Administrative Code) 28925 TAC (Texas Administrative Code) 289
More Radiation MisconceptionsMore Radiation Misconceptions Radiation does notgive you super humanpowers Radiation will notmake you glow inthe dark
Summary of Biological EffectsSummary of Biological Effectsof Radiationof Radiation Radiation may…Radiation may… Deposit Energy in BodyDeposit Energy in Body Cause DNA DamageCause DNA Damage Create Ionizations in BodyCreate Ionizations in Body Leading to Free RadicalsLeading to Free Radicals Which may lead to biological damageWhich may lead to biological damage
Radiation Effects on CellsRadiation Effects on Cells Radio sensitivity Theory of Bergonie &Radio sensitivity Theory of Bergonie &Tribondeau.Tribondeau. Cell are radiosensitive if they :Cell are radiosensitive if they : Have a high division rateHave a high division rate Have a long dividing futureHave a long dividing future Are of an unspecialized typeAre of an unspecialized type These are the underlying premise for ALARAThese are the underlying premise for ALARA
Response to radiation depends on:Response to radiation depends on: Total doseTotal dose Dose rateDose rate Radiation qualityRadiation quality Stage of development at the time ofStage of development at the time ofexposureexposure
Whole Body EffectsWhole Body Effects Acute or NonstochasticAcute or Nonstochastic Occur when the radiation dose is large enough toOccur when the radiation dose is large enough tocause extensive biological damage to cells so thatcause extensive biological damage to cells so thatlarge numbers of cells die off.large numbers of cells die off. Evident hours to a few months after exposure (Early).Evident hours to a few months after exposure (Early). Late or Stochastic (Delayed)Late or Stochastic (Delayed) Exhibit themselves over years after acute exposure.Exhibit themselves over years after acute exposure. GeneticGenetic SomaticSomatic TeratogenicTeratogenic
Most and Least Radiosensitive CellsMost and Least Radiosensitive CellsLow SensitivityLow Sensitivity Mature red blood cellsMature red blood cellsMuscle cellsMuscle cellsGanglion cellsGanglion cellsMature connective tissuesMature connective tissuesHigh SensitivityHigh Sensitivity Gastric mucosaGastric mucosaMucous membranesMucous membranesEsophageal epitheliumEsophageal epitheliumUrinary bladder epitheliumUrinary bladder epitheliumVery High SensitivityVery High Sensitivity Primitive blood cellsPrimitive blood cellsIntestinal epitheliumIntestinal epitheliumSpermatogoniaSpermatogoniaOvarian follicular cellsOvarian follicular cellsLymphocytesLymphocytes
Comparison of Administrative, Regulatory andComparison of Administrative, Regulatory andBiological Effect DosesBiological Effect Doses100% of People Die,100% of People Die,CNS SyndromeCNS SyndromePermanent InfertilityPermanent InfertilityWhole Body Regulatory Limit (5 rem/yr)Whole Body Regulatory Limit (5 rem/yr)Eye Regulatory Limit (15 rem/yr)Eye Regulatory Limit (15 rem/yr)50% of People Die (450 – 500 rad)50% of People Die (450 – 500 rad)Nausea & Vomiting (10% of People)Nausea & Vomiting (10% of People)Whole Body UTHSCH AdministrativeWhole Body UTHSCH AdministrativeLimit (0.125 rem/month)Limit (0.125 rem/month)Whole Body ExposureWhole Body ExposurePartial Body ExposurePartial Body ExposureExtremities Regulatory Limit (50 rem/yr)Extremities Regulatory Limit (50 rem/yr)Eye UTHSCH AdministrativeEye UTHSCH AdministrativeLimit (0.375 rem/month)Limit (0.375 rem/month)Rad or RemRad or RemExtremities UTHSCH AdministrativeExtremities UTHSCH AdministrativeLimit (1.275 rem/month)Limit (1.275 rem/month)General Public Whole Body RegulatoryGeneral Public Whole Body RegulatoryLimit (0.100 rem/yr)Limit (0.100 rem/yr)No Clinical Symptoms Seen Below 10 remNo Clinical Symptoms Seen Below 10 remCataract FormationCataract FormationLoss of HairLoss of HairSkin ReddeningSkin ReddeningDecreased White Blood Cell CountDecreased White Blood Cell CountUlcers on the SkinUlcers on the SkinMolecular Death (> 100,000 rad)Molecular Death (> 100,000 rad)Gastrointestinal SyndromeGastrointestinal Syndrome
Medical TreatmentMedical Treatment External DecontaminationExternal Decontamination Mild cleaning solution applied toMild cleaning solution applied tointact skinintact skin Betadine, Soap, Rad-Con for handsBetadine, Soap, Rad-Con for hands Never use harsh abrasive or steelNever use harsh abrasive or steelwoolwool Internal DecontaminationInternal Decontamination Treatment which enhancesTreatment which enhancesexcretion of radionuclidesexcretion of radionuclides
How Often Does This Happen?How Often Does This Happen?Results of reported exposure-related incidents in TexasResults of reported exposure-related incidents in Texas1956 – 20001956 – 2000Source: Emery, et. al.Source: Emery, et. al.Only 2% at theOnly 2% at theLevel that ClinicalLevel that ClinicalEffects FromEffects FromRadiation Can beRadiation Can beSeenSeen(n=3,148)
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.