Renaissance has been to start the era around 1400, with the end of the medieval era, and close it around 1600, with the beginning of the Baroque period.
The music of the period was significantly influenced by:
the rise of humanistic thought
the recovery of the literary and artistic heritage of ancient Greece and Rome
the growth of commercial enterprise
the rise of a bourgeois class
the Protestant Reformation
During the Renaissance the music gains significance and is regarded as a sign of sophistication among the aristocratic class. The nobility had to know how to dance and play an instrument. Good musicians were highly regarded because they contributed to give splendor and prestige to the house who served
Religious Anglican: anthem
Catholiscism: - mass
Secular France: chanson
Martin Luther was a German theologian. He regarded music as the most important theology after. He created the choral, simple composition for four voices, homophonic, based on folk melodies and sung in German
An anthem is a form of church music, particularly in the service of the Church of England. The words are selected from Holy Scripture or in some cases from the Liturgy, and the music is generally more elaborate and varied than that of psalm or hymn tunes.
The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the invariable portions of the Eucharistic liturgy. Most Masses are settings of the liturgy in Latin,
Motet: the name describes the movement of the different voices against one another. the Renaissance motet is a polyphonic musical setting, sometimes in imitative counterpoint, for chorus, of a Latin text, usually sacred, not specifically connected to the liturgy of a given day, and therefore suitable for use in any service.
A villancico is a musical and poetic form associated traditional Spain and Portugal. These pieces were popular between the XV and XVIII. The villancicos were originally secular songs with chorus and harmonized several voices. Then began to sing in churches and specifically associated with Christmas. Its name probably has its origin in that they are compositions of a popular nature, sung by villains or inhabitants of the villages, typically farmers and other rural dwellers. They were sung at festivals, originally without specifically religious themes, the main topics of events in the village or region. The genus was later expanded to include issues of various kinds.
Soleta so jo ací,
si voleu que us vaja obrir,
ara que n'és hora,
si voleu venir.
Mon marit es de fora.
On?: a Montalvá,
demà bé serà migjorn
abans que no tornarà.
E jo que ho sabia pla,
que tostemps ho fa així,
ara que n'és hora,
si voleu venir.
INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC Crumhorn Recorder lute sackbut Portative organ Viola da gamba
The immense popularity of social dancing in the sixteenth century is reflected in the large amount of music for the popular dance forms of the day. Dance pieces served varying purposes: Some were utilitarian pieces, intended to accompany dancing. But some were intended to play for the entertainment of listeners or to play at home for the pleasure of the performer(s).
Dances were often paired: one in a relatively slow duple meter with another in a faster triple meter, as in the pavane and galliard described below.
Among the prominent types of dances are these
Pavan or pavane: stately processional dance in duple meter, with three repeated phrases in the form AABBCC; became a popular form for stylized, virtuosic settings, often paired with the galliard
Galliard: brisk dance in triple meter, same form as the pavane
1. Vocal music played by instruments. Instrumental ensemble performance of vocal music: instrumental ensembles often played chansons, lieder, madrigals, and even motets and mass movements. These served purposes similar to stylized dances: for the entertainment of listeners or of the players themselves. 2. Settings of existing melodies: Instrumental composers wrote hundreds of settings of existing melodies, as vocal composers had done for centuries. 3. Variation sets: Beginning in the sixteenth century, composers wrote many sets of variations for instruments 4. Introductory "free" forms for solo instruments: Soloists used introductory pieces to test the tuning of an instrument, to introduce a song or other vocal piece, or to demonstrate their skill. 2.