<ul><li>Troubadours : A kind of songwriter; mostly belonging to the nobility. These songwriters helped to create our ideas of chivalrous knights and damsels in distress. Traveling around Europe, they were the rock stars of their day.
Juglar : entertainer with humble origins in medieval Europe, equipped to play musical instruments, sing, tell stories and legends </li></ul>
<ul><li>Goliardo : This term was used during the Middle Ages to refer to certain types of clerics and homeless students that proliferated in Europe with the rise of urban life and the rise of universities in the thirteenth century.
Minstrels : The troubadours and minnesinger were nobles being proud of their creative skills but ashamed to play instruments, so they resorted to the minstrels for this function of instrumental accompaniment to their songs. Later the term was used as an instrumentalist changeling minstrel, to differentiate the singer. </li></ul>
In taberna quando sumus non curamus quid sit humus, sed ad ludum properamus, cui semper insudamus Quid agatur in taberna ubi nummus est pincerna, hoc est opus ut queratur, si quid loquar, audiatur Quidam ludunt, quidam bibunt, quidam indiscrete vivunt Sed in ludo qui morantur, ex his quidam denudantur quidam ibi vestiuntur, quidam saccis induuntur Ibi nullus timet mortem sed pro Baccho mittunt sortem: Primo pro nummata vini, ex hac bibunt libertini; semel bibunt pro captivis, post hec bibunt ter pro vivis, quater pro Christianis cunctis quinquies pro fidelibus defunctis, sexies pro sororibus vanis, septies pro militibus silvanis http://youtu.be/_7DMcG3UCY0 Cuando estamos en la taberna, no nos interesa donde sentarnos, sino el apresurarnos al juego que siempre nos hace sudar. Lo que sucede en la taberna es que el dinero se gasta; más vale que preguntes antes, si yo te lo digo, entonces escucha. Algún juego, alguna bebida, algo que disfruten unos y otros de aquellos que se quedan a jugar. Algunos están desnudos, otros están vestidos, y otros cubiertos con sacos. Ninguno teme a la muerte, y echan suertes en honor a Baco. Una vez, por el tabernero los hombres libres beben ansiosamente; dos veces, beben por los cautivos; luego, tres veces por la vida; cuatro, por todos los cristianos; cinco veces, por los mártires; seis, por los hermanos enfermos; siete, por los soldados en guerra.
Polyphony <ul><li>Organum : is a form of early Western polyphony. It is based on parallel repetition of the same melody, note by note, but generally at a distance, of five notes (a perfect fifth) which are more acute . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Discantus : An ornamental melody or counterpoint sung or played above a theme. In the early polyphony Discantus concerned the contrary movements between the voices.
Ars antiqua or Ars vetus : is the term used to refer musicology polyphonic music to a particular period but not at all in any case before the fourteenth century, developed a particularly bright in France and had as main manifestation politextual motet. </li></ul>
<ul>Usually the term is limited to sacred music, to the exclusion of secular song of the troubadours and minstrels, although sometimes used to refer to more or less all European music of the thirteenth century and just before. <li>Ars nova : was called a musical trend of the fourteenth century who was born as opposed to the earlier style (Ars antiqua). The rhythms, melodies, themes and become more varied. Machaut is the most important exponent of this artistic movement. </li></ul>
SPANISH MUSIC <ul><li>Spain is a meeting place of three cultures: Christian, Jewish and Muslim.
European influence due to the pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela.
The Christian life is feudal, around castles and monasteries.
Muslim life is developed in cities and is based on trade. </li></ul>
CANTIGAS DE SANTA MARÍA <ul>Collection of 147 songs written in Galician-Portuguese language and dedicated to the Virgin. They are divided into two groups: <li>Cantigas of miracles: recount miracles performed by the Virgin
Cantigas de loor: songs of praise to the Virgin
The codex or book of cantigas is adorned with luxurious miniatures of more than 30 instruments
Melodies in syllabic style with joint degrees </li></ul>
Listen to the Cantiga nº 47 Virgen Santa Maria. It's a cantiga of miracles and tell us how the Virgin saved a monk from the temptations of drink http://youtu.be/-TQqeQJRvig
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