SCULPTURES• Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions, and one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes originally used carving (the removal of material) and modelling (the addition of material, as clay), in stone, metal, ceramics, wood and other materials but, since modernism, shifts in sculptural process led to an almost complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast.• Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, and often represents the majority of the surviving works (other than pottery) from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished almost entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, and this has been lost.• Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, and until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were usually an expression of religion or politics. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the Ancient Mediterranean, India and China, as well as many in South America and Africa.• The Western tradition of sculpture began in Ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classicalperiod. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith. The revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelos David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, and the presentation of found objects as finished art works.
FAMOUS SCULPTURERS1. Alexander Calder2. Henry Spencer Moor3. Pablo Picasso4. Tony Smith5. Constantin Brancusi6. Mark di Suvero7. Leonard Baskin8. George E. Ohr9. David Smith
HISTORY OF SCULPTURE IN THE PHILLIPINES• Before the coming of the Spaniards, Philippine sculpture had a striking similarity with the Egyptian sculpture which is characterized by frontal nudity. Their difference lies in the symbolism behind the figure.• In the Philippines, particularly among the Ifugaos, the “bulol”(fertility) is considered as an Ifugao granary god. It is a wooden sculpture in human form to assure bountiful harvests for the natives.
BUL-OL• The bulol, or sometimes bul-ol, to us not from the Cordilleras has accepted the common notion that this carving symbolizes a rice god who guards the Cordilleran’s rice granary.• Represented both as a man (with phallic protrusions that would make the convservative blush) and a woman, are common staples of the Baguio, Sagada, Banaue and elsewhere up the mountainous north tourist trade as trinkets and souvenirs.• Indeed, the original function of sculpture was religious especially in relation to ceremonies and beliefs.• The carvings brought to the Philippines by early Arab and Russian missionaries were of beveled type as the slanting type called Okkil. Although the word literally means “to carve” it is not confined to carving alone but also refers to design.
Sarimanok• Woodcarving comes in ornamental form in the houses of the Maranao like that of the "torogan" which features the"panolong", an extended beam carved with the Sarimanok or the Naga design.• Modern PeriodA familiar example of sculpture with the integration of architecture is the Art Deco Style of the Metropolitan Theater at Liwasang Bonifacio completed by Juan Arellano in 1931.
• Bladed Weapons of the Philippines• These multi-purpose blades come in different materials and designs. Blades were made of iron which local smiths fashioned according to their own design. Some metal blades were ornamented with gold, silver, ivory, and brass.
• Ceramics• The Philippines has an abundant supply of ceramic clay, thus, it is not surprising that prehistoric pottery was used by early Filipinos for religious rituals, burial jars, and other household purposes.• The word ceramic was derived from the Greek word keramosmeaning a potter; it was also derived from a Sanskrit word meaning “to burn.”• There are different products classified under ceramics. These are pottery, glass, structural ceramics, refractories, abrasives,cement, tiles and plastics.
OTHER FAMOUS SCULPTURES• *Philippines Bonifacio sculpture *Durian Sculpture of Davao *Statue of the Virgin Mary In EDSA shrine *The sculpture of globe sits outside the mall of asia * Sculpture of a woman and a water buffalo in Bocolod City
• FILIPINO SCULPTORS AND THEIR WORK Napoleon V. Abueva - His works include "The Sculpture", which is installed in the United Nations headquarters in New York City. His other works are Kaganapan, Kiss of Judas, Thirty Pieces of Silver, The Transfiguration and many more.• Arturo R. Luz - He sculpted the stainless steel cube in front of the Benguet Mining Corporation Building in Pasig City.• Guillermo Estrella Tolentino - His works include the UP Oblation, and the Bonifacio Monument in Caloocan City. His other works include bronze figures of President Manuel Quezon, busts of Jose Rizal, and a marble statue of Pres. Ramon Magsaysay which is installed in the GSIS Building. He also did the official seal of the Republic of the Philippines.• Abdulmari Asia Imao - His works include the Industry Brass Mural installed at the Philippine National Bank in La Union, the Mural Relief on Filmmaking at the Manila City Hall, the Industrial Mural at the Central Bank of the Philippines in La Union, and Sulu Warriors, which are statues of Paglima Unaid and Captain Abdurahim Imao installed at the Sulu Provincial Capitol.• Eduardo Castrillo - His works are mostly large welded metal sculptures displayed at the Manila Memorial Park• Solomon Saprid - His famous work is the Tikbalang• Isabelo Tampinco - His works are mostly inside the churches of Intramuros, particularly The Manila Cathedral and San Agustin Church.
NAPOLEON ABUEVA• Napoleon Abueva, nicknamed Billy, was born on January 26, 1930 in Tagbilaran, Bohol to Teodoro Abueva, a Bohol congressman and Purificacion (Nena) Veloso, president of the Women’s Auxiliary Service. His father was a friend and contemporary of former Philippine President Manuel Roxas and Ambassador Narciso Ramos. He was a member of the Provincial Board, and later became the Provincial Governor of Bohol. He ended his career as a Congressman in 1934. Both of Abuevas parents died serving their country.• Abueva has six other brothers and sisters: Teodoro (Teddy), Jr., now based in New York, USA; Purificacion (Neny -deceased), married to Atty. Ramon Binamira (dec.) of Tagbilaran City; Jose Abueva (Pepe), former president of the University of the Philippines; Amelia Martinez (Inday), now living in Chicago; Teresita (Ching) Floro, now living in Sydney, Australia; and Antonio (Tony), a landscape artist who met a tragic fate aboard Princess of the Orient; his body has not been found.
ARTURO LUZ• Si Arturo R. Luz ay isang Pilipinong eskultor, pintor, at dibuhista. Nilikha niya ang mga obra maestra na may marangal at mahigipit na halimbawang kaisipan. Inaangat niya estetikang pananaw ng mga Filipino sa isang payak na sopistikadong paraan sa pamamagitan ng kanyang mga ginawang pinta. Matatagpuan ang kanyang mural na Black and White sa Bulwagang Carlos V. Francisco ng CCP. Matatagpuan naman ang kanyang cube na eskultura na gawa sa di kinakalawang na asero sa gusali ng Benguet Mining Corporation sa Pasig.
GUILLERMO TOLENTO• Ipinanganak si Tolentino noong Hulyo 24, 1890 sa Malolos, Bulakan kay Isidro Tolentino at Balbina Estrella. Siya ay mag-aaral ni Gng. H. A. Bordner na siyang unang nagturo sa kanya ng pagguguhit sa Paaralang Intermedyaryo ng Malolos. Nagtapos siya ng mataas na paraalan sa Mataas na Paaralan ng Maynila. Dahil sa kanyang sariling pagsisikap, nakapagtapos siya ng kurso ng pinong sining sa Pamantasan ng Pilipinas noong 1915. Lumakbay papuntang Mga Nagkakaisang Estado noong 1919 at pinagkalooban siya ng iskolarsyip ni Bernard Baruch, isang Amerikanongmilyonaryo sa Paaralan ng Sining Beaux, Lungsod ng Bagong York at tinapos niya na may mga gawad noong 1921. Sa taong din iyon, lumakbay siya sa Europa, pumupunta sa mga tanyag na museo at galerya sa Londres at Paris. Noong 1922, siya ay pumasok sa Regge Istituto di Belle Arti, nakapagtapos ng pag-aaral nang bahagya sa pamamagitan ng lingap ng kolonyang Italyanong sa Maynila. Sa Roma, gumanap ang kanyang unang pang-isahang eksibisyon kung saan kabilang ang Saluto Romano (Saludong Romano). Sa paligsahang pang-iskultura na ginanap sa Lungsod ng Walang Hanggan, ang kanyang Apat na Mangangabayong Apokalipsis na napanalunan niya ng ikalawang gantimpala. Umuwi sa Pilipinas noong 1924 at nagsarili sa loob ng isang taon. Noong 1926, siya ay inatasan bilang guro sa Paaralan ng Pinong Sining ng Pamantasan ng Pilipinas at kinalaunang naging propesor, kalihim, at sa huli tagapamahala. Namuno siya ang Paaralan mula sa 1953 hanggang sa kanyang pagreretiro bilang Emeritong Propesor noong 1955. Noong 1932, siyay lumagay sa tahimik kay Paz Raymundo at nagkaroon ng pitong anak.
ABDULMARI ASIA IMAO• A native of Sulu, is a sculptor, painter, photographer, ceramist, documentary film maker, cultural researcher, writer, and articulator of Philippine Muslim art and culture.• Through his works, the indigenous ukkil, sarimanok and naga motifs have been popularized and instilled in the consciousness of the Filipino nation and other peoples as original Filipino creations.• His U.P. art education introduced him to Filipino masters like Guillermo Tolentino and Napoleon Abueva, who were among his mentors.• With his large-scale sculptures and monuments of Muslim and regional heroes and leaders gracing selected sites from Batanes to Tawi-tawi, Imao has helped develop among cultural groups trust and confidence necessary for the building of a more just and humane society.
EDUARDO CASTRILLO• Eduardo De Los Santos Castrillo (born October 31, 1942) is an award- winning Filipino sculptor. He was born in Santa Ana, Manila, the youngest of five children of Santiago Silva Castrillo, ajeweler, and Magdalena De Los Santos, a leading actress in Zarzuelas and Holy Week pageants in Makati, Philippines. Castrillo was a Republic Cultural Heritage awardee. He is also a jewelry artist and designer.
SOLOMON SAPRID• Year of Birth: 1917 Place of Birth: Imus, Cavite Education : Masters Degree in Education, Major in Mass Communication, Ohio Slate University Awards and Recognition: 1961 - 1st Prize, Intl Christmas Card Contest sponsored by the World Literacy and Christian Literature. National Council of Churches • 1967 - 2nd Prize.Sculpture. 1st PAL Art Contest- 1979 - 2nd Prize, 2nd AAP National Sculpture Competition sponsored by Abott Lighter
ISABELO TAMPINCO• Isabelo Tampinco (19 November 1850 – 30 January 1933) was a Filipino sculptor known for his woodcarvings for churches. Out of a desire to create a uniquely Filipino style, he incorporated native flora and fauna designs in his Art Nouveau style woodcarvings. A Chinese mestizo and a direct descendant of Rajah Lakandula, he was born in Binondo, Manila. He apprenticed in the carving shops of Binondo and enrolled in the Academia de Dibujo y Pintura, Manila’s art academy, studying sculpture under Agustin Saez and Lorenzo Rocha. He was hailed as one of the most outstanding sculptors of his time and was admired by Jose Rizal.
3D Assemblage• Assemblage is an artistic process. In the visual arts, it consists of making three-dimensional or two-dimensional artistic compositions by putting together found objects.  In literature, assemblage refers to a text "built primarily and explicitly from existing texts in order to solve a writing or communication problem in a new context".• The origin of the artform dates to the cubist constructions of Pablo Picasso c. 1912-1914. The origin of the word (in its artistic sense) can be traced back to the early 1950s, when Jean Dubuffet created a series of collages of butterfly wings, which he titled assemblages dempreintes. However, both Marcel Duchamp and Pablo Picasso had been working with found objects for many years prior to Dubuffet. They were not alone. Russian artist Vladimir Tatlin creates his "counter-reliefs" in the middle of 1910s.
• Alongside Tatlin, the earliest woman artist to try her hand at assemblage was Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, the Dada Baroness. In addition, one of the earliest and most prolific was Louise Nevelson, who began creating her sculptures from found pieces of wood in the late 1930s.• In 1961, the exhibition "The Art of Assemblage" was featured at the New York Museum of Modern Art. The exhibition showcased the work of early 20th century European artists such as Braque, Dubuffet, Marcel Duchamp, Picasso, and Kurt Schwitters alongside Americans Man Ray, Joseph Cornell, Robert Mallary and Robert Rauschenberg, and also included less well known American West Coast assemblage artists such as George Herms, Bruce Conner and Edward Kienholz. William C Seitz, the curator of the exhibition, described assemblages as being made up of preformed natural or manufactured materials, objects, or fragments not intended as art materials.
HITORY OF 3D ASSEMBLAGE IN THE WORLD• Marcel Duchamp• Marcel Duchamp was born on July 28, 1887. While he painted some, his most famous painting being "Nude Descending a Staircase, No.2," he may be best known as the father of ready- made art---or assemblage. He worked closely with other artists of his time including Pablo Picasso. His genre of art generally fell within Dadaism, Surrealism and Pop Art.• First Assemblage Sculpture• Duchamps first ready-made sculpture was made with a toilet urinal and a bottle rack. While the original artwork was lost, a replica is now housed at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. The piece is entitled "Fountain," and it was created in the year 1917. It is an interesting piece that will not appeal to everyone; however, there is no denying it makes a statement.
• Joseph Cornell• Joseph Cornell was born in 1903 and died in 1972. According to stateuniversity.com, Cornell was "an American artist and sculptor, one of the pioneers and most celebrated exponents of assemblage." His most well known works were in the form of boxed assemblages of found objects. He also created many flat collages. He is well known for giving his artwork to girls he liked, including ballerinas.• Dale Devereux Copeland• Assemblage art hasnt changed much since its inception. There is still much debate in the art world over what the distinction is between assemblage and collage. However, assemblage artists are still pressing forward and making advances in the world of art. Dale Devereux Copeland is a current artist living in New Zealand. She states on her website that her art comes from the treasures she collects. Devereux says when referring to her art that, "for me their beauty is one of the joys which make life into a glowing jewel in the dust."
JEAN ( JOHN ) DUBUFFET• Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (July 31, 1901 – May 12, 1985) was one of the most famous European painters and sculptors of the second half of the 20th century. Dubuffet coined the term Art Brut for the art produced by non-professionals working outside aesthetic norms, such as art by children, mental patients, prisoners. The material in Art Brut is essential. Dubuffets art is representational, in which he strives for the general and the popular meaning.• John Dubuffet, while not the first ready-made sculptor, was the first artist to use the term assemblage to describe his work. Dubuffet was mostly active during the mid-part of the 20th century. One of his most controversial assemblage pieces used hundreds of real butterfly wings to cover faces in his artwork.
Alfonso A. Ossorio• Alfonso A. Ossorio (1916–1990) was an abstract expressionist artist who was born in Manila in 1916 to wealthy Filipino parents from the province ofNegros Occidental. His heritage was Hispanic, Filipino, and Chinese. Between the ages of eight and thirteen, he attended school in England. At age fourteen, he moved to the United States. Ossorio attended Portsmouth Priory (now Portsmouth Abbey School) in Rhode Island, graduating in 1934. From 1934 to 1938, he studied fine art at Harvard University and then continued his studies at the Rhode Island School of Design. He became an American citizen in 1933 and served as a medical illustrator in the United States Army during World War II.• Ossorio’s early work was surrealist. He was an admirer and early collector of the paintings of Jackson Pollock who counted him as a good friend. In the early 1950s, Ossorio was pouring oil and enamel paints onto canvas in the style of the first abstract expressionist movement in the US.• In 1950, he was commissioned by the parish of St. Joseph in Victorias City, Negros Occidental in the Philippines to do a mural which would be known as "The Angry Christ" to complete the reconstruction of the church. Ossorio had this to say in an a 1968 interview." (The Angry Christ) is a continual last judgment with the sacrifice of the mass that is the continual reincarnation of God coming into this world. And it worked out beautifully because the services take place usually very early because of the heat and the church had been oriented so that the sun would come in and strike the celebrant as he stood at the altar with this enormous figure behind him. It worked, if I do say so myself. And although they loathed it at the time it was done it is almost now a place of
• Ossorio traveled to Paris to meet Jean Dubuffet in 1950. Dubuffets interest in art brut opened up new vistas for Ossorio, who found release from societys preconceptions in the unstudied creativity of insane asylum inmates and children. On the advice of Pollock, Ossorio purchased an expansive 60-acre (240,000 m2) estate, "The Creeks", in East Hampton in 1951, and lived there for more than forty years. He arranged to house and display Dubuffet’s art brut collection there. In the 1950s, Ossorio began to create works resembling Dubuffets assemblages. He affixed shells, bones, driftwood, nails, dolls eyes, cabinet knobs, dice, costume jewelry, mirror shards, and childrens toys to the panel surface. Ossorio called these assemblages congregations, with the term’s obvious religious connotation.• Ossorio was represented alongside Dubuffet and nearly 140 other artists in the Museum of Modern Arts 1961 exhibition The Art of Assemblage, which introduced the practice to a broad public.• Ossorio died in New York City in 1990. Half his ashes were scattered at his grand estate The Creeks and the other half came to rest nine years later at Green River Cemetery alongside the remains of many other famous artists, writers and critics. After his death, his longtime companion Edward "Ted" Dragon arranged for the sale of The Creeks, eventually selling it to Ronald Perelman complete with many of Ossorios brightly colored found art sculptures placed in among the groves of exotic evergreens that Ossorio had carefully planted in his final 20 years of life. Outside of The Creeks, Harvard Art Museum (Massachusetts), the Honolulu Museum of Art, the Housatonic Museum of Art (Bridgeport, Connecticut) and the Smithsonian American Art Museum (Washington D.C.) are among the public collections holding work by Alfonso A. Ossorio.