Human memory
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Human memory






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Human memory Presentation Transcript

  • 1. LouisYasmina Raidan Grace Jaydeep
  • 2. Memory Process by which information is:  Acquired  Encoding  Stored in the brain  Storage  Later retrieved  Retrieval  Eventually (possibly) forgotten
  • 3. Information-Processing Model of Memory  Computer as a model for our memory  Three types of memory  Sensory memory  Short-term memory (STM)  Long-term memory (LTM)  Can hold vast quantities of information for many years
  • 4. Information-Processing Model of Memory Retrieval Attention Encoding Sensory Short-term Long-termStimulus memory memory memory Forgetting Forgetting Forgetting
  • 5. Sensory Memory  Stores all the stimuli that register on the senses  Lasts up to three secondsSensory  Two types Sensory  Iconic memory Input Memory  Visual  Usually lasts about 0.3 seconds  Sperling’s tests (1960s)  Echoic memory (we’ll come back to this)
  • 6. Sperling’s Experiment
  • 7. Sensory Memory  Echoic memory  Sensory memory for auditory input that lasts only 2 to 3 secondsWhy do we need sensory memory?
  • 8. Short-term Memory Limited capacity  Can hold 7 ± 2 items for about 20 seconds  Maintenance rehearsal  The use of repetition to keep info in short-term memory CHUNK  Meaningful unit of information  Without rehearsal, we remember 4 ± 2 chunks  With rehearsal, we remember 7 ± 2 chunks  Ericsson & Chase (1982) 893194434925021578416685061209488885687727 31418610546297480129497496592280
  • 9. Short-term Memory000545404844846647741506113
  • 10. Short-term Memory5695 33475839 75218814
  • 11. Long-term Memory  Once information passes from sensory to short-term memory, it can be encoded into long-term memory Retrieval Attention EncodingSensory Sensory Working or Long-term Memory Short-term memory Input Memory
  • 12. Long-term memory - Encoding Elaborative rehearsal  A technique for transferring information into long- term memory by thinking about it in a deeper way Levels of processing  Semantic is more effective than visual or acoustic processing
  • 13. Long-term memory Procedural (Implicit)  Memories of behaviors, skills, etc.  Demonstrated through behavior Declarative (Explicit)  Memories of facts  Episodic – personal experiences tied to places & time  Semantic – general knowledge
  • 14. Retrieval  Retrieval  Process that controls flow of information from long-term to working memory store  Explicit memory  The types of memory elicited through the conscious retrieval of recollections in response to direct questions  Implicit memory  A nonconscious recollection of a prior experience that is revealed indirectly, by its effects on performance
  • 15. Retrieval – Explicit Memory Retrieval failure  Tip-of-the-tongue (Brown & McNeill)  Retrieval failure is a common experience. Have you ever felt as thought a word or name you were trying to recall was just out of reach – on the tip of your tongue?
  • 16. Retrieval – Explicit Memory Context-Dependent Memory  We are more successful at retrieving memories if we are in the same environment in which we stored them State-Dependent Memory  We are more successful at retrieving memories if we are in the same mood as when we stored them
  • 17. Retrieval – Implicit Memory Showing knowledge of something without recognizing that we know it Research with amnesics Déjà vu  The illusion that a new situation is familiar
  • 18. Forgetting Lack of encoding  Often, we don’t even encode the features necessary to ‘remember’ an object/event Decay  Memory traces erode with the passage of time  No longer a valid theory of forgetting  Jenkins & Dallenbach (1924)
  • 19. Forgetting Repression  There are times when we are unable to remember painful past events  While there is no laboratory evidence for this, case studies suggest that memories can be repressed for a number of years and recovered in therapy
  • 20. Interference theory Forgetting is a result of some memories interfering with others  Proactive interference  Old memories interfere with ability to remember new memories  Retroactive interference  New memories interfere with ability to remember old memories  Interference is stronger when material is similar
  • 21. Memory Construction Schema theory Illusory memories  People sometimes create memories that are completely false
  • 22. Improving Memory Practice time  Distribute your studying over time Depth of processing  Spend ‘quality’ time studying Verbal mnemonics  Use rhyming to reduce the amount of info to be stored
  • 23. Improving Memory Interference  Study right before sleeping & review all the material right before the exam  Allocate an uninterrupted chunk of time to one course Context reinstatement  Try to study in the same environment & mood in which you will be taking the exam
  • 24. Test
  • 25. Photographic memoryThe problem essentially the confusion overthe term and many individuals believe thata photographic memory is supposed topresent a photographic image in their brainof the information.