Computer game graphics

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Computer game graphics

  1. 1. Computer game graphicsPixel art (2D sprites, 3D isometric sprites)Pixel art is a form of digital art created through the use of raster computer software, whereimages are edited on the pixel level. Graphics in most old computer/video games and mostmobile phone games are mostly pixel art.Originally, sprites were a method of integrating unrelated bitmaps so that they appeared tobe part of the normal bitmap on a screen, such as creating an animated character that canbe moved on a screen without altering the data defining the overall screen. Such sprites canbe created by either circuitry or software. In circuitry, a sprite is a hardware construct thatemploys custom DMA channels to integrate visual elements with the main screen in that itsuper-imposes two discrete video sources. Software can simulate this through specializedrendering methods. The evolution of read only memory gave gaming companies the abilityto use sprites. Sprites need a special background engine; this was implemented especiallywithin the CPU.As three-dimensional graphics became more prevalent,the term was used to describe a technique whereby flatimages are seamlessly integrated into complicatedthree-dimensional scenes.Environment is the overall structure in which a programoperates.
  2. 2. In computer graphics 2D sprite is a 2d image or animation integrated into a larger scene. Itis a computer graphic that maybe moved on screen and otherwise manipulated as a singleentity.Prior to computer games with controls such as arcade games e.g. Metal slug, games werecontrolled through text. They consisted of very few graphics if any. They are controlledthrough written words and/or random numbers. This can be done using binary code Roto-scoping: The filmed performances of live actors were sometimes used for creating sprites, most famously in the case ‘Prince of Persia’ which added a relative element of realism to a platform game. The method was used in a number of other Fighting games, mostly in the mid-1990s. Claymation or the use of possible models which were used for characters that could not be portrayed by actors. Famous early examples include ‘Goro’ of ‘Mortal Kombat’ and various enemies from Doom. Used to a greater extent in games like Clay Fighter. Pre-rendered CGI models: Introduced by Rise of the Robots and made famous by Donkey Kong Country, and later used to a great extent in PC real-time strategy and role-playing video game games prior to the move to true 3D. Since computers of the day could not run complex 3D graphics, footage of pre-rendered three-dimensional character models were often used which created a (relative) illusion of 3D.Computer graphics can be used to describe anything on a computer that isn’t sound or text.This is still applicable to computer games; it just describes everything that isn’t sound or textwithin the game.Detailed visual representation, like that obtained in a photograph, in a non-photographicmedium such as animation or computer graphics.An abstraction layer is the way of hiding implementation details of a particular set offunctionality.Concept art is all pre-production art made before animation begins. This is where anemployer will ask an artist to draw what they describe; the artist will draw a variety ofversions of what the employer has asked for. The employer then looks at the range ofdrawings and chooses different parts of each drawing to then create the final design. Thisfinal design will then be generated and used in game.
  3. 3. Texture art is a combination of the features on everything within the game – this rangesfrom: eyes, ears and lips of the character to the buildings and lampposts – and the shadowsand textures on these objects. So the skin is added to the character and then the skin is thengiven texture, so, hairs, tone, wrinkles and colour. This makes everything look a lot morereal and life like. It is an element of two-dimensional and three-dimensional design and isdistinguished by its perceived visual and physical properties.It is basically what is put on topof the base figure of a model that ‘gives it life’.
  4. 4. Background graphics is the area of a display screen not covered by characters and graphics.The background is like a canvas on top of which characters and graphics are placed. Somemonitors allow you to control the colour or shading of the background.The in-game interface also known as the ‘HUD’ (Heads Up Display) refers to basicallyeverything you can see on your screen related to your ‘character’. This includes the healthbar, mini-map, ammunition etc.(Depending on the game). ‘Heads-Up Display’ is an object,usually scripted, that attaches to your screen rather than to your avatar. HUDs are oftenused to control other scripted objects, providing an additional "push-button" interface for it.An in-game interface allows the player and world to interact as one. Without it you wouldhave a world separated from the player.Print media art is everything to do with the advertisement and sale of the product that isprinted. This includes: posters, game packing, box cover, manual and the label.
  5. 5. The print media art can be used as an incentive to pay more for the product. As you can seein the picture you get more than just the game for the right price. It can include such thingsas a more sophisticated case - with this copy of ‘halo wars legendary edition’ you get ametal case with different images on, along with a place mat, exclusive art work of the maincharacter’s as well as concept art which can also be a type of print media art - . Other printmedia art can include posters which is just a form of advertising such as this poster for the‘Doom’ video game.PixelA picture Element or Pixel is a single point in a raster image, or the smallest addressablescreen element in a display device. It can be represented as dots or smooth filtering butmost of the time it is represented as small squares. Everything on your computer screen orTV is made up of pixels the more pixels per inch the better the quality of the image. Theresolution refers to the amount of pixels within the picture. Intensity in terms of computergraphics is the brightness and sharpness of a colour. This picture has a resolution of 640 ×426. This means there is 640 picture elements by 426 picture elements (Pixels).
  6. 6. As you can tell when the image is stretched enough the quality of the picture decreases thisis due to the amount of pixels per inch. When the image is enlarged the amount of pixelsstays the stay the same, they just get further apart. In the second image the black spotshave become blurry and fade into the red. This is a raster image as thereRaster images:A Raster image is data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or pointsof color, viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium. Raster images are storedin image files with varying formats such as .Sprite, .Qif, .Blz.File Extensions:Lossy compression refers to data compression techniques in which some amount of data islost. Lossy compression technologies attempt to eliminate redundant or unnecessaryinformation.
  7. 7. Lossless Compression:Lossless compression "packs data" into a smaller file size by using a kind of internalshorthand to signify redundant data. If an original file is 1.5MB (megabytes), losslesscompression can reduce it to about half that size, depending on the type of file beingcompressed. This makes lossless compression convenient for transferring files across theInternet, as smaller files transfer faster. Lossless compression is also handy for storing filesas they take up less room.Most lossless compression programs do two things insequence: the first step generates a statistical modelfor the input data, and the second step uses this modelto map input data to bit sequences in such a way that"probable" (e.g. frequently encountered) data willproduce shorter output than "improbable" data.imagefile formats, like PNG or GIF, use only losslesscompression, while others like TIFF and MNG may useeither lossless or lossy methods.Lossy compression:This is another way to compress files except this way image quality is lost. This technique ofcompression simply gets rid of unnecessary bits data. This type of compression is mainlyused to reduce the size of bitmap pictures which are usually fairly large.Image capture:Image Capture is a way in which users can upload images from their digital camera and/orscanner directly to the computer or the network. The main way to capture images orsequences is with a digital camera, which can take stillphotographs or videos. This is done using an electronic imagesensor. Nearly all cameras now are digital and is the mainequipment used by photographers.Digital cameras can do things film cameras cant. They have theability to show the photograph’s you have taken that’s the samefor videos too. You can also store a lot more pictures/videoscompared to film cameras using a SD memory card, which can
  8. 8. have a capacity of up to 32GB with the ability to hold up to 16,840 pictures.Image scanners are often used to scan documents and imageswhich allow you to get a paper based document onto acomputer. The scanned image can then be used in an email,transferring to another memory unit or simply printinganother copy. It can be used as any other document on acomputer. They can also be used to scan 3d objects such asthis rhino which can then be viewed as a photograph. Imagescanners can optically scan handwriting, objects, printed textand images.The basic types of image scanners are hand, film, flatbed anddrum scanners. Flatbed scanners are known as Xeroxmachine. This is where a document is placed on a glass paneand lowered over it then a sensor and light moves along theglass reflecting off the document placed on the glass. Theopaque cover stops other light from interfering and the imagebecomes visible the sensor.Lossy compression is used tocompress photographs which are scanned and put onto yourcomputer, this could be used as a bitmap for a computergame.Graphics tablet:A graphics tablet is an input device which allows users to thehand draw images or text as they could with a pencil andpaper. These tablets can also be used to record someone’ssignature for things like signed postal deliveries. You can inputdata by ‘digitizing’ this is where an image is either traced or by entering the corners of linearpoly-lines or shapes. This can be used to trace or draw a sprite or image straight onto acomputer and use it in-game as a character.Bit-depth:Bit-depth refers to the number of bits used to represent a colour in a pixel. The more bits torepresent the colour means a more intense picture element and therefore an overall moreintense picture. There are many different types of bit colour and over the years the qualityhas got better. There has been 1bit colour which it fairly poor quality, then there’s 2 bit,4bit, 8bit, 16bit, 18bit which is used on most LCD and CRT displays and then there’s truecolour
  9. 9. BibliographyAbstraction layer. (2011, 09 06). Retrieved from wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstraction_layerConcept art. (2011, 09 07). Retrieved from wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concept_artenviroment. (2011, 09 06). Retrieved from google dictionary: http://www.google.co.uk/#hl=en&safe=off&q=environment&tbs=dfn:1&tbo=u&sa= X&ei=0mhmTs_pN8Wp8APYuNGrCg&ved=0CBsQkQ4&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=3 d8c1ef1a7c12238&biw=1333&bih=645Lossys compresion. (2011, 09 20). Retrieved from webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/L/lossy_compression.htmlPhotorealism. (2011, 09 06). Retrieved from wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PhotorealismPixel. (2011, 09 13). Retrieved from wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PixelPixel art. (2011, 09 06). Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pixel_art: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PixelSprite (computer graphics). (2011, 09 06). Retrieved from wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sprite_(computer_graphics)Sprites. (2011, 09 06). Retrieved from wikepedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sprite_(computer_graphics)Texture . (2011, 09 07). Retrieved from wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texture_(visual_arts)#Visual
  10. 10. wikipedia. (2011, 09 20). Retrieved from lossless compression: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lossless_data_compression

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