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Storage and hyper v - the choices you can make and the things you need to know [svr308]


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  • 1.
  • 2. Storage & Hyper-V: The Choices you can make and the things you need to know
    Vijay Tewari
    Principal Program Manager
    Windows Server, Hyper-V
  • 3. Session Objectives And Takeaways
    Recap Hyper-V Architecture
    Hyper-V storage (host and VM’s)
    Storage Enhancements with Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V
    Tips/tricks, Best Practices and guidelines
  • 4. Hyper-V Architecture
  • 5. Hyper-V Architecture
    Provided by:
    ISV / IHV / OEM
    VM Worker Processes
    Microsoft Hyper-V
    Child Partitions
    User Mode
    WMI Provider
    VM Service
    Windows Server 2008
    Non-Hypervisor Aware OS
    Windows Kernel
    Windows Kernel
    Linux Kernel
    Windows Server 2003, 2008/R2
    Windows Client OS (eg. 7)
    IHV Drivers
    Kernel Mode
    Linux VSC
    Windows hypervisor
    Ring -1
    “Designed for Windows” Server Hardware
  • 6. Hyper-V Storage
    Hyper-V provides flexible storage options
    DAS: SCSI, SATA, eSATA, USB, Firewire
    SAN: iSCSI, Fibre Channel, SAS
    NAS is not supported
    High Availability/Live Migration
    Requires block based, shared storage
    Guest Clustering storage
    Via iSCSI only
  • 7. Hyper-V Storage Options for VM’s
    Hyper-V enabled host
    Child partition
    Parent partition
    Pass through
    Offline in parent
    Pass through
    Fiber channel/iSCSI
    • Virtual hard Disks
    • 8. Pass through disks
  • Hyper-V StorageOptions for VM's
    Pass Through Disks
    VM writes directly to the LUN
    No snapshots
    LUN has to be dedicated to a VM
    No host side VSS support
    Virtual Hard Disks
    Fixed VHD’s
    Size on disk = Size of VHD
    Dynamically expanding VHD’s
    Size of disk is smaller than size of VHD
    VHD is expanded on demand as required
    Differencing disks
    Parent child relationship. Parent MUST NOT be modified
  • 9. Using pass through disk with Hyper-VFixed and dynamic VHD’s
  • 10. Hyper-V Storage Parameters
    VHD max size 2040GB
    Physical disk size (for pass through disks) not limited by Hyper-V
    Virtual machines can have
    Up to 2 IDE controllers with 2 devices per controller (total 4 IDE devices)
    Up to 4 SCSI controllers with 64 devices per controller (total 256 devices)
    Optical devices only on IDE
    Boot disk has to be IDE
    ISO’s from a network share (Constrained delegation required)
  • 11. ISOs on network Shares
    Machine account access to share
    Constrained delegation
  • 12. Configuring constrained delegation for ISO’s on a file share
  • 13. Storage enhancements
    Windows Server 208 R2 Hyper-V
  • 14. Overview of Storage Improvements in Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V
  • 15. Disk type comparison (Read)
  • 16. Disk type comparison (Write)Dynamic VHD Improvements in Windows Server 2008 R2
    Significant performance improvements in Windows Server 2008 R2 with Dynamic VHD’s
  • 17. Disk type comparison (Write)Fixed VHD vs. Pass Through disk in Windows Server 2008 R2
    Fixed VHD performance is almost identical to Pass Through disk
  • 18. Disk type comparison (Write)Fixed VHD vs. Dynamic disks in Windows Server 2008 R2
    ~6% difference
    ~15% difference
  • 19. Disk type comparison (Write)Fixed VHD comparison WS08 R2 vs. WS08
    Fixed VHD performance improved in Windows Server 2008 R2
  • 20. Disk layout - results
    Assuming Integration Services are installed:
    Do I Use
    IDE or SCSI?
    One IDE channel or two?
    One VHD per SCSI controller?
    Multiple VHDs on a single SCSI controller?
    Chose as per your requirements, performance is identical
  • 21. Differencing VHD’s
    Parent child relation
    Parent MUST NOT be modified
    If done, it will render the child VHD unsable
    Parent VHD does not change
    All changes are written to a differencing VHD
  • 22. Differencing VHDsPerformance vs. chain length
    Differencing disk performance in Windows Server 2008 R2 improved as compared with Windows Server 2008
  • 23. CDB Filtering
    SCSI Command Descriptor Block (CDB)
    By default CDB’s are filtered
    Some are partially filtered
    Some pass through unchanged
    Custom CDBs are always filtered
    This means by default
    SAN Management may not work from VM
    Hardware features may not work from VM
    Not recommended, check with SAN vendor if this is required
    Note that this is only for pass through disks
    CDB filtering may be required to be turned off for some SAN management applications when running inside the VM
  • 24. How to disable CDB filtering?
    $HyperVGuest = "Server 2008 - SAN Manager"
    $VMManagementService = Get-WmiObject `
    -class "Msvm_VirtualSystemManagementService" `
    -namespace "rootvirtualization"
    $Vm = Get-WmiObject -Namespace "rootvirtualization" `
    -Query "Select * From Msvm_ComputerSystem Where `
    $SettingData = Get-WmiObject -Namespace rootvirtualization `
    -Query "Associators of {$Vm} Where `
    ResultClass=Msvm_VirtualSystemGlobalSettingData `
    $SettingData.AllowFullSCSICommandSet = $true
    $VMManagementService.ModifyVirtualSystem($Vm, `
  • 25. Hot Add/Remove of Storage
  • 26. Storage Model with Failover Clustering in Windows Server 2008
    Failover Clustering implemented a “shared nothing” storage model for the last decade
    Each Disk is owned by a single node at any one time, and only that node can perform I/O to it
    Only one node accesses a LUN at a time
    Shared Storage
  • 27. Migration & Storage with Windows Server 2008 R2
    NEW Cluster Shared Volume (CSV)
    CSV provides a single consistent file name space; All Windows Server 2008 R2 servers see the same storage
    Guest VMs can be moved without requiring any drive ownership changes
    No dismounting and remounting of volumes is required
    Enabling multiple nodes to concurrently access a single ‘truly’ shared volume
    From hundreds of LUN’s to a handful…
    Validate times from all night long, to minutes…  
    Real browse-able paths, no more GUID’s…  
  • 28. Cluster Shared Volume Overview
    Concurrent access to a single file system
    Single Volume
  • 29. Tips/Tricks, Best Practices and guidelines
  • 30. Storage Performance/Sizing
    Important to scale performance to the total workload requirements of each VM
    Spindles are still key
    Don’t migrate 20 physical servers with 40 spindles each to a Hyper-V host with 10 spindles
    Don’t use left over servers as a production SAN
  • 31. Antivirus and Hyper-V
    VHDs & AVHDs (or directories)
    VM configuration directory
    VMMS.exe and VMWP.exe
    CSV directory (%systemdrive%clusterstorage)
    Run Antivirus in virtual machines as you would normally for a physical machine
  • 32. Encryption and Compression
    Bitlocker on parent partition supported
    Bitlocker when operating in a cluster is not supported
    Encrypted File System (EFS)
    Not supported on parent partition
    Supported in Virtual Machines
    NTFS Compression (Parent partition)
    Allowed in Windows Server 2008
    Blocked in Windows Server 2008 R2
  • 33. Storage Hardware that is qualified with Windows Server is qualified for Hyper-V
    Applies to running devices from Hyper-V parent
    Storage devices qualified for Server 2008 R2 are qualified with Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V
    No additional storage device qualification for Hyper-V
    Storage Hardware & Hyper-V
  • 34. SAN Boot and Hyper-V
    Booting Hyper-V Host from SAN is supported
    Fibre Channel or iSCSI from parent
    Booting child VM from SAN supported using iSCSI boot with PXE solution (ex: emBoot/Doubletake)
    Must use legacy NIC
    Native VHD boot (independent of Hyper-V)
    Boot physical system from local VHD is new feature in Server 2008 R2
    Booting a VHD located on SAN (iSCSI or FC) not currently supported (considering for future)
  • 35. iSCSI Direct
    Microsoft iSCSI Software initiator runs transparently from within the VM
    VM operates with full control of LUN
    LUN not visible to parent
    iSCSI initiator communicates to storage array over TCP stack
    Best for application transparency
    LUNs can be hot added & hot removed without requiring reboot of VM (2003, 2008 and 2008 R2)
    VSS hardware providers run transparently within the VM
    Backup/Recovery runs in the context of VM
    Enables guest clustering scenario
  • 36. iSCSI Perf Best Practices with Hyper-V
    Standard Networking & iSCSI best practices apply
    Use Jumbo Frames (Jumbo frames supported with Hyper-V Switch and virtual NIC in Windows Server 2008 R2)
    Use Dedicated NIC ports for
    iSCSI traffic (Server to SAN)
    Multiple to scale
    Client  Server (LAN)
    Multiple to scale
    Cluster heartbeat (if using cluster)
    Hyper-V Management
    Unbind unneeded services from NIC’s carrying iSCSI traffic
    File Sharing, DNS
  • 37. Hyper-V Network Configurations with iSCSI
    Server has 4 physical network adapters
    NIC 1: Assigned to parent partition for management
    NIC 2: Assigned to parent partition for iSCSI
    NICs 3/4: Assigned to virtual switches for virtual machine networking
  • 38. Live Migration/HA Best Practices
    Best Practices:
    Cluster Nodes:
    Hardware with Windows Logo + Failover Cluster Configuration Program (FCCP)
    Cluster Shared Volumes
    Storage with Windows Logo + FCCP
    Multi-Path IO (MPIO) is your friend…
    Standardize the names of your virtual switches
    Multiple Interfaces
    CSV uses separate network
    Use ISOs not physical CD/DVDs
    You can’t Live Migrate a VM that has a physical DVD attached!
  • 39. Sizing Storage For Hyper-V Deployments
    • Check Windows performance best practice guidance for storage
    • 40. Windows Server 2008 Performance Tuning Guide
    • 41. Many of the enterprise array vendors include sizing tools for storage on their websites
    • 42. Some Hyper-V SAN ecosystem partners:
    • 43. EMC HP CompellentNetApp Dell/EquallogicHitachi
    • 44. See complete list:
  • High Availability with Hyper-V using MPIO & Fibre Channel SAN
    In Hyper-V Fibre Channel LUNs Supported as
    Passthrough Disk
    Connect from parent, map to VM
    VM formats with NTFS
    Connect from Hyper-V host
    Format with NTFS from host
    Create VHDs for each guest
    Fabric/Fibre Channel Network
    Server Hosts
  • 45. MCS & MPIO with Hyper-V
    Provides High Availability to storage arrays
    Especially important in virtualized environments to reduce single points of failure
    Load balancing & fail over using redundant HBAs, NICs, switches and fabric infrastructure
    Aggregates bandwidth to maximum performance
    MPIO supported with Fibre Channel , iSCSI, Shared SAS
    2 Options for multi-pathing with iSCSI
    Multiple Connections per Session
    Microsoft MPIO (Multipathing Input/Output)
    Protects against loss of data path during firmware upgrades on storage controller
  • 46. Configuring MPIO with Hyper-V
    Connect from parent
    Applies to:
    Creating vhds for each VM
    Passthrough disks
    Additional connections can be added through MCS with iSCSI using iSCSI direct
  • 47. Conclusions
    Significant performance gains between Server 2008 and Server 2008 R2 for enterprise storage workloads
    Performance improvements in Hyper-V, MPIO, iSCSI, Core storage stack & Networking stack
    For general workloads with multiple VMs, performance delta is minimal between Pass Through & VHD
    iSCSI Performance especially with iSCSI direct scenarios is vastly improved
  • 48. Related Content
    Required Slide
    please list the Breakout Sessions, TLC Interactive Theaters and Labs that are related to your session.
    MGT220 Virtualisation 360: Microsoft Virtualisation Strategy, Products, and Solutions for the New Economy
    SVR205 Introduction to Hyper-V and Windows Server 2008 R2 with Microsoft System Center Virtual Machine Manager
    SVR208 Gaining Higher Availability with Windows Server 2008 R2 Failover Clustering
    SVR303 Planning for Windows Server 2008 R2, Virtualization and Server Consolidation with Windows Server Solution Accelerators
    SVR307 Security Best Practices for Hyper-V and Server Virtualisation
    SVR308 Storage and Hyper-V: The Choices You Can Make and the Things You Need to Know
    SVR318 How to Protect Your VirtualisedEnvironment
    SVR319 Multi-Site Clustering with Windows Server 2008 R2
    SVR09-IS Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V Deployment Considerations
  • 49. Additional Resources
    Microsoft MPIO:
    MPIO DSM sample, interfaces and libraries will be included in Windows 7 DDK/SDK
    Microsoft iSCSI:
    iSCSI WMI Interfaces:
    Storport Website:
    Storport Documentation
    Windows Driver Kit
    Microsoft Virtualization:
    Hyper-V Planning & Deployment Guide
    Microsoft Virtualization Website
  • 50. Partner References
    Lefthand Networks
  • 51. question & answer
  • 52. Required Slide
    TechEd 2009 is not producing
    a DVD. Please announce that
    attendees can access session
    recordings at TechEd Online.
    Sessions On-Demand & Community
    Microsoft Certification & Training Resources
    Resources for IT Professionals
    Resources for Developers
    Microsoft Certification and Training Resources
  • 53.
  • 54. Complete an evaluation on CommNet and enter to win an Xbox 360 Elite!
  • 55. Required Slide
    © 2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries.
    The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.