WHAT IS ADVERTISING PHOTOGRAPHY?
Photo is the single most important element of most advertising campaigns.
While copywriters may spend hours producing an eye-catching
headline and copy that explains the benefits of a product, it’s the image
that first attracts the viewer. It’s also the last thing the viewer usually
remembers after turning the page.
Advertising images may be used on billboards and in magazines, on
posters and on flyers. They may be straightforward depictions of a
product or a model — or they could incorporate complex graphics and
use the very latest post-production techniques to show that the
company is on the leading edge.
HOW HAS ADVERTISING CHANGED
Over time, advertising techniques have changed drastically. All ads and commercials
appeal to a certain audiences and genders, congregate different values, and
contain many different aesthetics. Ads and commercials from the 1940-1970 eras
are different from those in the 2000-2008 eras and will continue to be different in
the years to come. As long as advertising
continues, which it will, or nothing will be able to be sold, things will always change.
The first ad that is being compared is the Cossack Vodka ad from the 1970's. The
picture is of a younger looking woman with cartoon features and a caption stating
"The morning after...!" suggesting that drinking Cossack vodka all night will not
give anyone a hangover and they can still look good after a long night of partying
(Behrens). There is also a quote of what the young woman is saying, "Oh, wasn't it
fantastic!?!! And this morning I feel so beautiful, so beautiful!" also suggesting
that the morning after should be just as beautiful as the night before (Behrens).
There is certainly a lot of text on the advertisement itself, the text that promotes
the beverage itself and the quotes that the character in the ad is saying. According
to the Jib Fowles article, this ad promotes an attention appeal. Its purpose is to
make the drinker feel beautiful, especially women, while they are drinking it and
the next day when they will more than likely be sick. The consumers of Cossack
Vodka are going to want to be looked at which is the direction that this ad is
The second ad is a Miller Beer advertisement from 1979 with 3 men sitting
around a bar laughing and having a good time (Behrens). All 3 of the
men have a cold Miller in hand and the text below the picture says that
Miller-High Life is America's quality beer since 1855 and it is the best-
tasting beer that anyone can find. The aesthetics of this ad are very
appealing because overall it is visually pleasing. Everyone looks happy
like they are enjoying their drinks. Another appeal that the ad consists
of is affiliation. There is not just one guy drinking a Miller, there are 3,
and all of them we can assume came together to get the same drink.
The ad appeals to mostly men because they are in a sports bar wearing
work clothes. According to Fowles, "Human beings, it is presumed,
walk around with a variety of unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in
the bottom half of their minds", so who would not want to be these 3
men having a great time in the sports bar with a cold Miller in hand?
PHOTOGRAPHERS ASSOCIATED IN
Rene De Carufel
WHAT IS LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY?
Landscape photography shows spaces within the world, sometimes vast and
unending, but other times microscopic. Photographs typically capture the
presence of nature but can also focus on man-made features or disturbances
The objectives of landscape photography is that Many landscape photographs
show little or no human activity and are created in the pursuit of a pure,
unsullied depiction of nature devoid of human influence, instead
featuring subjects such as strongly defined landforms, weather, and
ambient light. As with most forms of art, the definition of a landscape
photograph is broad, and may include urban settings, industrial areas,
and nature photography. Notable landscape photographers include
Ansel Adams, Galen Rowell and Edward Weston.
WHAT USE IS IT IN IT’S INDUSTRY AND HOW
HAS IT EVOLVED OVER TIME
Landscape photography is used to advertise different places and also can
be ue as art. From its beginnings and continuing into the present era,
some of the most important and celebrated landscape photographers
have been motivated by an appreciation of the beauty of the natural
environment and a desire to see it preserved. For example, Ansel
Adams spoke passionately in defense of the natural world. It has not
changed apart from the technology to take the photographs and to edit
PHOTOGRAPHERS ASSOCIATED IN LANDSCAPE
WHAT IS PHOTO JOURNALISM?
Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of
news material for publication or broadcast) that creates images in order to tell a news
story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term
also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from
other close branches of photography (e.g., documentary photography, social
documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by complying
with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work is both honest and impartial
whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that
contribute to the news media.
Timeliness — the images have meaning in the context of a recently published record of
Objectivity — the situation implied by the images is a fair and accurate representation of the
events they depict in both content and tone.
Narrative — the images combine with other news elements to make facts relatable to the
viewer or reader on a cultural level.
Like a writer, a photojournalist is a reporter but he or she must often make decisions instantly
and carry photographic equipment, often while exposed to significant obstacles (e.g.,
physical danger, weather, crowds).
WHAT IS IT’S HISTORY?: FOUNDATIONS
The practice of illustrating news stories with photographs was made possible by printing and photography innovations
that occurred between 1880 and 1897. While newsworthy events were photographed as early as the 1850s, printing
presses could only publish from engravings until the 1880s. Early news photographs required that photos be re-
interpreted by an engraver before they could be published. Train wrecks and city fires were a popular subject in
these early days.
In 1847, an unknown photographer took daguerreotypes of the U.S. troops in Satilo, Mexico, during the Mexican-
American War. The first known photojournalist was Carol Szathmari (Romanian painter, lithographer, and
photographer) who did pictures in the Crimean War (between Russia and Ottoman Empire, 1853 to 1856). His
albums were sent to European royals houses. Just a few of his photographs survived. William
Simpson of the Illustrated London News and Roger Fenton were published as engravings. Similarly, the American
Civil War photographs of Mathew Brady were engraved before publication in Harper's Weekly. Because the public
craved more realistic representations of news stories, it was common for newsworthy photographs to be exhibited
in galleries or to be copied photographically in limited numbers.
On March 4, 1880, The Daily Graphic (New York) published the first halftone (rather than engraved) reproduction of a
news photograph. In 1887, flash powder was invented, enabling journalists such as Jacob Riis to photograph
informal subjects indoors, which led to the landmark work How the Other Half Lives. By 1897, it became possible to
reproduce halftone photographs on printing presses running at full speed.
In France, agencies such as Rol, Branger and Chusseau-Flaviens (ca. 1880-1910) syndicated photographs from around
the world to meet the need for timely new illustration.[ Despite these innovations, limitations remained, and many of
the sensational newspaper and magazine stories in the period from 1897 to 1927, (see Yellow Journalism) were
illustrated with engravings. In 1921, the wirephoto made it possible to transmit pictures almost as quickly as news
itself could travel. However, it was not until development of the commercial 35mm Leica camera in 1925, and the
first flash bulbs between 1927 and 1930, that all the elements were in place for a "golden age" of photojournalism.
WHAT IS IT’S HISTORY?: FARM SECURITY
From 1935 to 1942, the Farm Security Administration and its predecessor
the Resettlement Administration were part of Franklin Roosevelt's New
Deal, and were designed to address agricultural problems and rural
poverty associated with the Great Depression. A special photographic
section, headed by Roy Stryker, was intended merely to provide public
relations for its programs, but instead produced what some consider
one of the greatest collections of documentary photographs ever
created in the U.S. Whether this effort can be called "photojournalism"
is debatable, since the FSA photographers had more time and
resources to create their work than most photojournalists usually have.
WHAT IS IT’S HISTORY: THE GOLDEN AGE
The "Golden Age of Photojournalism" is often considered to be roughly the 1930s through the 1950s.[ It was led by a new style of
magazines and newspapers that used photography, more than text, to tell their stories. Early leaders included the magazines
(Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung (till April 1945) (Berlin), Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung (Berlin), Vu (France), Life (USA), Look (USA),
Picture Post (London)), and newspapers (The Daily Mirror (London), The New York Daily News (New York)) that built their huge
readerships and reputations largely on their use of photography, and photographers such as Robert Capa, Romano Cagnoni,
Alfred Eisenstaedt, Margaret Bourke-White and W. Eugene Smith became well-known names.
Henri Cartier-Bresson is held by some to be the father of modern photojournalism, although this appellation has been applied to
various other photographers, such as Erich Salomon, whose candid pictures of political figures were novel in the 1930s.
Soldier Tony Vaccaro is also recognized as one of the pre-eminent photographers of World War II. His images taken with the modest
Argus C3 captured horrific moments in war, similar to Capa's soldier being shot. Capa himself was on Omaha Beach on D-Day
and captured pivotal images of the conflict on that occasion. Vaccaro is also known for having developed his own images in
soldier's helmets, and using chemicals found in the ruins of a camera store in 1944.
Until the 1980s, most large newspapers were printed with turn-of-the-century "letterpress" technology using easily smudged oil-based
ink, off-white, low-quality "newsprint" paper, and coarse engraving screens. While letterpresses produced legible text, the
photoengraving dots that formed pictures often bled or smeared and became fuzzy and indistinct. In this way, even when
newspapers used photographs well — a good crop, a respectable size — murky reproduction often left readers re-reading the
caption to see what the photo was all about. The Wall Street Journal adopted stippled hedcuts in 1979 to publish portraits and
avoid the limitations of letterpress printing. Not until the 1980s had a majority of newspapers switched to "offset" presses that
reproduce photos with fidelity on better, whiter paper.
By contrast Life, one of America's most popular weekly magazines from 1936 through the early 1970s, was filled with photographs
reproduced beautifully on oversize 11×14-inch pages, using fine engraving screens, high-quality inks, and glossy paper. Life
often published a United Press International (UPI) or Associated Press (AP) photo that had been first reproduced in newspapers,
but the quality magazine version appeared to be a different photo altogether.
In large part because their pictures were clear enough to be appreciated, and because their name always appeared with their work,
magazine photographers achieved near-celebrity status. Life became a standard by which the public judged photography, and
many of today's photo books celebrate "photojournalism" as if it had been the exclusive province of near-celebrity magazine
The Best of Life (1973), for example, opens with a two-page (1960) group shot of 39 justly famous Life photographers. But 300 pages
later, photo credits reveal that scores of the photos among Life's "best" were taken by anonymous UPI and AP photographers.
Thus even during the golden age, because of printing limitations and the UPI and AP syndication systems, many newspaper
photographers labored in relative obscurity.
"Life" and the other photographic magazines celebrated the human spirit during the Second World War and when the war ended there
was an optimistic period in the USA and Europe of unbridled consumerism and a general belief that things could only get better.
The magazines celebrated humanism and the sense that anything was possible. Even if they showed poverty and hunger it was
with an underlying message that by exposing it to public scrutiny things would improve.
PHOTOGRAPHERS ASSOCIATED IN PHOTO
WHAT IS DOCUMENTARY PHOTOGRAPHY?
Documentary photography usually refers to a popular form of photography
used to chronicle significant and historical events. It is typically covered in
professional photojournalism, or real life reportage, but it may also be an
amateur, artistic, or academic pursuit. The photographer attempts to produce
truthful, objective, and usually candid photography of a particular subject,
most often pictures of people. And is used to chronicle significant and
WHAT IS THE HISTORY OF DOCUMENTARY
The term documentary applied to photography antedates the mode or genre itself. Photographs
meant to accurately describe otherwise unknown, hidden, forbidden, or difficult-to-access
places or circumstances date to the earliest daguerreotype and calotype "surveys" of the ruins
of the Near East, Egypt, and the American wilderness areas. Nineteenth century archaeologist
John Beasly Greene, for example, traveled to Nubia in the early 1850s to photograph the major
ruins of the region; One early documentation project was the French Missions Heliographiques
organized by the official Commission des Monuments historiques to develop an archive of
France's rapidly disappearing architectural and human heritage; the project included such
photographic luminaries as Henri Le Secq, Edouard Denis Baldus, and Gustave Le Gray.
In the United States, photographs tracing the progress of the American Civil War by photographers
for at least three consortia of photographic publisher-distributors, most notably Mathew Brady
and Alexander Gardner, resulted in a major archive of photographs ranging from dry records of
battle sites to harrowing images of the dead by Timothy O'Sullivan and evocative images by
George N. Barnard. A huge body of photography of the vast regions of the Great West was
produced by official government photographers for the Geological and Geographical Survey of
the Territories (a predecessor of the USGS), during the period 1868–1878, including most
notably the photographers Timothy O'Sullivan and William Henry Jackson.
Both the Civil War and USGS photographic works point up an important feature of
documentary photography: the production of an archive of historical significance,
and the distribution to a wide audience through publication. The US Government
published Survey photographs in the annual Reports, as well as portfolios
designed to encourage continued funding of scientific surveys.
The development of new reproduction methods for photography provided impetus for
the next era of documentary photography, in the late 1880s and 1890s, and
reaching into the early decades of the 20th century. This period decisively shifted
documentary from antiquarian and landscape subjects to that of the city and its
crises. The refining of photogravure methods, and then the introduction of
halftone reproduction around 1890 made low cost mass-reproduction in
newspapers, magazines and books possible. The figure most directly associated
with the birth of this new form of documentary is the journalist and urban social
reformer Jacob Riis. Riis was a New York police-beat reporter who had been
converted to urban social reform ideas by his contact with medical and public-
health officials, some of whom were amateur photographers. Riis used these
acquaintances at first to gather photographs, but eventually took up the camera
himself. His books, most notably How the Other Half Lives of 1890 and The
Children of the Slums of 1892, used those photographs, but increasingly he also
employed visual materials from a wide variety of sources, including police "mug
shots" and photojournalistic images.
Riis's documentary photography was passionately devoted to changing the
inhumane conditions under which the poor lived in the rapidly expanding
urban-industrial centers. His work succeeded in embedding photography in
urban reform movements, notably the Social Gospel and Progressive
movements. His most famous successor was the photographer Lewis
Wickes Hine, whose systematic surveys of conditions of child-labor in
particular, made for the National Child Labor Commission and published in
sociological journals like The Survey, are generally credited with strongly
influencing the development of child-labor laws in New York and the United
States more generally.
In the 1930s, the Great Depression brought a new wave of documentary, both of
rural and urban conditions. The Farm Security Administration, a common
term for the Historical Division, supervised by Roy Stryker, funded legendary
photographic documentarians, including Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange,
Russell Lee, John Vachon, and Marion Post Wolcott among others. This
generation of documentary photographers is generally credited for codifying
the documentary code of accuracy mixed with impassioned advocacy, with
the goal of arousing public commitment to social change.
During the wartime and postwar eras, documentary photography increasingly became subsumed
under the rubric of photojournalism. Swiss-American photographer Robert Frank is generally
credited with developing a counterstrain of more personal, evocative, and complex
documentary, exemplified by his work in the 1950s, published in the United States in his 1959
book, The Americans. In the early 1960s, his influence on photographers like Garry Winogrand
and Lee Friedlander resulted in an important exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA),
which brought those two photographers together with their colleague Diane Arbus under the
title, New Documents. MoMA curator John Szarkowski proposed in that exhibition that a new
generation, committed not to social change but to formal and iconographical investigation of
the social experience of modernity, had replaced the older forms of social documentary
In the 1970s and 1980s, a spirited attack on traditional documentary was mounted by historians,
critics, and photographers. One of the most notable was the photographer-critic Allan Sekula,
whose ideas and the accompanying bodies of pictures he produced, influenced a generation of
"new new documentary" photographers, whose work was philosophically more rigorous, often
more stridently leftist in its politics. Sekula emerged as a champion of these photographers, in
critical writing and editorial work. Notable among this generation are the photographers Fred
Lonidier, whose 'Health and Safety Game" of 1976 became a model of post-documentary, and
Martha Rosler, whose "The Bowery in Two Inadequate Descriptive Systems" of 1974-75 served
as a milestone in the critique of classical humanistic documentary as the work of privileged
elites imposing their visions and values on the dis-empowered.
Since the late 1990s, an increased interest in documentary photography
and its longer term perspective can be observed. Nicholas Nixon
extensively documented issues surrounded by American life. South
African documentary photographer Pieter Hugo engaged in
documenting art traditions with a focus on African communities.
Antonin Kratochvil photographed a wide variety of subjects, including
Mongolia's street children for the Museum of Natural History. Fazal
Sheikh sought to reflect the realities of the most underprivileged
peoples of different third world countries. Manuel Rivera-Ortiz, affected
by his own experience of growing up poor in rural Puerto Rico,
documented the lives of people in developing countries such as Cuba,
or India, showing the dignity of the Dalit ("Untouchable") caste, or the
Aymara living in the arid altiplano of Bolivia.
PHOTOGRAPHERS ASSOCIATED IN
WHAT IS PORTRAIT PHOTOGRAPHY?
Portrait photography or portraiture is: photography of a person or group of
people that displays the expression, personality, and mood of the subject.
Like other types of portraiture, the focus of the photograph is usually the
person's face, although the entire body and the background or context may
Portrait photographs have been made since virtually the invention of the
camera. The relatively low cost of the daguerreotype in the middle of
the 19th century and the reduced sitting time for the subject, though
still much longer than now, led to a general rise in the popularity of
portrait photography over painted portraiture. The style of these early
works reflected the technical challenges associated with long exposure
times and the painterly aesthetic of the time. Subjects were generally
seated against plain backgrounds and lit with the soft light of an
overhead window and whatever else could be reflected with mirrors.
Advances in photographic equipment and techniques developed, and
gave photographers the ability to capture images with shorter exposure
times and the making of portraits outside the studio.
WHAT USE IS IT IN IT’S INDUSTRY
A portrait is used to represent a person in the face and other personality
PHOTOGRAPHERS ASSOCIATED IN PORTRAIT
Mat smith (not doctor who MATT SMITH)
WHAT IS FASHION PHOTOGRAPHY?
Fashion photography is a genre of: photography devoted to displaying clothing
and other fashion items. Fashion photography is most often conducted for
advertisements or fashion magazines such as Vogue, Vanity Fair, or Elle.
Over time, fashion photography has developed its own aesthetic in which the
clothes and fashions are enhanced by the presence of exotic locations or
Fashion Photography has been in existence since the early days of photography. In 1856, Adolphe Braun published a
book containing 288 photographs of Virginia Oldoini, Countess di Castiglione, a Tuscan noblewoman at the court of
Napoleon III. The photos depict her in her official court garb, making her the first fashion model.
In the first decade of the 20th century, advances in halftone printing allowed fashion photographs to be featured in
magazines. Fashion photography made its first appearance in French magazines such as La mode practique. In
1909, Condé Nast took over Vogue magazine and also contributed to the beginnings of fashion photography. In
1911, photographer Edward Steichen was "dared" by Lucien Vogel, the publisher of Jardin des Modes and La
Gazette du Bon Ton, to promote fashion as a fine art by the use of photography. Steichen then took photos of
gowns designed by couturier Paul Poiret. These photographs were published in the April 1911 issue of the
magazine Art et Décoration. According to Jesse Alexander, This is "...now considered to be the first ever modern
fashion photography shoot. That is, photographing the garments in such a way as to convey a sense of their
physical quality as well as their formal appearance, as opposed to simply illustrating the object.” A modern fashion
photograph by Inez van Lamsweerde
Vogue was followed by its rival, Harper's Bazaar, and the two companies were leaders in the field of fashion photography
throughout the 1920s and 1930s. House photographers such as Edward Steichen, George Hoyningen-Huene, Horst
P. Horst and Cecil Beaton transformed the genre into an outstanding art form.
In the mid-1930s as World War II approached, the focus shifted to the United States, where Vogue and Harper's continued
their old rivalry. In 1936, Martin Munkacsi made the first photographs of models in sporty poses at the beach. Under
the artistic direction of Alexey Brodovitch, Harper's Bazaar quickly introduced this new style into its
magazine. House photographers such as Irving Penn, Martin Munkacsi, Richard Avedon, and Louise Dahl-Wolfe
would shape the look of fashion photography for the following decades. Richard Avedon revolutionized fashion
photography — and redefined the role of the fashion photographer — in the post-World War II era with his
imaginative images of the modern woman.
In postwar London, John French pioneered a new form of fashion photography suited to reproduction in newsprint,
involving natural light and low contrast.
WHAT USE IS IT’S INDUSTRY
Without the the promotion of of fashion
photography we would have no idea
what fashions are in or out
PHOTOGRAPHERS ASSOCIATED IN FASHION
WHAT IS FINE ART PHOTOGRAPHY?
Fine art photography is photography created in accordance with the vision of
the artist as photographer. Fine art photography stands in contrast to
representational photography, such as photojournalism, which provides a
documentary visual account of specific subjects and events, literally re-
presenting objective reality rather than the subjective intent of the
photographer; and commercial photography, the primary focus of which is to
advertise products or services. The industry it is used for is for
advertisements and magazines
One photography historian claimed that "the earliest exponent of 'Fine Art' or composition
photography was John Edwin Mayall, "who exhibited daguerrotypes illustrating the Lord's
Prayer in 1851". Successful attempts to make fine art photography can be traced to Victorian
era practitioners such as Julia Margaret Cameron, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, and Oscar
Gustave Rejlander and others. In the U.S. F. Holland Day, Alfred Stieglitz and Edward Steichen
were instrumental in making photography a fine art, and Steiglitz was especially notable in
introducing it into museum collections.
In the UK as recently as 1960, photography was not really recognised as a Fine Art. Dr S.D.Jouhar
said, when he formed the Photographic Fine Art Association at that time - "At the moment
photography is not generally recognized as anything more than a craft. In the USA photography
has been openly accepted as Fine Art in certain official quarters. It is shown in galleries and
exhibitions as an Art. There is not corresponding recognition in this country. The London Salon
shows pictorial photography, but it is not generally understood as an art. Whether a work shows
aesthetic qualities or not it is designated 'Pictorial Photography' which is a very ambiguous
term. The photographer himself must have confidence in his work and in its dignity and
aesthetic value, to force recognition as an Art rather than a Craft"
Until the late 1970s several genres predominated, such as; nudes, portraits, natural landscapes
(exemplified by Ansel Adams). Breakthrough 'star' artists in the 1970s and 80s, such as Sally
Mann and Robert Mapplethorpe, still relied heavily on such genres, although seeing them with
fresh eyes. Others investigated a snapshot aesthetic approach.
American organizations, such as the Aperture Foundation and the Museum of Modern Art, have done
much to keep photography at the forefront of the fine arts.
WHAT USE IS IT’S INDIUSTRY
Fine art photography is created primarily as an expression of the artist’s
vision, but as a byproduct it has also been important in advancing
certain causes. The work of Ansel Adams in Yosemite and Yellowstone
provides an example. Adams is one of the most widely recognized fine
art photographers of the 20th century, and was an avid promoter of
conservation. While his primary focus was on photography as art, some
of his work raised public awareness of the beauty of the Sierra Nevada
and helped to build political support for their protection.
Such photography has also had effects in the area of censorship law and
free expression, due to its concern with the nude body.
PHOTOGRAPHERS ASSOCIATED IN FINE ART
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