Ivan Rudd Six Ways to Wellbeing Seminar 160714

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Ivan Rudd from Kent County Council Public Health department explains the theory behind the Six Ways to Wellbeing. Find out more at www.liveitwell.org.uk

Ivan Rudd from Kent County Council Public Health department explains the theory behind the Six Ways to Wellbeing. Find out more at www.liveitwell.org.uk

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  • Depression and anxiety are more common in women than men. WHO 2009 Factsheet 334, Woman’s Health. I in 4 women will require treatment for depression at some time, compared with 1 in 10 men. The reasons for this are unclear, but are thought to be due to both social and biological factors. NICE CG 90
  • Isolation and aging population
  • Talk about parity of esteem
  • 1 Sport England (2013). Sport and Health
    2 Health and Social Care Information Centre (2013). Health Survey for England 2012
    3 ONS (2012). Measuring National Well-Being, Education and Skills
    4 Volunteering -CLES Consulting and new economics foundation, (2013). Big Lottery Fund National Wellbeing Evaluation: Final report.
    5 Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett's The Spirit Level: Why Equality is Better for Everyone
    6 Huppert F (2008) Psychological well-being: evidence regarding its causes and its consequences (London: Foresight Mental Capital and Wellbeing Project 2008).
    7 Fowler & Christakis (2008). Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study.
    8 Take notice Brown KW, Ryan RM (2003) ‘The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being’
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84: 822–848
    9 Kuo F (2001) ‘Coping with poverty: impacts of environment and attention in the inner city’ Environment and Behaviour 33: 5–34. 9


  • 1. Six Ways to Wellbeing Seminar Ivan Rudd, Public Health Specialist July 2014
  • 2. An Overview Of The Day – Ivan the context for wellbeing and the research evidence – Miranda on Kent Resources to help you – Louise on the Live It Well website – Practical taster session on the Six Ways – Lunch
  • 3. What is Wellbeing? “a dynamic state in which the individual is able to: •develop their potential, •work productively and creatively, •build strong and positive relationships with others, and •contribute to their community. •It is enhanced when an individual is able to fulfil their personal and social goals and achieve a sense of purpose in society.” Foresight Report (2008) 3
  • 4. So • Wellbeing is about feeling good and functioning well and comprises an individual’s experience of their life; and a comparison of life circumstances with social norms and values. • Wellbeing exists in two dimensions: 4
  • 5. Subjective wellbeing • Subjective wellbeing (or personal wellbeing) asks people directly how they think and feel about their own wellbeing, and includes aspects such as life satisfaction (evaluation), positive emotions (hedonic), and whether their life is meaningful (eudemonic). • Warwick-Edinburg Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) 5
  • 6. Objective wellbeing • Objective wellbeing is based on assumptions about basic human needs and rights, including aspects such as: • adequate food, physical health, education, safety (Maslow’s hierarchy of needs) etc. • Objective wellbeing can be measured through self-report (e.g., asking people whether they have a specific health condition), or through more objective measures (e.g., mortality rates and life expectancy). 6
  • 7. Positive Vs Negative • Negative emotions predict mortality and positive emotions predict longevity. • Wellbeing is associated with reduced mortality in both healthy and diseased populations. This may be mediated by social networks , or self reported health and physical activity . 7
  • 8. High Levels of Wellbeing High levels of wellbeing are associated with: •19% reduction in all cause mortality and •29% reduction in cardiovascular mortality in healthy populations, and •23% reduction in mortality in patients with renal failure . 8
  • 9. Increase life by 4 – 10 years Subjective wellbeing is predictive of mortality after controlling for initial health. This has been found across a number of health conditions including depression, anxiety and coronary heart disease. It is estimated that high levels of subjective wellbeing can increase life by 4 to 10 years compared to low levels of subjective wellbeing •Xu & Roberts (2010). The power of positive emotions: it’s a matter of life or death – subjective wellbeing and longevity over 28 years in a general population •Weist & Schuz (2011). Subjective wellbeing and mortality revisited: differential effects of cognitive and emotional facets •Chida & Steptoe (2008). Positive psychological wellbeing and mortality: a quantitative review of prospective observational studies •Diener & Chan (2011). Happy people live longer: subjective wellbeing contributes to health and longevity 9
  • 10. Genetics - Telomeres Inside a nucleus of a cell, our genes are arranged along a twisted helix of DNA called chromosomes, At the end of the chromosomes are lengths of DNA called telomeres which control cell division, age and possibly cancer. Each time a cell divides they get shorter. 10 Telomeres © newscientist.org
  • 11. Low subjective Wellbeing and Telomere Shortening Shorter telomeres result from negative emotions and can cause health issues related to a variety of different bodily systems because of the greater probability that new cells will contain replication mistakes. •Cherkas et al. (2006) adult female twin study low SWB predicted shorter telomere length beyond effects of smoking, obesity and lack of exercise. •Lung, Chen, and Shu (2007) found that a major depressive disorder, as well as age predicted a shorter telomere length •Damjanovic et al. (2007), found that Alzheimer’s patient caregivers experienced both depressive symptoms and shorter telomere length to controls 11
  • 12. Wellbeing Video 12
  • 13. Mental, emotional and psychological health matter • Psychological distress is fundamental cause of illness – Mind body links are very important for health – Health related lifestyles all related to mental health – Capacity for self care in chronic illness dictated by mental health 13
  • 14. Gender and Mental Health 14
  • 15. Stigma: Time to Change • One of the objectives of the Government’s mental health strategy is that fewer people experience stigma and discrimination. There is a high-profile national campaign currently, Time to change, which aims to end the stigma and discrimination faced by people who experience mental health problems and has already demonstrated impact on public attitudes with a 15% reduction in reported levels of discrimination. • www.time-to-change.org.uk 15
  • 16. Vulnerable Groups % at risk of mental health problems Asylum seekers & refugees 50% Gypsies and travellers 35% People who are lesbian, gay or bi-sexual 39.4% People with a learning disability 25% Those with severe or profound hearing impairment 33.3% Marital status: separated 23.3% Marital status: divorced 27.1% Adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse* 12.4%* Released prisoners 90% Carers 18% Sufferers of Hate Crime 60% Adolescents leaving Care to live 80% independently Veteran and ex-military** 1-6% 16
  • 17. Ageing population Source: KMPHO 2014
  • 18. Co- morbidity – LTCs and mental health in England Long Term Conditions – 30% of population 46% of people with a mental health problem will have long-term condition Mental health 30% of population with a long term condition will have a mental health problem problems 20% of population 18
  • 19. Parity of Esteem • Mental Health Strategy No Health without Mental Health has made a commitment to ‘parity of esteem between mental and physical health services’, and has a clear objective to improve the physical health of those with a mental disorder. 19
  • 20. Six Ways to Wellbeing Be Active - Go for a walk or run. Step outside. Play a game. Garden. Dance. Exercising makes you feel good. Discover a physical activity that you enjoy. Keep Learning -Try something new. Rediscover an old interest. Sign up for a course. Learning new things will make you more confident, as well as being fun. Give - Do something nice for a friend or stranger. Smile. Volunteer your time. See yourself, and your happiness, linked to the wider community it’s rewarding. Connect - with the people around you. With family, friends, colleagues and neighbours. At home, work, school or in your local community. Take Notice - Be curious. Catch sight of the beautiful. Remark on the unusual. Savour the moment. Be aware of the world around you and what you are feeling. Care for the planet - Make small changes to your life that will reduce your energy use, recycle more, leave the car at home. www.liveitwell.org.uk 20
  • 21. Six Ways to Wellbeing • Be Active - Physical activity can reduce anxiety and depression and reduces reactivity to psychosocial stressors (1). Adults who met the guidelines for physical activity reported the highest levels of wellbeing (2). Keep Learning -continued formal and informal learning have been found to be associated with greater individual subjective well-being (3). Give - Volunteer your time improves wellbeing and extends healthy life. Feelings of happiness and life satisfaction have been strongly associated with active participation in social and community life (4,5,6) Connect - Happiness spreads - people whose social contacts become happy are more likely to become happy themselves, even our contacts’ contacts, and their contacts, can influence our happiness; even people we are not close to . This effect is strongest for friendships which are mutually reciprocated. (7). Take Notice - Being in a state known as mindfulness (‘the state of being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present’) has also been shown to predict positive mental states, and self-regulated behaviour (8). Care for the planet - This supports the hypothesis nature reduces mental fatigue, ensuring that we are more able to assess and deal with life issues (9). www.liveitwell.org.uk 21
  • 22. How can you get involved in the Six Ways to Wellbeing? • Link your website to www.liveitwell.org.uk and go online and download our free wellbeing resources • Follow the Six Ways to Wellbeing campaign on facebook www.facebook.com/liveitwellkent • Use our local stories and films to promote the Six Ways to Wellbeing in your community, visit: mentalwellbeing@kent.gov.uk 22