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珍愛 Green Earth                                                                                                            ...
珍愛 Green Earth                                                                                                            ...
珍愛 Green Earth                                                                                                            ...
珍愛 Green Earth                                                                                                            ...
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台灣海峽 中華白海豚研究紀實

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中華白海豚紀實 國家公園季刊Mar2009pdf
比「波妞」更讓人著迷的可愛身影
台灣海峽 中華白海豚研究紀實
Sousa chinensis in Taiwan Strait
Something more charming than “Ponyo”

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Transcript of "台灣海峽 中華白海豚研究紀實"

  1. 1. 珍愛 Green Earth Green Earth  綠色地球 地球 比「波妞」更讓人著迷的可愛身影 台灣海峽 中華白海豚研究紀實 Sousa chinensis in Taiwan Strait Something more charming than “Ponyo” 「中 華白海豚比人類還不會生小孩。 台灣大學 」 生態與演化生物學研究所的周蓮香教授語 “S ousa chinensis are worse than humans when it comes to birth,” says Prof. Lian- siang Jhou pitifully, “with a life expectancy of 氣中充滿著憐惜,「平均壽命 30 到 40 歲的牠們,初 only 30-40 years, it takes 10 to 12 years to reach 生到熟齡要至 10-12 年 ,孕期長達快 1 年 ,生完一 maturity. A pregnancy lasts 1 year and requires 胎要休息個 2、3 年才能再生育。白海豚窮其一生, 2 to 3 years of rest before another one. Each 也許只能有 5、6 胎,在沒有像人類醫療健保下,能 female Sousa chinensis may only have 5 to 6 有一半活下來就不錯了 ,換句話說每隻雌性中華白 births in its life. Unlike humans with sound medical 海豚一生充其量不過能留下 3 隻子代 ,你說我們怎 care, though, each could only have 3 successful 麼能不好好珍惜?」 births. Arent they precious? You may have seen 說起中華白海豚 ,您也許曾在保育新聞看過 ,也 Sousa chinensis on conservation news and know a group of scientists and conservationists devote 知道有一群科學家、保育團體為了這處境堪慮的生 themselves to this cause. However, conservation 命終年勞碌奔走 ,然而 ,保育工作可不是個稍縱即 is unlike news clips. For these dolphin lovers, their 逝的新聞片段 ,對這群珍愛海豚的人來說 ,無論媒 work never stops, with or without news coverage. 體是否關注,保育工作從未間斷。 “Sousa chinensis are often nicknamed by 「中華白海豚在台灣 ,有些保育團體常親切地稱 conservationists as ‘Matzu (goddess of the sea) 牠們為『媽祖魚』 ,稱呼應來自於廈門地區常在媽祖 fish because they appear around the birthday of Matzu in Xiamen. However, Taiwanese fishermen 誕辰前後看見白海豚蹤影。不過 ,台灣漁民多半叫 call them ‘white dolphins”, explains Prof. 中華白海豚為『白鯃』 」 。 周教授說明,保育團體的用 Jhou. Conservationists hope to communicate the 意是希望能藉由更親切的方式 ,來傳遞保護中華白 importance of protecting Sousa chinensis by giving 海豚的意義 ,若能因為移情作用 ,讓民眾進而對中 them a divine name. The ultimate goal is to arouse 華白海豚升起愛護之心,不啻是件好事。 peoples love toward them. 中華白海豚保育上,各界紛紛積極護育,逐漸做出成績 / 高遠文化提供 Join hands in conservation and succeed/Photo provided by Utmost Culture 採訪撰文 Interview & Text / 賴宛靖 Wan-ching Lai、連欣華 Hsin-hua Lian 翻譯 Translator / 張詩白 James Chang 圖片提供 Photo provider /高遠文化 林文吉先生 Mr. Wun-ji Lin, Utmost Culture 特別感謝 Special thanks to /台灣大學生命科學系周蓮香教授 Prof. Lian-siang Jhou, Dept. of Life Science, National Taiwan University,高遠文化 林文吉先生 Mr. Wun-ji Lin, Utmost Culture,林務局保育課鄭小姐066 067
  2. 2. 珍愛 Green Earth Green Earth  綠色地球 地球 大海找「豚」 一曬就是數小時 「比起陸域工作研究,海上的工作難度高上數倍,每次 “Compared to study on land, the work was much TAIWAN tougher. Each trip cost lots of manpower and  中華白海豚的生態研究起於 1992 年 ,由周 出航都需耗費相當大的人力及資金 ,面對這些得來不易的 money. The research team was working seriously 教授等人先針對台灣沿海、澎湖、金門等本島 出海調查計畫 ,研究團隊們都不敢大易輕忽 ,無不卯足全 and studiously in order to catch sight of more 與外島漁港進行問卷調查 ,初調結果顯示彰化 力,就希望能多觀察幾隻海豚。」 TAIWAN dolphins. 王公、澎湖與金門沿海有中華白海豚的分布;雖 2005 年 ,周教授首次出海調查白海豚出沒範圍 ,耗費 The first survey in 2005 was not successful. “We 然 1994-5 年期間曾在金門廈門水域巡查 ,廈門 一整年時間 ,結果卻不如預期 ,「我們先設定海豚出沒範 set the dolphin activity range at a radius of 3 nautical 有許多發現 ,但是金門當時僅有擱淺紀錄及民 圍 3 海哩 ,結果鮮少發現其縱跡;第 2 年 ,出航總次數為 miles and seldom found any. In Year 2, we cut 1000mi 18 趟 ,開始把範圍縮減為 1 海哩 ,便發現白海豚在台灣西 down the range to a radius of 1 nautical mile and 眾通報紀錄。2002 年 ,福爾摩沙鯨研究小組王 found that they nearly clustered along the western 2000km 1000mi 愈超博士目擊了中華白海豚的蹤跡 ,自此確立 部沿海區域似乎呈現叢集分布 ,以港口、河口與嘉義外傘 coast of Taiwan, mostly in ports, river mouths and 2000km 了苗栗、台中與彰化沿海的族群分布 ,海上的 頂洲為分布熱點 ,每群發現次數約為 1~5 隻 ,目擊率約為 Waisanding Sand Bar with around 1 to 5 dolphins 中華白海豚的世界分布圖。約分布於分布於華南長江以南經印度半 調查紀錄由此跨出一大步。2005 年起在農委會 40~50%。」後兩年再修正航線為離岸約 1 公里 ,目擊率增 in each school. The encounter rate was 40% to 島到東非等沿近海域,澳洲北部沿海亦有族群分佈。中華白海豚生 為 70~80%。 50%.” 的委託下,周教授研究團隊進行連續 3 年的中華 活在沿近海域、水淺的海域,出現的水深通常不超過 20 公尺。 比起首年調查的寥寥結果 ,次年收穫較豐 ,讓研究團 The success in the second year inspired the 白海豚調查研究。 research team with 20 more trips in 2007. They 「在茫茫大海中找行蹤撲朔迷離的海豚 ,其實 隊十分振奮。2007 年 ,團隊再出航 20 趟 ,針對台中與雲 是件苦差事。」看著周教授出海研究的照片 ,曝 曬在烈日下的她雖然做了充足的防曬工作 ,想 到這研究必須忍著風浪顛簸的不適、海風烈日 ? 的桎梏,每趟平均須在海面上待上近 5 小時,才 ? 可能會看到難得一見的蹤跡 ,不禁由衷佩服。 ? 即便如此 ,科學家及保育團體們對於中華白海 ? 豚的保育熱忱,仍絲毫未減。 A “dolphin” in the sea takes hours to find Study on the Sousa chinensis ecology began in 1992. The preliminary survey spearheaded by Prof. Jhou and others defined habitats in Changhua, Penghu, and Kinmen. A second survey in between 1994 and 1995 also resulted in some findings in Kinmen but only reported records of stranded dolphins in Kinmen. Dr. Yu-chao Wang of the Formosa Cetus Research & Conservation Group ? spotted Sousa chinensis in 2002 and confirmed more habitats in Miaoli, Taichung, and Changhua. Authorized by the Council of Agriculture, Prof. Jhou hence started a 3-year survey on Sousa chinensis in 2005. “It was difficult to find a dolphin in the sea.” Prof. Jhou shows pictures of the expedition. One has to admire her for the discomforts she had to put up ? with and the passion scientists and conservationists have toward Sousa chinensis . Each adventure required nearly 5 hours of exposure to the sultry sun 周教授於 2008 年所執行的中華白海豚分布調查。 美麗的鯨豚,該與人類有著美麗的相遇 / 高遠文化提供 to spot the precious creature. Beautiful whales and suckling pigs are supposed to cross human beings path. /Photo provided by Utmost Culture068 069
  3. 3. 珍愛 Green Earth Green Earth  綠色地球 地球 的蹤跡 ,猛按快門 ,然後期待著回實驗室比對照片中背鰭 the camera shutter without stop before verifying them 後鑑定他們名字 ,許多照片在船身晃動中失焦 ,在電腦前 against laboratory pictures. It was often that we could do nothing with out-of-focus photos.” 失望地乾瞪眼,也是常有的事。」 The closer, the worst hurt 離人最近  卻傷得最重 The discovery of the truth that Sousa chinensis 當科學家釐清了中華白海豚主要生活於沿近海域、水深 mainly live in coastal waters no deeper than 20 meters 不超過 20 公尺的棲地特性 ,似乎讓中華白海豚的生存窘 explains the difficulties facing them. 境,更得到了印證。 Their habitats are in the waters with the most frequent human activities and endangered by environmental 牠們的家園與人類活動頻繁的水域重疊 ,面臨了環境污 pollution and the fishing industry. Can the concerns 染、棲地破壞與漁業衝擊的種種威脅 ,然而 ,學者專家及 and efforts of scholars, experts and conservationists hit 林、嘉義地區進行追蹤 ,確定了中華白海豚繁殖育幼 found the nursing habitats of Sousa chinensis , including 保育團體的憂心與大力宣導,是否真能實際打入人心? home? 棲地至少包含嘉義外傘頂洲沿海、大甲溪至大肚溪口 the coastal areas off Chiayi Waisanding Sand Bar, Dajia 「其實可以試想一下 ,能吃的食物變得很難找、不斷有 “Imagine that, there is no much edible food. The River, and Dadu River. 沿海。 人類製造的污水及高分貝噪音環繞在你身邊 ,甚至是螺旋 water is always polluted and the noise never stops. The rare “mug shot” There are even propellers constantly rotating over 得來不易的「大頭照」   槳在頭上不停轉動 ,這些使人不舒服的狀態 ,往往就是中 The scientific“mug shot” Sousa chinensis primarily of your head. These are the discomforts felt by Sousa 科學用的白海豚「大頭照」主要包括背鰭附近清晰的 refers to the clear dorsal fin rays used to identify each 華白海豚面臨的處境。」 chinensis .” 輪廓斑紋 ,是個體辨識的主要依據 ,「隨著出海次數的 dolphin. “The accumulated number of located 台灣西部沿海的重工業活動發達 ,填海造陸的開發影 Development of heavy industries and coastal 增加 ,當發現的新個體數累積到某一階段不再往上升 dolphins that stops increasing after a certain number 響中華白海豚的食物資源分布 ,減少所能食用之小型魚或 land reclamation undermine the food resources of trips is the total population. There are around 103 頭足類動物的數量;船隻的密集活動則常造成其族群活 available forSousa chinensis . The quantity of edible 時 ,就代表其為現存之數量 ,根據研究團隊的資料 , Sousa chinensis from Taichung to Chiayi and the small fish or cephalopods decreases. Boats often 目前台中到嘉義的中華白海豚約為 103 隻 ,北邊的苗 動的意外傷害 ,在 2004 年的調查中 ,就發現西部沿海有 number in Miaoli is still being investigated” explains result in injuries. A 2004 survey found that 10.7% 栗地區則仍尚待研究。」周教授本著嚴謹的科學家精 Prof. Jhou. 10.7% 的中華白海豚有疑似遭船隻螺旋槳打傷或魚網纏勒 of Sousa chinensis were suspected of being hurt by 神,特別補充道。 The dizziness caused by the wind and waves is 等的人為傷害。環境影響方面 ,廢水與噪音污染也應該是 boat propellers. Waste water and noise are major 忍受著風浪帶來的眩暈 ,當期盼了半天的海豚出現 nothing compared to the appearance of long-waited 中華白海豚生存上的最大干擾。 interferences to their life, too. dolphins. The research team documents passing 時 ,研究團隊便會倦意全消 ,立刻以「相片鑑定法」來 Sousa chinensis with photo -identification. Like me, 紀錄觀察過的白海豚。相信讀者與筆者一樣好奇 ,海 you may think that they all look the same and how will 豚都長得一樣不是嗎?就算有幸能拍到照片 ,又該如 the photos help? 何分辨? “The dorsal fin rays are like human fingerprints 「利用中華白海豚背鰭上的花紋 ,來做歸納整理 ,就 and zebra stripes. The white spots on each Sousa 1 3 4 5 2 1-2. 科學用的白海豚「大頭照」主要包括背鰭附近清晰的輪廓斑紋,是個體辨識的主要依據 / 高遠文化 像人的指紋、斑馬的花紋,白海豚身上的色斑不會 是 chinensis are different and enable us to identify the 提供 dolphins,” explains Prof. Jhou in patience. “What The scientific “mug shot” of Sousa chinensis primarily refers to the clear dorsal fin rays used to identify 一樣的 ,所以我們就可以分辨出是否紀錄過。」周教授 each dolphin./Photo provided by Utmost Culture we do is wait on the boat until they show and click 3-4. 在茫茫大海中找行蹤撲朔迷離的海豚,其實是件苦差事 / 高遠文化提供 細心解釋。「在海上載浮載沉許久 ,好不容易看到海豚 It was difficult to find a dolphin in the sea. /Photo provided by Utmost Culture070 071
  4. 4. 珍愛 Green Earth Green Earth  綠色地球 地球 周教授表示 ,工業發展所帶來的負面影響 ,不可能 Prof. Jhou indicates that it is impossible for the 變化 ,真令科學家們感概。單就這點而言 ,台灣的保 professional and the equipment was advanced. On 在短期內就完全改善 ,若能改變其運作方式 ,將影響範 negative impacts of industrial development to be 育與研究工作需再加把勁了。 周教授感嘆的說。 」 the contrary, Taiwan should work harder.” corrected shortly. The practice can be changed to Like parents with different view of education, 圍降至最小 ,或許是能先減少中華白海豚傷害的最好方 就像是不同教育方針的父母 ,有著同為孩子著想的 minimize the damage and protect Sousa chinensis . despite the shared goodwill, different voices appear 法。「減緩噪音方面 ,改變或縮短施工時間、地點或路 出發 ,在中華白海豚的保育上 ,除了政府相關單位近 “The construction time, range, or route can be changed among governmental agencies, academic groups, 線;加強船隻的航速限制;或是利用能使聲波在氣態與液 or shortened. The navigation speed of boats can be 年來的投入調查 ,各學界與民間保育團體亦紛紛成立 and NGOs 1990, which is inevitable. For the 態間阻隔較大的氣泡幕 ,來減低在水底打樁所造成的噪 restricted or other measures can be taken to cut down 護育團隊。處於不同的單位立場難免就有著不同的聲 contradictions or conflicts, Prof. Jhou has learned to 音音量。多為海豚想一點,就是最大幫忙了。」 the noise level. Thinking for the dolphins is helping.” 音 ,也許是讚賞 ,也許是批評 ,多年來行走於保育前 be understanding. 鋒的周教授 ,對於這些互有產生的矛盾或衝突 ,早已 “It is touching to feel the true love they have 保育工作不分你我 攜手做出成績 toward Sousa chinensis in disparate voices. Isnt Join hands in conservation and succeed 有了泰然的見解。 失敗率高出成功率的無奈 ,對海上調查的研究學者而 stimulating more proactive action by decision Marine researchers and scholars are often caught 「令我感動的是,從不同的聲浪中可以感受到他們對 言並不陌生 ,相較於不會走動的高山或歷史古蹟 ,海上 in the embarrassment of failure. Investigating marine makers to protect Sousa chinensis with different 中華白海豚的真正摯愛 ,若能藉由不同的角色立場 , stances the ultimate goal we all striving to achieve?” 生物的調查工作更顯得不易。但學者及保育團體並不氣 biology is no easy work compared to static mountains or historical sites. This is no stopping the scholars and 來敦促決策者更積極檢視對中華白海豚的保育行動 , says Prof. Jhou. 餒 ,反而越挫越勇 ,更將研究心得頻與國內外交流、分 conservationists from sharing findings domestically and 不就是你我最企盼的終極目標嗎?」周教授感性地說。 Cetaceans are such an intellectual and charming 享。 internationally. creature. Their gracious physique and marvelous 鯨豚是如此聰慧迷人的生物 ,優雅的體態、曼妙的 近 10 年來 ,香港與中國陸續成立 7 座中華白海豚的保 jumps touch numerous people. At the end of the For the past nearly 10 years, 7 Sousa 跳躍 ,擄獲無數人的疼惜。專訪結束前 ,周教授語重 護區。1996 年 ,香港首先成立佔水域面積約 1200 公頃 interview, Prof. Jhou reminds Taiwanese of not just chinensis reserves have been established in Hong 心長的說 ,四面環海的台灣啊 ,別只停留在「海鮮文 adhering to the “seafood culture.” We should 的沙洲及龍鼓洲海岸公園;中國官方則在珠海與廈門成 Kong and China. In 1996, the 1200-hectare coastal 化」,應該盡心守護海洋資源,讓「海洋文化」隨著從未 protect the marine resources to preserve the 立國家級保護區、廣東省內設立至少 4 個市級保護區 , park was established in Hong Kong. In China are 消減的保育浪潮,一起擘劃永續的未來藍海。 “marine culture” and sustain blue oceans. 以及一個省級保護區。在保育規範的嚴謹程度 ,近似於 the national reserves in Jhuhai and Xiamen, at least 4 municipal reserves and 1 provincial reserve in 國家公園內的警察制度 ,除了嚴格控管船隻的進行 ,還 Guangdong. The rigidity of conservation regulations 設有管理處、處長等完整執行單位 ,其盡心程度已不亞 is compatible with that of police system in national 於對待一國家公園的重視。 parks with strict control over boats, configuration of 「15 年前 ,我帶助理學生遠赴中國進行白海豚調查研 headquarters and directors. 1. 在海面上待上近 5 小時,才可能看到豚蹤。即便如此,大家的保育熱忱仍絲毫未減 / 高遠文化提供 Each adventure required nearly 5 hours of exposure to the sultry sun to spot the precious creature. /Photo 究 ,曾覺得中國在軟硬體設備上明顯落後 ,但最近我再 “15 years ago, I visited China with my student. 1 2 provided by Utmost Culture 去中國參加研討會時 ,許多年輕人已可有相當程度的專 They were obviously lagging in software and hardware 2. 比起陸域研究,海上工作需耗費人力及資金,研究團隊們都不敢大易輕忽,無不卯足全力,就是希 望多觀察幾隻海豚 / 高遠文化提供 equipment. However, things changed in a seminar Compared to study on land, the work was much tougher. Each trip cost lots of manpower and money. The 業知識 ,研究設備更是先進 ,十幾年光景能有這樣大的 I participated recently. Their young people were research team was working seriously and studiously in order to catch sight of more dolphins and observe them. /Photo provided by Utmost Culture 周蓮香簡介 Profile of Lian-siang Jhou 現任台灣大學生態與生物演化研 Professor of NTU Graduate Institute of Ecology 究所教授 ,亦為台大鯨豚研究室負責 and Evolutionary Biology and person in charge of the Cetacean Research Laboratory. 人。 Graduated from University of California, Davis, 年自加大戴維斯分校留學歸國, in and shocked by the international coverage on the 受國際披露台灣澎湖屠殺海豚事件影 dolphin massacre in Penghu, Taiwan, she started to 響 ,展開推行多年的鯨豚保育。並於 promote conservation of cetaceans. In 1996, she 1996 年聯合許多相關單位 ,成立 「中 allied with many related institutions and found the “Taiwan Cetacean Stranding Network”. In light of the 華鯨豚擱淺組織網。鑑於鯨豚保育教 importance of cetacean conservation education, she 育的重要 ,於 1997 年在自然生態保育 later established the “Cetacean Committee” under 協會之下成立 「鯨豚委員會」 、1998 年 Society of Wildlife and Nature in 1997, and “Taiwan 推動成立 「中華鯨豚協會」 。致力教導 Cetacean Society” in 1998, devoting herself to letting 大眾認識鯨豚、提倡保育 ,進而關心 the public know cetaceans, promoting conservation, and caring for the marine environment of Taiwan. 台灣的海洋環境。072 073

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