Ce36 construction techniques, equipments


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Ce36 construction techniques, equipments

  1. 1. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering EINSTEIN COLEGE OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT NOTES OF LESSIONS SUBJECT NAME: CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES, EQUIPMENTS AND PRACTICES SUBJECT CODE: CE 36 YEAR&SEMESTER: II, III OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this course is to make the students aware of the various omm construction techniques, practices and equipments needed for different types of ..c o construction activities. At end this course students gain the knowledge about construction ll c procedures for sub and super structures and equipment needed for construction of various types of structures from foundation to super structures. np iinp au au UNIT-1 ejj 1. CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES 15 HRS ..rre SPECIFICATION 1. General specification ww ww 2. Detailed specificationww General specification It give only general idea of the whole work and are useful in estimating the approximate cost of construction .They give general description of the different part of the building. This specification depends upon the types of building to be built. Detailed specification It gives details of each of the different types of work in the order in which the work is carried out at the site. DETAILS AND SEQUENCES OF ACTIVITIES 1. Site clearance 2. Marking 3. Earth work 4. Masonary 5. Flooring 6. Damp proofing courses
  2. 2. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering Site clearance a) Surface cleaning of grass, trees, and hillocks. b) Cleaning of all obstruction on site Marking Marking is the setting out of building works It consists of two operations. a) setting out centre line b) Setting out of trenches . Earth work After setting out of trenches, we proceed with the excavation for the foundation. The earthworks have been classified following. a)soft or loose soil b) Hard or dense soil omm c) Ordinary rock not requiring blasting ..c o d) Hard rock where blasting is allowed ll c e) Hard rock where blasting is not allowed au au MASONRY np iinp The masonry is a wall it built of individual blocks of material such as ejj stone, brick.concrete, hollow blocks, celluar concrete, laterite etc, usually in horizontal courses cemented together some form of mortar. w ..rre 1. Stone masonrywwww w The construction are made by using stone blocks is called stone masonry. Tools used in masonry 1.Trowel 2.Square 3.Plump rule 4.Spirit level 5.Line and pins 6.Bevel 7.Pick Axe 8.Crow Bar Classification of masonry a). Rubble masonry b). Ashlars masonry
  3. 3. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering a). Rubble masonry In this category the stones used either undressed or rough dressed having wider joint. The following are the classication of rubble masonry 1. Uncoursed rubble masonry 2. Uncoursed random masonry 3. Uncoursed squared rubble 4. Coursed random rubble 5. Polymer rubble masonry 6. Ploygonal rubble masonry 7. Dry rubble masonry b). Ashlars masonry This is a costlier, high grade and superior quality of masonry. This is built from accurately dressed stones with uniform and very fine joints of about 3mm thickness. om ..c om The following are the classication of Ashlars masonry` ll c 1. Ashlar fine masonry 2. Ashlar rough tooled au au 3. Ashlar rock 4. Ashlar chamfered np iinp 5. Ashlar facing ejj 6. Ashlar block in course ..rre 2. Brick masonry The construction are made by using stone blocks is called brick masonry. ww ww Tools used in masonryww 1. Trowel 2. Square 3. Plump rule 4. Spirit level 5. Line and pins 6. Bloster 7. Brick Hammer 8. Scutch The following are the classication of bonds in masonry 1. Stretcher bond 2. Header bond 3. English bond 4. Double Flemish bond 5. Single Flemish bond 6. Garden wall bond
  4. 4. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering 7. Facing bond 8. Dutch bond 9. Racking bond 3. Concrete hollow block masonry The construction are made by using hollow blocks is called concrete hollow block masonry. The common size generally adopted for building blocks are: 1.39cm*19cm*30cm 2.39cm*19cm*20cm 3.39cm*19cm*10cm FLOORING Floors are the horizontal elements of a building structure which divide the building into different levels for the purpose of creating more accommodation omm with in a restricted space one above the other and provide support for the ..c o occupants. au au ll c Types of flooring 1. Mud flooring np iinp 2 . Muram flooring ejj 3. Stone flooring 4. Cement concrete flooring ..rre 5. Glass flooring 6. Marble flooring ww ww 7. Plastic flooringww Materials used 1. Wooden blocks 2. Stones 3. Bricks 4. Concrete DAMP PROOFING COURCES The damp proofing is a treatment of a building, against dampness. Causes of dampness 1. Faulty design of structure, 2. Faulty construction 3. Use of poor quality materials in construction.
  5. 5. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering Materials used for damp proofing 1. Flexible materials 2. Semi Rigid materials 3. Rigid materials CONSTRACTION JOINTS Joints provided in reinforcement concrete construction can be classified as follows: 1. Construction joints 2. Expansion joints 3. Contraction joints 4. Sliding joints Construction joints These joints are provided at places where places of concrete has to be stopped for some reasons during construction. Expansion joints om ..c om ll c This joints permit expansion and construction. They are provided to allow for the movement of the structure and hence they come under the movement au au joint. np iinp Contraction joints ejj These joints allow only contraction. They generally consist of a simple butt joint without any bond. They are shrinkage joints to allow shrinkage. ..rre Sliding joints w ww These joints are usually formed by introducing smooth layer of plastic w between the two surfaces.ww BUILDING FOUNDATIONS a) Shallow foundation b) Deep foundation Shallow foundation The depth of foundation is less than the breadth of foundation is called Shallow foundation. Types of shallow foundation 1. Wall footing 2. Isolated footing 3. Combined footing
  6. 6. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering 4. Continious footing 5. Strap footing 6. Grilllage footing 7. Raft foundation Deep foundation The depth of foundation is greater than the breadth of foundation is called deep foundation. Types of deep foundation 1. Classification based on function 2. Classification based on materials and composition 3. Well and caissons foundation Classification based on function omm 1. Bearing piles ..c o 2. Friction piles ll c 3. Screw piles 4. Compaction piles au au 5. Uplift piles 6. Sheet piles ejj np iinp Classification based on materials and composition 1. Cement concrete piles ..rre 2. Cast in situ piles 3. under reamed piles ww ww 4. Bored compaction pilesww TEMPOARY WORKS a) Centering Temporary work used for construction of arches is called centering b) Shuttering (form work) and de-shuttering Temporary work used as a mould in which fresh concrete is poured for it to harden is called shuttering and removing of shuttering work is called deshutering. c) Scaffolding Temporary works erected for construction of masonry works, plastering, Painting, etc is called scaffolding. FABRICATION AND ERECTION OF STEEL STRUCTURES The commonly used steel section in a structure as follows 1. Plate
  7. 7. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering 2. Flats 3. Angles 4. Channels 5. Joist 6. Tees 7. Z-bars 8. Rails Equipments used in erection process The following equipments are mainly used for steel erection process. Such as Trusses, Frames, Braced domes 1. Cranes 2. Derrick poles 3. Power driven scotch derricks 4. Hand operated driven scotch derricks 5. Guy derricks cranes omm 6. Mobile cranes ..c o 7. Winches, Blocks and Jacks ll c 8. Crawer tracks au au Erection of building Most of the buildings are purpose made and hence rarely identical. Even when np iinp Identical building have to be erected, the chances are that site conditions will vary ejj to such extent that different erection procedures have to be adopted. The following facts to be consider while selecting tackle for any construction. ..rre 1. Proposed method of erection 2. Speed of erection desired ww ww 3. Height of the structures 4. Reach required of the tackleww 5. Weight and number of maximum lifts WATER PROOFING Application of water proofing materials makes the stone masonry free from Efflorescence, dampness, frost action, etc.Generally heavy petroleum Distillates, fatty oils, are excellent for waterproofing. These materials are Applied as washing coat and they may cause some temporary discoloration. Methods of water proofing 1. Brick jelly lime concrete terracing with or without tiles 2. Membrane water proofing with bituminous membrane 3. Thermal insulation combined with waterproofing for flat concrete roof 4. Water proofing and insulating Roofs by elastic membrane 5. Water proofing and insulating by mud phuska terracing with Tile brick paving
  8. 8. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering ROOF FINISHES The upper part of the building is called roof. It protect from weathering agent. Roof covering 1. Tatch covering 2. Shingles 3. Tiles 4. Asbestos-cement sheets 5. Slates AIR CONDITIONING OF BUILDING It is the process of treating air as to control simultaneously its temperature, humity, purity and distribution to meet the requirements of the conditioned Space such comfort and health of human beings, needs of industrial process, efficient working of commercial premises etc. omm Purposes ..c o 1. It is required to preserve and maintained the health, ll c comfort, and convenient Of the occupants. au au 2. Improve the working condition of theatre,offices, Banks, shops, etc. np iinp 3. Controlling the quality of air in the aero planes, ejj Railway coaches, road-car etc. w ..rre Classification air conditioning ww 1. Comfort air conditioning w 2. Industrial air conditioningww 3. Summer air conditioning Principles of comfort Air conditioning A feeling of comfort is a good indication of healthier atmospheric Condition but this atmospheric condition, in turn, depends upon The temperature, air motion and humity change for different season Of the year Hence the principle of air conditioning should involve the proper control of temperature ,humity, and air velocity so as to suit the majority of people throughout the year,givining the comfortable condition.. ACOUSTIC AND FIRE PROTECTION Acoustic The term ‘acoustic” may be defined as the science of sound and it describes the orgion, propagation and sensation of sound. Fire protection
  9. 9. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering It is practically impossible to eliminate completely the changes of fire in a Building as it is a facts no building material is fully fire –proof. Every Building has some materials which catches the fire quickly. Fire resisting materials 1. Stone 2. Brick 3. Timber 4. Glass 5. Cast iron 6. Steel 7. Concrete General guide lines for fire resisting building 1. Alaram system 2. Protection of opening 3. Common wall 4. Stairs 5. Floors om ..c om au au ll c np iinp ejj w ..rrewwww w
  10. 10. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering UNIT-II 2. SUB STRUCTURE CONSTUCTION 15HRS SUB STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION Pipe Jacking method In a situation where the sewerage pipes have to be laid in deeper ground (3 to 7 meters),the pipe jacking method will be adopted. This method not only minimizes the digging of the trench to lay the new pipes but also alleviates disruption to the public. . To form the pipe jacking or pipe omm receiving station, a temporary shaft will ..c o be set up at the proposed new manhole ll c location. au au 2. The soil in the temporary shaft is excavated ejj np iinp 3. The pipe jacking machine is then set up at the base of the shaft. Upon confirmation of the alignment, the roller cutter at the ..rre face of the cutting head machine cuts the soil in front of it. www 4. The excavated soil is then fed to the crusher through a pipe and further crushed to w smaller pieces, after which it is transported up to the ground surface in a fluid form usingww a slurry pump. 5. The excavated soil in slurry form is treated by passing it through a number of screens. 6. The dry spoil is then removed from site, so as to keep the works area clean. 7. The new pipe is lowered in sections behind the cutting head machine and gradually pushed behind the cutting head machine into the area excavated. The excavation and pipe installation cycle continues until the cutting head machine reaches the receiving station with the new pipeline laid behind it. 8. A new manhole structure is then constructed in the receiving shaft. 9. Once the manhole construction is completed, the temporary shaft is backfilled and surrounding area reinstated.
  11. 11. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering 10. Finally the manhole is cleaned and inspected by the relevant agency for handing over and commissioning of the new line. Pipe Jacking, also known as pipejacking or pipe-jacking, is a method of tunnel construction where hydraulic jacks are used to push specially made pipes through the ground behind a tunnel boring machine or shield. This technique is commonly used to create tunnels under existing structures, such as roads or railways. Tunneling Tunnel Basics A tunnel is a horizontal passageway located underground. While erosion and other forces of nature can form tunnels, in this article well talk about man made tunnels -- tunnels created by the process of excavation. There are many different ways to excavate a tunnel, including manual labor, explosives, rapid heating and cooling, tunneling machinery or a combination of these methods omm Types of Tunnels ..c o 1. Mine tunnels ll c 2. Public works tunnels au Mine tunnels are used during ore extraction, enabling laborers or equipment to access au mineral and metal deposits deep inside the earth. These tunnels are made using similar np iinp techniques as other types of tunnels, but they cost less to build. Mine tunnels are not as safe as tunnels designed for permanent occupation, however. ejj Public works tunnels carry water, sewage or gas lines across great distances. The ..rre earliest tunnels were used to transport water to, and sewage away from, heavily populated w regions. Roman engineers used an extensive network of tunnels to help carry water from ww mountain springs to cities and villages. These tunnels were part of aqueduct systems,ww w which also comprised underground chambers and sloping bridge-like structures supported by a series of arches. By A.D. 97, nine aqueducts carried approximately 85 million gallons of water a day from mountain springs to the city of Rome. Before there were trains and cars, there were transportation tunnels such as canals -- artificial waterways used for travel, shipping or irrigation. Just like railways and roadways today, canals usually ran above ground, but many required tunnels to pass efficiently through an obstacle, such as a mountain. Canal construction inspired some of the worlds earliest tunnels. The Underground Canal, located in Lancashire County and Manchester, England, was constructed from the mid- to late-1700s and includes miles of tunnels to house the underground canals. One of Americas first tunnels was the Paw Paw Tunnel, built in West Virginia between 1836 and 1850 as part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.
  12. 12. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering Although the canal no longer runs through the Paw Paw, at 3,118 feet long it is still one of the longest canal tunnels in the United States. omm Photo courtesy Eric and Edith Matson Photograph ..c o Collection/Library of Congress Prints and Photographs ll c Division au au A Roman aqueduct that runs from the Pools of Solomon to Jerusalem np iinp ejj w ..rrewwww w Photo courtesy Kmf164/ Creation Commons Attribution Share-alike License Traveling through the Holland Tunnel from Manhattan to New Jersey
  13. 13. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering By the 20th century, trains and cars had replaced canals as the primary form of transportation, leading to the construction of bigger, longer tunnels. The Holland Tunnel, completed in 1927, was one of the first roadway tunnels and is still one of the worlds greatest engineering projects. Named for the engineer who oversaw construction, the tunnel ushers nearly 100,000 vehicles daily between New York City and New Jersey. Tunnel construction takes a lot of planning. Well explore why in the next section. Tunneling technique Principal Benefits The principal benefits of jacked box tunneling are:   omm A non-intrusive construction method ..c o Minimal disturbance to surface infrastructure ll c  Traffic flows maintained throughout the construction period au  Traffic flows maintained with only minor restrictions during box installation au  An efficient structural form incorporating a low bearing pressure foundation np  iinp A high quality maintenance free structure ejj Historical development w ..rre Jacked box tunneling in the UK developed from the. pipe jacking of the mid-1960s ww Initially, small precast concrete boxes were jacked to form pedestrian subways and w portal bridge foundations. Later small boxes were jacked one on top Of another and filledww with concrete to form bridge abutments. In recent years, the development of high capacity jacking equipment and sophisticated techniques for controlling ground disturbance has led to the jacking of very large boxes each Capable of accommodating a highway, railway or flood defense channel. Several large box structures have now been installed in a wide variety of ground conditions. Anti-drag systems Referring to Fig. 1b, it can be seen that as the box is jacked forward it will tend to drag the ground along with it. In the case of a wide box at shallow cover the mass of ground on top of the box could be dragged forward, causing major disturbance and possible disruption to the infrastructure above. Similarly, the underside of the box will tend to drag and Shear the ground, resulting in remolding accompanied by a loss in volume that will cause the box to dive. These effects are minimized by the use of a proprietary anti-drag system (ADS) at the top and bottom of the box.
  14. 14. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering Jacked box tunneling The method in outline Jacked box tunneling is a non-intrusive method for constructing a new under-bridge, culvert or subway beneath existing surface infrastructure, for example railways and highways. The method enables traffic flows to be maintained throughout the construction period, and maintained with only minor restrictions during the brief period of tunneling. The inconvenience and costs of disruption to infrastructure and traffic flows experienced with traditional construction methods can be avoided. An example of the method is illustrated simply in Fig. 1. An open ended reinforced concrete box is cast on a jacking base adjacent to a railway embankment, see Fig. 1a. A purpose designed tunneling shield is provided at its leading end, and thrust jacks are provided at its rear end reacting against a jacking slab. The box is then jacked slowly omm through the ground under the railway in a carefully controlled tunneling operation, see ..c o Fig. 1b. Excavation and jacking take place alternately in small increments of advance. ll c Measures are taken to ensure stability of the tunnel face and to prevent the ground from au being dragged forward by the advancing box. When the box has reached its final position, au Fig. 1c, the shield and jacking equipment are removed, and bridge construction is np completed with the addition of wing walls and road pavement. iinp ejj ..rre ww wwww
  15. 15. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering om ..c om au au ll c np iinp ejj w ..rrewwww w
  16. 16. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering om ..c om au au ll c np iinp Tunnel Construction: Soft Ground and Hard Rock ejj Workers generally use two basic techniques to advance a tunnel. In the full-face method, ..rre they excavate the entire diameter of the tunnel at the same time. This is most suitable for tunnels passing through strong ground or for building smaller tunnels. The second www technique, shown in the diagram below, is the top-heading-and-bench method. In this w technique, workers dig a smaller tunnel known as a heading. Once the top heading haswwadvanced some distance into the rock, workers begin excavating immediately below the floor of the top heading; this is a bench. One advantage of the top-heading-and-bench method is that engineers can use the heading tunnel to gauge the stability of the rock before moving forward with the project. Notice that the diagram shows tunneling taking place from both sides. Tunnels through mountains or underwater are usually worked from the two opposite ends, or faces, of the passage. In long tunnels, vertical shafts may be dug at intervals to excavate from more than two points. Now lets look more specifically at how tunnels are excavated in each of the four primary environments: soft ground, hard rock, soft rock and underwater. Soft Ground (Earth) Workers dig soft-ground tunnels through clay, silt, sand, gravel or mud. In this type of
  17. 17. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering tunnel, stand-up time -- how long the ground will safely stand by itself at the point of excavation -- is of paramount importance. Because stand-up time is generally short when tunneling through soft ground, cave-ins are a constant threat. To prevent this from happening, engineers use a special piece of equipment called a shield. A shield is an iron or steel cylinder literally pushed into the soft soil. It carves a perfectly round hole and supports the surrounding earth while workers remove debris and install a permanent lining made of cast iron or precast concrete. When the workers complete a section, jacks push the shield forward and they repeat the process. Marc Isambard Brunel, a French engineer, invented the first tunnel shield in 1825 to excavate the Thames Tunnel in London, England. Brunels shield comprised 12 connected frames, protected on the top and sides by heavy plates called staves. He divided each frame into three workspaces, or cells, where diggers could work safely. A wall of short timbers, or breasting boards, separated each cell from the face of the tunnel. A digger would remove a breasting board, carve out three or four inches of clay m and replace the board. When all of the diggers in all of the cells had completed this om ..c o process on one section, powerful screw jacks pushed the shield forward au au ll c np iinp ejj w ..rrewwww w .
  18. 18. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering om ..c om au au ll c np iinp In 1874, Peter M. Barlow and James Henry Greathead improved on Brunels design by ejj constructing a circular shield lined with cast-iron segments. They first used the newly- ..rre designed shield to excavate a second tunnel under the Thames for pedestrian traffic. Then, in 1874, the shield was used to help excavate the London Underground, the worlds www first subway. Greathead further refined the shield design by adding compressed air w pressure inside the tunnel. When air pressure inside the tunnel exceeded water pressurewwoutside, the water stayed out. Soon, engineers in New York, Boston, Budapest and Paris had adopted the Greathead shield to build their own subways. Hard Rock Tunneling through hard rock almost always involves blasting. Workers use a scaffold, called a jumbo, to place explosives quickly and safely. The jumbo moves to the face of the tunnel, and drills mounted to the jumbo make several holes in the rock. The depth of the holes can vary depending on the type of rock, but a typical hole is about 10 feet deep and only a few inches in diameter. Next, workers pack explosives into the holes, evacuate the tunnel and detonate the charges. After vacuuming out the noxious fumes created during the explosion, workers can enter and begin carrying out the debris, known as muck, using carts. Then they repeat the process, which advances the tunnel slowly through the rock.
  19. 19. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering Fire-setting is an alternative to blasting. In this technique, the tunnel wall is heated with fire, and then cooled with water. The rapid expansion and contraction caused by the sudden temperature change causes large chunks of rock to break off. The Cloaca Maxima, one of Romes oldest sewer tunnels, was built using this technique. The stand-up time for solid, very hard rock may measure in centuries. In this environment, extra support for the tunnel roof and walls may not be required. However, most tunnels pass through rock that contains breaks or pockets of fractured rock, so engineers must add additional support in the form of bolts, sprayed concrete or rings of steel beams. In most cases, they add a permanent concrete lining. Well look at tunnel driving through soft rock and driving underwater next Other tunneling methods include:  Drilling and blasting  Slurry-shield machine  omm Wall-cover construction method. ..c o ll c Other uses au au Excavation techniques, as well as the construction of underground bunkers and other habitable areas, are often associated with military use during armed conflict, or civilian np iinp responses to threat of attack. The use of tunnels for mining is called drift mining. One of ejj the strangest uses of a tunnel was for the storage of chemical weapons ..rre Natural tunnel w ww  Natural Tunnel State Park (Virginia, USA) features an 850 feet (259 m) naturalww w  tunnel, really a limestone cave, that has been used as a railroad tunnel since 1890. Punarjani Guha Kerala, India. Hindus believe that crawling through the tunnel (which they believe was created by a Hindu god) from one end to the other will wash away all of one’s sins and thus attain rebirth, although only men are permitted to crawl through the cave. Snow tunnels are created by voles, chipmunks and other rodents for protection and access to food sources. Larger versions are created by humans, usually for fun. For more information regarding tunnels built by animals, see Burrow Temporary Way During construction of a tunnel it is often convenient to install a temporary railway particularly to remove spoil. This temporary railway is often narrow gauge so that it can be double track, which facilitates the operation of empty and loaded trains at the same
  20. 20. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering time. The temporary way is replaced by the permanent way at completion, thus explaining the term Perway. The diagram below shows the relationship between these underground structures in a typical mountain tunnel. The opening of the tunnel is a portal. The "roof" of the tunnel, or the top half of the tube, is the crown. The bottom half is the invert. The basic geometry of the tunnel is a continuous arch. Because tunnels must withstand tremendous pressure from all sides, the arch is an ideal shape. In the case of a tunnel, the arch simply goes all the way around om ..c om au au ll c np iinp ejj w ..rrewwww w Diaphragm Walls A diaphragm wall is a reinforced concrete wall constructed in the ground using under slurry techniques. Walls with widths of between 300mm and 1500mm can be formed in this way to depths in excess of 60 meters. Positive Features  Walls can be installed to considerable depths  Walls with substantial thickness can be formed
  21. 21. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering  The system is flexible in plan layout  The wall can easily be incorporated into the permanent works  The wall, or certain sections, can be designed to carry vertical load  Basement construction time can be reduced  Economical, positive solution for large, deep basements in saturated and unstable soil profiles  Noise levels limited to engine noise only  No vibration during installation Other Considerations  Not normally economical for small, shallow basements  The system needs a relatively large site area Under certain conditions diaphragm walls may be used as cantilever, braced or tie-back walls. Diaphragm walls are necessary :  omm in very unstable soil profiles below the water-table where continuous support and ..c o watertight conditions are required to prevent mud flows, piping and erosion of the ll c soils;  where construction time is important and the use of a diaphragm wall can shorten au au the programme;  in conditions where deeper than normal cantilever support may be required. These np iinp conditions could occur where the wall is to act only as a cantilever, or where a ejj very deep initial excavation is required before the first braced or tie-back supports can be installed. w ..rre ww Diaphragm wall is a kind of retaining wall which appropriate for using in a limited area w of work and better protection than the "Sheet Pile" type. Diaphragm wall can deepww penetrate vertically and perform as a pile in carrying the weight. Then this wall is best for the building which has a deep foundation or many storeys of underground level. With selected and carefully quality control for materials used such as concrete, steel bar, and bentonite for stronger and better reinforcement.
  22. 22. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering Typical Details for Diaphragm Wall Construction om ..c om au au ll c np iinp ejj w ..rrewwww w
  23. 23. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering om ..c om au au ll c np iinp ejj w ..rrewwww w Diaphragm Wall Construction photos
  24. 24. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering SHORING Shoring is the process of placing props against the side of a structure, or beneath or above anything, to prevent sinking or sagging. During and after battle, ships may have occasion to support ruptured decks, to strengthen weakened bulkheads, to build up temporary bulkheads against the sea, to support hatches and doors, and to provide props for equipment that has broken loose. This is done largely by shoring. A shore is a portable beam. A wedge is a block, triangular on the sides and rectangular on the butt end. A shole is a flat plate which may be placed under the end of a shore to distribute weight or pressure. A strongback is a bar or beam, often shorter than a shore, and used to distribute pressure or to serve as an anchor for a patch over a hole. Any of the foregoing items can be made of metal or of wood. Tools used for shoring omm In addition to shores, wedges, Sholes, and strong-backs, the following tools, materials ..c o and equipment are often used in connection with shoring ll c 1. Axes. 2. Battens (wooden). au au 3. Bolts, nuts and washers. 4. Canvas. np iinp 5. Chain falls. ejj 6. Chisels (cold). 7. Chisels (wood). ..rre 8. Electric welding machine. 9. Hammers (claw). www 10. Hatchets. w 11. Hydraulic jacks.ww 12. Mattresses. 13. Mauls and sledges. 14. Nails. 15. Oxyacetylene cutting torches. 16. Pillows. 17. Plugs (wooden). 18. Sand. 19. Saws (carpenters hand). 20. Saws (lumberjacks cross-cut). 21. Screw jacks 22. Sheet packing. 23. Turnbuckles. 24. Wire (binding). 25. Wire hawser. 26. Wood clamps
  25. 25. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering om ..c om au au ll c np iinp ejj w ..rrewwww w
  26. 26. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering om ..c om au au ll c np iinp ejj w ..rrewwww w
  27. 27. www.rejinpaul.com © Einstein College of Engineering om ..c om au au ll c np iinp ejj w ..rrewwww w