Simulation ofCommunication Systems Second Edition
Information Technology: Transmission, Processing, and StorageSeries Editor: Jack Keil Wolf University of California at San Diego La Jolla, CaliforniaEditorial Board: James E. Mazo Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies Murray Hill, New Jersey John Proakis Northeastern University Boston, Massachusetts William H. Tranter Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blacksburg, VirginiaMulti-Carrier Digital Communications: Theory and Applications of OFDMAhmad R. S. Bahai and Burton R. SaltzbergPrinciples of Digital Transmission: With Wireless ApplicationsSergio Benedetto and Ezio BiglieriSimulation of Communication Systems, Second Edition: Methodology,Modeling, and TechniquesMichel C. Jeruchim, Philip Balaban, and K. Sam ShanmuganA Continuation Order Plan is available for this series. A continuation order will bring delivery of each new volumeimmediately upon publication. Volumes are billed only upon actual shipment. For further information please contactthe publisher.
Simulation ofCommunication Systems Second EditionModeling, Methodology, and TechniquesMichel C. JeruchimLockheed Martin Management & Data SystemsValley Forge, PennsylvaniaPhilip BalabanAT&T LaboratoriesHolmdel, New JerseyK. Sam ShanmuganUniversity of KansasLawrence, KansasKLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERSNEW YORK, BOSTON, DORDRECHT, LONDON, MOSCOW
ToJoan, Claude, and Kenny and to the memory of my parents, Sonia and Samuel —MCJAnna, to Victor and Nona and their families and to the memory of my parents, Shifra and Israel —PBRadha, Kannon, and Ravi and to the memory of my parents —KSS
PrefaceSince the first edition of the book was published, the field of modeling and simulation ofcommunication systems has grown and matured in many ways, and the use of simulation as aday-to-day tool is now even more common practice. Many new modeling and simulationapproaches have been developed in the recent years, many more commercial simulationpackages are available, and the evolution of powerful general mathematical applicationspackages has provided still more options for computer-aided design and analysis. With thecurrent interest in digital mobile communications, a primary area of application of modelingand simulation is now to wireless systems of a different flavor than the traditional ones. Since the objective of modeling and simulation is to study and evaluate the behavior andperformance of systems of current interest, the practice of simulation has naturally evolvedalong with the types of systems that have emerged or are being designed for the future.Nevertheless, to the extent that simulation is an embodiment of fundamental principles ofseveral disciplines, communication theory in particular, the practice of modeling and simu-lation is still very much grounded in those basics. It is these principles, along with the manytricks of the trade that accompany their application, that still form the main focus of thissecond edition. This edition represents a substantial revision of the first, partly to accommodate the newapplications that have arisen. The text has been extensively reorganized and expanded. It nowcontains 13 chapters instead of the previous 7. Some of the former chapters have been dividedinto more logical units, edited for greater clarity where needed, and extended in coverage forselected topics. This division was made in part to facilitate the use of this book as a teachingtext. Two new chapters were added on material only lightly covered in the first edition. Onenew chapter, on modeling and simulation of nonlinear systems, provides a fairly extensivediscussion of “black-box” modeling of nonlinear systems with memory, and a comple-mentary section on related measurement techniques. As hinted above, perhaps the mostdramatic change in the communications/telecommunications industry since the first editionhas been the explosion of wireless services. In consequence, we have included a new chapteron channel modeling, the bulk of which deals with multipath and fading channels, the usualenvironment for wireless systems. As in the first edition, one chapter provides several casestudies as a means of illustrating different ways of approaching a problem and applyingspecific modeling and computational techniques from the arsenal of possibilities available tothe simulation practitioner. The first case study is a thoroughly reworked version of a previous vii
viii Prefaceone, and three new case studies are given. A consolidated set of problems can be foundfollowing Chapter 12. By their nature, simulation and modeling embrace the whole of the fields to which theyare applied. To cover such a breadth of material, even larger now than in the first edition, wehave had again to rely on the generosity of friends and colleagues to provide us with adviceand material on various topics. First, we would like to reacknowledge the contributors to thefirst edition, whose contributions by and large still live in these pages. For the second edition, the list has grown longer. To our good friend and colleague atLockheed Martin M&DS, Dr. Robert J. Wolfe, mathematician and statistician par excellence,we extend our gratitude for innumerable pieces of advice, proofs, and inputs on coding,nonlinear differential equations, random number generation, and interpolation, among others.Dr Wolfe also reviewed several chapters and provided the basic material for the section onlarge-deviations theory (Section 188.8.131.52.2). Numerous contributions were also made by othermembers of the Communications Analysis and Simulation Group at Lockheed MartinM&DS. Aside from Bob Wolfe’s work just mentioned, Douglas Castor and Dr. GregoryMaskarinec kindly made available their previously published work on minimum-shift-keying,which was edited into Case Study III in Chapter 12. In addition, Doug generated all thefigures and carefully reviewed the final manuscript for that case study. We also benefited frommany discussions with Dr. Maskarinec about nonlinear modeling, based on his extensivesurvey of the literature; Greg also reviewed Chapter 5 and contributed the model in Section184.108.40.206. We appreciate the efforts of Gregory Sternberg, who used his expertise in Mathe-matica to compute Table 11.1 and to generate Figures 11.23 and 11.24. We thank PaulBeauvilliers for using his experience in simulating phase-locked loops to produce the materialfor Example 8.12.2 and the associated figures. We also express our appreciation to DanielMcGahey, who supplied the block diagram, its details, and the timing information that formthe basis for the discussion in Section 11.2.1. The team of Dr. Christopher Silva, Christopher Clark, Dr. Andrew Moulthrop, andMichael Muha at Aerospace Corporation were most generous in lending us the benefit of theirexperience and knowledge in nonlinear system modeling and measurement. The teamsupplied Section 5.5 on measurement techniques for nonlinear components. Dr. Silva wentbeyond the call of duty by providing the material on generalized Volterra models and poly-spectral models in Section 5.3.3, as well as the material in Section 220.127.116.11, supplying severalof the related problems, and thoroughly reviewing Chapter 5. Chris Clark is also to bethanked individually for writing Section 18.104.22.168 on nonlinear parametric discrete-timemodels. We have also benefited from numerous discussions with Harvey Berger of TRW onhis published and unpublished work in nonlinear amplifier modeling. Several individuals presently or formerly at AT&T Laboratories, or formerly with BellLaboratories, made contributions that we would like to acknowledge. Our appreciation isextended to Dr. William Turin, who codeveloped and coauthored Case Study IV in Chapter12; Bill also kindly reviewed sections of the book dealing with Markov models. We also thankDr. Don Li for his contributions as a codeveloper of the material in Case Study IV We aremost grateful to Dr. Thomas M. Willis III for contributing the material on shadow fading i nChapter 9. We also express our gratitude to Dr. Seong (Sam) Kim for providing the materialand the figures on indoor channel modeling in Chapter 9. We also acknowledge manydiscussions with Dr. Zoran Kostic on the workings of code division multiple-access (CDMA)systems; his advice helped shape Case Study IV We are indebted to Prof. Irving Kalet of the Technion, Haifa, Israel, for providing thematerial (and its iterations) on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) that
Preface ixappears in Section 22.214.171.124. We much appreciate the efforts of Prof. J. Keith Townsend ofNorth Carolina State University for many discussions on importance sampling, for inputs intoSection 126.96.36.199 on stochastic importance sampling, and for the whole of Section 11.2.6 onimportance splitting. Keith also made other materials available that could not be accom-modated for space reasons. We thank Dr. Faroukh Abrishamkar of Qualcomm for his adviceon CDMA system modeling and for providing some of the reference channel models in theAppendix to Chapter 9. Professor Vasant Prabhu of the University of Texas at Arlington wasmost kind to provide us with several problems that he uses for his course in simulation, andlikewise we are pleased to acknowledge Prof. Brian Woerner of Virginia Polytechnic Institutefor providing us with a number of projects following Chapter 12. Finally, we renew our acknowledgment to our families for bearing with us—a secondtime—through this long process. Michel C. Jeruchim Philip Balaban K. Sam Shanmugan