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  • 1. Megger PO Box 118 Cherrybrook NSW 2126 FAULT FINDING AUSTRALIA T +61 (0)2 9875 4765 F +61 (0)2 9875 1094 E Megger SOLUTIONS PO Box 15777 Kingdom of BAHRAIN T +973 254752 F +973 274232 E Megger Limited 110 Milner Avenue Unit 1 Scarborough Ontario M1S 3R2 CANADA T 1 800 297 9688 (Canada only) T +1 416 298 6770 F +1 416 298 0848 E Megger SARL 23 rue Eugène Henaff ZA du Buisson de la Couldre 78190 TRAPPES T +01 30 16 08 90 F +01 34 61 23 77 E Megger PO Box 12052 Mumbai 400 053 INDIA See us on the web at T +91 22 6315114 F +91 22 6328004 E Megger MBE No 393 1-800-723-2861 C/Modesto Lafuente 58 28003 Madrid Tel: 1-214-330-3255 ESPAÑA T + 44 1304 502101 Fax: 1-214-333-3533 F + 44 1304 207342 c f l @ m e g g e r. c o m E Megger Limited Archcliffe Road Dover CT17 9EN UK T +44 (0) 1304 502100 F +44 (0) 1304 207342 E Megger 4271 Bronze Way Dallas, TX 75237-1088 USA T 1 800 723 2861 (USA only) T +1 214 333 3201 F +1 214 331 7399 E WWW.MEGGER.COM WWW.MEGGER.COMThe word “Megger” is a registered trademarkMEG-231/MIL/3M/11.2003
  • 2. Table of ContentsSection Page Section PageI Cable Characteristics V Surge Generators, Filters and Couplers Good Cable Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Surge Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 When Cable Insulation is Bad . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Why a cable becomes bad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Cable Faults Described . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Basic Surge Generator Operation . . . . . . . . . .21II Fault Locating Procedures Proof/Burn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Locate Faults in Buried Primary Cable . . . . . . . .4 Surge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Test the cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Fault resistance and loop test . . . . . . . . . . . .4 TDR tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Single Point Grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 DC hipot test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Arc Reflection Filters and Couplers . . . . . . . . .22 Analyze the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 VI Localizing Methods Fault resistance and loop test . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 TDR tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Sectionalizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 DC Hipot test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Resistance ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Cable Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Electromagnetic surge detection . . . . . . . . .25 Localize - prelocate the fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Single phase, coaxial power cable with neutral bridges over splices . . . . . . .25 Locate - pinpoint the fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Single phase PILC cable with bonded Locate Faults in Above Ground grounds in conduit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Primary Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Three-phase PILC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26III Cable Route Tracers/Locators DART Analyzer/High-Voltage Radar . . . . . . . .27 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Arc reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Selecting a Locator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Differential arc reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Hookups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Surge pulse reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Using the Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Voltage decay reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29IV How to See Underground Cable Problems VII Locating or Pinpointing Methods Methods of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Acoustic Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Time domain reflectometry . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Electromagnetic Surge Detection . . . . . . . . . .31 Differential TDR/radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Electromagnetic/Acoustic Surge Detection . . .31 Descriptions and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Earth Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Low-voltage TDR/cable radar . . . . . . . . . . . .13 VIII Solutions for Cable Fault Locating Faults that a low-voltage TDR will display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Underground Utility Locating and Tracing Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Landmarks that a low-voltage TDR will display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Time Domain Reflectometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Controls and Inputs to the TDR . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Cable Fault Pinpointing Equipment . . . . . . . . .36 Velocity of propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 High-Voltage DC Dielectric Test Sets . . . . . . . .37 Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Suitcase Impulse Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Cable Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Cursors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Power Fault Locators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Zoom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Impulse Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Pulse width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Distance Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Three-stake method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 3. Table of FiguresFigure Page Figure Page1 Good insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 28 TDR used to measure distance to open in conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 Equivalent circuit of good cable . . . . . . . . . .2 29 TDR used to localize distance to splice . . . .173 Bad insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 30 TDR used to localize distance to T-tap . . . . .184 Ground or shunt fault on the cable . . . . . . . .3 31 TDR used to localize distance to5 Fault region simplified diagram . . . . . . . . . . .3 fault relative to a landmark . . . . . . . . . . . . .186 Open or series fault on the cable . . . . . . . . . .3 32 Three-stake method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 Test for insulation (fault) resistance 33 Block diagram of surge generator . . . . . . . .19 using a Megger® insulation tester . . . . . . . . .4 34 Energy vs. voltage for a 4-µF, 25-kV8 Loop test for continuity using a surge generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Megger insulation tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 35 Energy vs. voltage for a 12-µF, 16-kV9 TDR test for cable length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 surge generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2010 TDR test for continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 36 Energy vs. voltage for a constant11 How cable locators work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 energy 12-µF, 16/32-kV surge generator . . .2012 Cable under test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 37 Acoustic shock wave from arcing fault . . . .2113 Using an ohmmeter to measure 38 Single point grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 resistance of the circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 39 Inductive arc reflection diagram . . . . . . . . .2314 Hookup showing ground rod at 40 Resistive arc reflection diagram . . . . . . . . . .23 far end of cable under test . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 41 Sectionalizing method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2415 Hookup with far end of cable under test isolated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 42 Basic Wheatstone Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2416 Current coupler connection to 43 Murray Loop Bridge application . . . . . . . . .24 neutral on primary jacketed cable . . . . . . . . .9 44 Application of Bridge/TDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2517 Inductive coupling to neutral on primary jacketed cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 45 Coaxial power cable with neutral bridges over splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2518 Use of return wire to improve current loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 46 Electromagnetic detection in single-phase PILC cable with bonded grounds . . . . . . . . .2619 Circling path with receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 47 Electromagnetic detection of faults on20 No interference, no offset between three-phase power cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 magnetic field center and center of cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 48 Arc reflection method of HV radar . . . . . . .2721 Depth measurement using null method 49 Arc reflection and differential arc with antenna at 45-degree angle . . . . . . . .11 reflection methods of HV radar . . . . . . . . . .2722 Offset caused by interference from 50 Surge pulse reflection method nontarget cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 of HV radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2823 Aircraft radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 51 Decay method of HV radar . . . . . . . . . . . . .2924 TDR reflections from perfect cable . . . . . . .13 52 Acoustic surge detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3025 TDR used to measure length of cable 53 Electromagnetic pinpointing . . . . . . . . . . . .31 with far end open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 54 Acoustic/electromagnetic pinpointing . . . . .3226 TDR used to measure length of cable 55 SD-3000 display at positions 1, 2, & 3 . . . . .33 with far end shorted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 56 AC voltage gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3327 TDR measuring distance to a low-resistance fault to ground . . . . . . . . . . .15 57 DC voltage gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Fault Finding Solutions 1
  • 4. Cable Characteristics SECTION IGOOD CABLE INSULATION WHEN CABLE INSULATION IS BADWhen voltage is impressed across any insulation When the magnitude of the leakage currentsystem, some current leaks into, through, and exceeds the design limit, the cable will no longeraround the insulation. When testing with dc high- deliver energy efficiently. See Figure 3.voltage, capacitive charging current, insulationabsorption current, insulation leakage current, and Why A Cable Becomes Badby-pass current are all present to some degree. For All insulation deteriorates naturally with age,the purposes of this document on cable fault especially when exposed to elevated temperaturelocating, only leakage current through the insula- due to high loading and even when it is not physi-tion will be considered. cally damaged. In this case, there is a distributedFor shielded cable, insulation is used to limit cur- flow of leakage current during a test or whilerent leakage between the phase conductor and energized. Many substances such as water, oil andground or between two conductors of differing chemicals can contaminate and shorten the life ofpotential. As long as the leakage current does not insulation and cause serious problems. Cross-linkedexceed a specific design limit, the cable is judged polyethylene (XLPE) insulation is subject to a con-good and is able to deliver electrical energy to a dition termed treeing. It has been found that theload efficiently. presence of moisture containing contaminants, irregular surfaces or protrusions into the insulationCable insulation may be considered good when plus electrical stress provides the proper environ-leakage current is negligible but since there is no ment for inception and growth of these treesperfect insulator even good insulation allows some within the polyethylene material. Testing indicatessmall amount of leakage current measured in that the ac breakdown strength of these treedmicroamperes. See Figure 1. cables is dramatically reduced. Damage caused by lightning, fire, or overheating may require replace- ment of the cable to restore service. µAmps Inductance Series Resistance L RS HV Test Set Z0 Capacitance Parallel Z0 C Resistance RPFigure 1: Good insulationThe electrical equivalent circuit of a good run ofcable is shown in Figure 2. If the insulation were Figure 2: Equivalent circuit of good cableperfect, the parallel resistance RP would not existand the insulation would appear as strictly capaci-tance. Since no insulation is perfect, the parallel orinsulation resistance exists. This is the resistancemeasured during a test using a Megger® Insulation mAmpsTester. Current flowing through this resistance ismeasured when performing a dc hipot test asshown in Figure 1. The combined inductance (L),series resistance (RS), capacitance (C) and parallelresistance (RP) as shown in Figure 2 is defined as HV Testthe characteristic impedance (Z0) of the cable. Set Figure 3: Bad insulation 2 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 5. Cable Characteristics SECTION ICABLE FAULTS DESCRIBED Phase ConductorWhen at some local point in a cable, insulation hasdeteriorated to a degree that a breakdown occursallowing a surge of current to ground, the cable isreferred to as a faulted cable and the position of Spark Gapmaximum leakage may be considered a cata- Gstrophic insulation failure. See Figure 4. At this Fault Resistancelocation the insulation or parallel resistance has RFbeen drastically reduced and a spark gap hasdeveloped. See Figure 5.Occasionally a series fault shown in Figure 6 candevelop due to a blown open phase conductorcaused by high fault current, a dig-in or a failed Shield or Neutralsplice. Figure 5: Fault region simplified diagram mAmps Spark Gap G Phase Conductor HV Test Fault Fault Resistance Set RFFigure 4: Ground or shunt fault on the cable Shield or Neutral Figure 6: Open or series fault on the cable Fault Finding Solutions 3
  • 6. Fault Locating Procedures SECTION IILOCATE FAULTS IN BURIED PRIMARY CABLE ■ At end A, connect the instrument between eachAfter all clearances have been obtained and the of the other phase conductors, if any, andcable has been isolated in preparation for cable ground and record the insulation resistancefault locating, it is strongly recommended that a readings.fixed plan of attack be followed for locating the ■ After connecting a short between the phase andfault. As in diagnosing any complex problem, fol- neutral at end B (Figure 8), do a loop test forlowing a set step-by-step procedure will help in continuity at end A using the ohms or continuityarriving at the solution or, in this case, pinpointing range on the instrument. If a reading of greaterthe fault efficiently. than 10 ohms is obtained when the cable has aAt the very start, it is a good idea to gather as concentric neutral, test the conductor and neu-much information as possible about the cable tral independently by using a nearby good cableunder test. Information that will help in the fault as a return path. This will help to determinelocating process is: whether it is the conductor or neutral that is the problem. A reading in the hundreds of ohms■ Cable type — is it lead covered, concentric neu- is a good indication of corroded neutral if work- tral (bare or jacketed), tape shield? ing on a bare concentric-type cable. If no nearby■ Insulation type — is it XLPE, EPR, Paper? good cable is available, use a long insulated con- ductor to complete the loop from end B. If a■ Conductor and size — is it CU, AL, stranded, reading of infinity is measured either the phase solid, 2/0, 350 MCM? conductor or the neutral is completely open■ Length of the run — how long is it? between end A and end B which could be caused by a dig-in or a fault that has blown■ Splices — are there splices, are the locations open the phase conductor. known? ■ Repeat all tests from end B and record all■ T-taps or wye splices — are there any taps, are readings. the locations known, how long are branches?After obtaining the cable description the acronym“TALL” can help you remember the procedure forfinding cable faults in buried cable. TEST ANALYZE LOCALIZE LOCATE End A End BTEST THE CABLE MEGGER InsulationFault Resistance and Loop Test TesterAlthough most faults occur between phase Faultand ground, series opens also occur such asa blown open splice or a dig-in. Phase-to-phase faults can also occur on multi- phaseruns. Helpful information can be gathered Figure 7: Test for insulation (fault) resistance using awith a Megger® Insulation Tester that has Megger® insulation testerboth megohm and an ohm (continuity)range.Make a series of measurements as follows: End A End B■ At end A, connect the instrument MEGGER between the faulted conductor and Insulation Tester ground as shown in Figure 7. Using an insulation resistance range, measure and Fault record this resistance reading. Shorting Strap or Grounding Elbow Figure 8: Loop test for continuity using a Megger® insulation tester 4 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 7. Fault Locating Procedures SECTION IITDR Tests End A End BRefer to Section IV for details on the use of theTime Domain Reflectometer. TDR■ At end A, connect a TDR or DART® Cable Fault Analyzer (use the TDR mode) between the fault- ed conductor and neutral or shield as shown in Figure 9. Look for an upward reflection from the open end of the cable and measure the length to the open using the cursors. Figure 9: TDR test for cable length■ After connecting a short between phase and neutral at end B (Figure 10), look for the down- ward indication of a short circuit at the cable end on the TDR. If the TDR shows an alternating End A End B open and short when alternately removing and applying the ground at the end of the cable, the TDR phase and shield are continuous to the cable Fault end. If the short does not appear on the TDR and a high resistance was read during the loop Shorting Strap or Grounding Elbow test, either the phase or shield is open at some point before the cable end.■ If a downward reflection is observed on the TDR Figure 10: TDR test for continuity and the fault resistance measured less than 200 Ω in the test, the fault has been found. If a downward reflection is observed on the TDR and If tests indicate insulation (fault) resistance values the fault resistance measured greater than 200 Ω less than 10 ohms, it may not be possible to create in the test, there is likely a T-tap or wye splice at a flashover at the fault site when surge generator that location. methods are used. This type of fault is often referred to as a bolted fault. A TDR can be used toDC Hipot Test locate this type of fault.After a surge generator is connected to the cableunder test, do a quick dc proof test to be sure the If a measurement of very low resistance in ohms iscable is faulted and will not hold voltage. Make a made from one end and a high resistance innote of the kilovolt measurement when the fault megohms from the other end, it is likely that thebreaks down. This will be an indicator of what phase conductor or a splice is blown open.voltage will be required when surging in order If the loop test indicates a resistance reading inbreak down the fault when doing prelocation or the 10 to 1000 ohm range and particularly if thepinpointing. If there are transformers connected reading varies during the measurement, there isto the cable under test, a proof test will always very likely neutral corrosion on the cable. Thisindicate a failure due to the low resistance path to could affect success when performing localizingground through the transformer primary winding. and locating procedures. If the loop test measure-A dc proof test in this case is not a valid test. ment is infinity, indicating an open circuit, either the phase conductor or a splice has blown open orANALYZE THE DATA a dig-in has occurred.Fault Resistance and Loop Test TDR TestsIf the insulation resistance of the faulted conduc- If the TDR tests indicate a shorter than expectedtor is less than 50 Ω or more than one MΩ, the cable length with no change of reflections when afault will be relatively easy to prelocate but may short is applied to the cable end there is likely abe difficult to pinpoint. For values between 50 Ω blown open splice or phase conductor or a dig-inand 1 MΩ, the fault may be more difficult to has occurred. If the TDR tests indicate a longerlocate. Some reasons for the difficulty with these than expected cable run, a thorough route tracefaults is the possible presence of oil or water in may be in order to detect additional cable notthe faulted cavity or the presence of multiple indicated on maps.faults. Fault Finding Solutions 5
  • 8. Fault Locating Procedures SECTION IIDC Hipot Test Voltage gradient test sets are effective in pinpoint- ing faults on direct-buried secondary cable but theIf the cable holds voltage during the dc hipot test, method depends on the fault existing betweenthe cable may be good. If the cable is faulted, conductor and earth. When the cable is in conduit,burning may be required to reduce the breakdown a different method must be used. When a singlevoltage required when surging or you have con- conductor is contained within a plastic conduit,nected to the wrong phase. shorts cannot occur unless water gains access through a crack or other entry point. When a faultCable Route develops, leakage current flows from the conduc-At this point, it is recommended that the cable tor through the break in insulation, and then fol-route be determined or confirmed by consulting lows the water to the break in the conduit toaccurate maps or actually tracing the cable route. earth. If voltage gradient is used, the location ofSee Section III. When attempting to localize or the crack in the conduit could be found, but thelocate the cable fault, prelocation measurements location of the fault in the insulation wouldand pinpointing techniques must be made over remain unknown.the actual cable path. Being off the route by as lit-tle as a few feet may make the locate an extreme- LOCATE FAULTS IN ABOVE GROUND PRIMARYly difficult and time-consuming process. CABLE Some faults can be found by searching for obviousLOCALIZE - PRELOCATE THE FAULT physical damage to the cable especially if the cableSelection of a localizing technique is based, at section is short. If necessary, connect a surge gen-least in part, on the character of the fault. Several erator and walk the cable and listen for the dis-techniques are fully described in Section VI. They charge. If the cable is very long it might take aare as follows: good deal of time to walk the cable while the■ Sectionalizing surge generator is on. To reduce the total time spent and to minimize high-voltage exposure to■ Bridge — single faults the cable, use a localizing technique before■ TDR/low-voltage radar — faults measuring less attempting to pinpoint the fault. than 200 Ω and all opens Once the fault is localized, a listening aid is used■ High-voltage radar methods — all faults arc to zero in on the thump that occurs when the reflection, surge pulse reflection and decay surge generator breaks down the fault. For metal- to-metal (bolted) faults on non-buried cable, an■ Electromagnetic impulse detection — all shorts electromagnetic impulse detector may help to pin- and some opens point the fault. The use of electromagnetic impulse detectors is discussed in detail in SectionLOCATE - PINPOINT THE FAULT VI.Locating, often referred to as pinpointing, is nec-essary before digging up direct buried cable. Afterthe fault has been localized, a surge generator isconnected to one end of the faulted cable andthen listening in the localized area for the telltalethump from the fault. When the thump is not loudenough to hear, it may be necessary to use a surgedetector or an acoustic impulse detector to pin-point the fault. 6 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 9. Cable Route Tracers/Cable Locators SECTION IIIOVERVIEW ■ Is the cable shielded or unshielded?Before attempting to locate underground cable ■ Is the cable direct buried or in conduit?faults on direct buried primary cable, it is neces-sary to know where the cable is located and what ■ Are there metal pipes or other undergroundroute it takes. If the fault is on secondary cable, structures under, over or near the target cable?knowing the exact route is even more critical. ■ Is the target cable connected to other cables orSince it is extremely difficult to find a cable fault pipes through grounded neutrals?without knowing where the cable is, it makessense to master cable locating and tracing and to This information will help to select the mostdo a cable trace before beginning the fault locat- appropriate locator and to prepare to locate theing process. cable successfully. See Figure 12.Success in locating or tracing the route of electricalcable and metal pipe depends upon knowledge,skill, and perhaps, most of all,experience. Although locating can Receiver Antennabe a complex job, it will very likely Electromagnetic Field AC Current Flowbecome even more complex as Produced by Current Flowmore and more underground Transmitterplant is installed. It is just asimportant to understand how theequipment works as it is to bethoroughly familiar with the exactequipment being used. Nearby Cables and/or PipesAll popular locators/tracers consistof two basic modules:The transmitter — an ac generator Current Return Pathswhich supplies the signal currenton the underground cable or pipeto be traced. Figure 11: How cable locators workThe receiver — detects the electro-magnetic field produced by thetransmitted ac current flow. SeeFigure 11. Interfering Cables and PipesBefore starting, it will be helpfulto obtain the following informa-tion: Cable to be traced■ What type of cable is it?■ Is the cable the same type all the way along its length? Tee or Wye Splice■ Is the target cable the only cable in the trench?■ Are there any taps?■ Is the cable run single phase or Figure 12: Cable under test multiphase?7 MEGGER Fault Finding Solutions 7
  • 10. Cable Route Tracers/Cable Locators SECTION IIIMany transmitters are equippedwith some means of indicating theresistance of the circuit that it istrying to pump current throughand can indicate a measurement Ohmmeterof the current actually being trans-mitted. Output current can bechecked in several ways as follows: If the resistance is too high, ground the far end■ By measuring the resistance of the circuit with an ohmmeter. When the resistance is less than approximately 80,000 Ω, there will typically be enough current flowing in the cable to allow a If the resistance is still too high, connect an insulated jumper wire for the return path good job of tracing. This is no guarantee that the transmitted current is passing through the Figure 13: Using an ohmmeter to measure resistance of the circuit target cable. The measured resistance may be affected by other circuits or pipes electrically connected to the target cable acting as parallel resistances. SELECTING A LOCATOR See Figure 13. Cable locating test sets, often referred to as cable tracers, may be grouped as follows:■ By observing the actual signal strength being transmitted by the transmitter. Many transmit- ■ Low frequency — usually less than 20 kHz some- ters provide a measurement or some indication times referred to as audio frequency (AF). of output current. A loading indicator on the ■ High frequency — usually higher than 20 kHz Portable Locator Model L1070 blinks to indicate and in the radio frequency (RF) range to about the approximate circuit resistance. A rate of four 80 kHz. blinks per second indicates a low resistance, almost a short circuit providing a very traceable ■ 60 Hz — most tracers provide this mode to allow signal. A rate of one blink every three seconds tracing of energized cables. shows a high resistance and a weaker signal. Low frequency (AF) is considered the general-pur-■ By observing the signal power detected by the pose selection because it is more effective in trac- receiver. Signal level indicator numbers are dis- ing the route of cables located in congested areas played digitally on most receivers and older due to less capacitive coupling to everything else models may display signal power with analog in the ground. Low frequency can be more effec- meters. The L1070 has both an analog style sig- tive over greater distances due to less capacitive nal strength bargraph plus a digital numeric leakage and because higher signal power is readout. Tracing experience gives the operator allowed by the FCC. The use of high frequency (RF) the ability to judge whether or not the numbers is typical in non-congested areas on relatively short are high enough. This is the most practical way lengths of cable or when a return path cannot be to check signal current flow. provided from the far end. If a proper return path is provided, either low or high frequencies can beRemember, the more current flow through the used effectively for very long distances. The L1070conductor the stronger the electromagnetic field allows selection of AF, RF, both AF and RF, or 60 Hzbeing detected by the receiver and the further as required by the specific application.from the conductor being traced the less field isbeing detected. 8 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 11. Cable Route Tracers/Cable Locators SECTION IIIHOOKUPS contact. Connect the other lead (usually black) to aWhen a direct-buried secondary cable is to be temporary metal ground probe and check that thetraced, the transmitter is connected to the conduc- pin is making good contact with the earth. Whentor. When coaxial types of primary cable are the earth is dry it may be necessary to use a longertraced, the signal may be transmitted along either metallic ground stake or to pour water on thethe phase conductor or the neutral. ground rod to give it better contact with the earth. Place the ground rod off to the side as farWhenever possible use the direct connection away from the target cable as practical, but try tomethod with the test leads supplied with the loca- avoid crossing over neighboring cables and pipes.tor. This is often referred to as the conductive It may be necessary to vary the location of themethod. Connect one output lead (usually red) ground rod to obtain suitable results.from the transmitter to the conductor under testmaking sure that the alligator clip is making good For best results, install a temporary ground con- nection to the far end of the conductor being traced. See Figure 14. In this case either AF or RF can be used. If a ground cannot be applied to the far end, use RF and expect that the effective traceable length may be L1070 Locator E Portable R BIDDL R TM as short as 200 feet. See Figure 15. The only current flow in this situa- Transmiter tion is due to capacitive current flow and after some point the sig- nal disappears. If a direct connection is impossible,Figure 14: Hookup showing ground rod at far end of cable under a clamp coupler can be used totest induce the signal current onto the target cable. See Figure 16. If trac- ing a primary cable, place the loop around the neutral. When tracing secondary, connecting jumper wires L1070 Locator from the conductor to earth at E both ends of the cable may be nec- Portable R BIDDL R TM essary to obtain an adequate signal current flow through the target Transmitter cable. Remember that for sufficient current to flow to produce a strong traceable field there must be a loop or return path provided back to theFigure 15: Hookup with far end of cable under test isolated source. If a current coupler is not available, the transmitter module itself can be used to couple the signal inductive- ly from an antenna in the base of Jacket the transmitter into the cable. See E R L1070 Locator Portable Figure 17. The transmitter is set on BIDDL the earth directly over the target R TM cable with the arrow on the top Neutral panel in line with the cable. Use Transmitter the RF frequency selection and keep the transmitter and receiver at least 25 feet apart to avoid inter- fering signals generated directlyFigure 16: Current coupler connection to neutral on primaryjacketed cable through the air. Fault Finding Solutions 9
  • 12. Cable Route Tracers/Cable Locators SECTION IIIKeep in mind that the best technique is to connect If all else fails and in a very congested area, com-the isolated far end of the target cable to a tem- plete the current loop by using a long insulatedporary ground rod beyond the far end of the jumper wire connected between one side of thecable. This will reduce the loop resistance, increase transmitter and the far end of the cable underthe transmitted current flow, and maximize the test. This technique has limitations as to lengthstrength of the signal to be detected by the receiv- but will definitely limit current flow to the targeter. See previous Figure 14. cable. See Figure 18. Remember to keep the route of the return wire well off to the side to avoidWhen the far end is parked and isolated, loop cur- is entirely dependent upon capacitive cou-pling through the insulation or jacket of the cable Direct buried concentric neutral cable can beand through any faults to ground that may be traced by connecting the transmitter to the con-present. See previous Figure 15. ductor or the neutral. Remember that when con- nected to the neutral, the signal can more easily bleed over to other cables and pipes that may be connected to the ground. A stronger tracing signal can sometimes be developed when the transmitter is connect- Transmitter ed to the neutral. This is particularly true when using a current clamp or coupler as shown previously in Figure 16. USING THE RECEIVER To begin the tracing process, start by circling the connection point to the target cable at Neutral a radius of 10 feet or so to find the position with the strongest signal when using the peaking mode. See Figure 19. The L1070 receiver allows pushbutton selection ofFigure 17: Inductive coupling to neutral on primary either the peaking or nulling modes of trac-jacketed cable ing. See Figure 20. Some older models require a change in position of the antenna head from horizontal to vertical. Most receivers now also provide an automatic depth meas- TM R BIDDL E R L1070 Locator Portable urement, usually with the push of a button. Older units require posi- tioning of the antenna head at a Transmitter 45-degree angle and following the process shown in Figure 21.Figure 18: Use of return wire to improve current loop In the peaking mode of operation, a maximum signal level is obtained when the receiver is positioned directly over the target cable. In the nulling mode, a minimum signal is detected when directly over the target cable. Some units provide a simultaneous display of both TM R BIDDL E R L1070 Locator Portable modes. In general, if the object of tracing is simply to locate the approximate path of the target Transmitter cable, the peaking mode is recom- mended. If a more accurate trace is required such as prior to secondaryFigure 19: Circling path with receiver fault locating or splice locating, the nulling mode may be the better10 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 13. Cable Route Tracers/Cable Locators SECTION IIIchoice. An analog bar-graph display, a digitalnumeric readout, a variable volume audible toneor all three may indicate the receiver signal level. X Feet X FeetWhile walking along the route with the strongestsignal level, note the value of signal strength. Alsowhile tracing, periodically check the depth. If thesignal level numbers drop as you proceed alongthe path away from the transmitter, there shouldbe a corresponding increase in depth. If the signal X Feetlevel increases as you proceed along the path,there should be a corresponding decrease indepth. If signal level decreases, even though thedepth does not increase, it could mean that youhave just passed a fault to ground or a wye splice.The transmitter current flow beyond a fault maybe significantly reduced to only capacitive leakage Figure 21: Depth measurement using null methodso the resulting drop in signal level may be with antenna at 45-degree angleenough evidence to conclude that a fault toground has been passed.When no interference is present, the combinedantennas in the receivers of newer locators willsense both a null and a peak magnetic field at theidentical spot directly over the target cable. True Location of Indicated Position ofInterfering conductors and pipes can cause the Target Targetmagnetic field around the target cable to becomeoval, or egg-shaped rather than circular and con-centric. This will cause an offset between the Conductor or Pipe Interfering Conductordetected and actual location. See Figure 22. This or Pipeproblem is often not possible to detect at the timethe locating is being carried out and is only discov-ered when digging begins. To prevent this, everyeffort should be made to prevent signal currentfrom bleeding or leaking onto other conductors inthe area, which is often impossible. Peak Mode Null Mode Antenna Figure 22: Offset caused by interference from non-target cable Conductor or PipeFigure 20: No interference — no offset betweenmagnetic field center and center of cable Fault Finding Solutions 11
  • 14. How to See Underground Cable Problems SECTION IVMETHODS OF OPERATION The radar set, other than the electronics to pro-Cable analyzers provide a visual display of various duce the pulses of radio frequency energy, is basi-events on electrical cable and may serve as the cally a time measuring device. A timer starts count-control center for advanced cable fault locating ing microseconds when a pulse of radio frequencytest systems. Displays include cable traces or signa- energy leaves the transmitting antenna and thentures which have distinctive patterns. Signatures stops when a reflection is received. The actual timerepresent reflections of transmitted pulses caused measured is the round trip, out to the target andby impedance changes in the cable under test and back. In order to determine simply distance out toappear in succession along a baseline. When the target, the round trip time is divided by two. Ifadjustable markers, called cursors, are moved to the speed of this pulse as it travels through the airline up with reflections, the distance to the imped- in microseconds is known, distance to the targetance change is displayed. When used as a TDR, can be calculated by multiplying the time meas-approximate distances to important landmarks, ured divided by 2 times the velocity.such as the cable end, splices, wyes and transform- Distance = Vp timeers can also be measured. 2Time Domain Reflectometry The speed or Velocity of Propagation (Vp) of this pulse in air is nearly the speed of light or approxi-The pulse reflection method, pulse echo method mately 984 feet per microsecond.or time domain reflectometry are terms applied towhat is referred to as cable radar or a TDR. The This same radar technique can be applied to cablestechnique, developed in the late 1940’s, makes it if there are two conductors with the distancepossible to connect to one end of a cable, actually between them constant for the length of the runsee into the cable and measure distance to and a consistent material between them for thechanges in the cable. The original acronym, length of the run. This means that a twisted pair,RADAR (RAdio Detection And Ranging), was any pair of a control cable, any pair of a triplexapplied to the method of detecting distant aircraft cable, or any coaxial cable are radar compatible.and determining their range and velocity by ana- When applied to underground cable, 10 to 20 volt,lyzing reflections of radio waves. This technique is short time duration pulses are transmitted at aused by airport radar systems and police radar high repetition rate into the cable between theguns where a portion of the transmitted radio phase conductor and neutral or between a pair ofwaves are reflected from an aircraft or ground conductors. A liquid crystal or CRT display showsvehicle back to a receiving antenna. See Figure 23. reflections of the transmitted pulses that are caused by changes in the cable impedance. Any reflections are displayed on the screen with elapsed time along the horizontal axis and ampli- tude of the reflection on the vertical axis. Since the elapsed time can be measured and the pulse velocity as it travels down the cable is known, dis- tance to the reflection point can be calculated. Pulses transmitted through the insulation of typi- cal underground cable travel at about half of the speed of light or about 500 feet/µs. Movable cur- sors when positioned at zero and a reflection point provide a measurement of distance to that point in feet. The TDR sees each increment of cable, for example each foot, as the equivalent electrical circuit Distance impedance as shown in Figure 24. In a perfect length of cable, all of the components in every D = Velocity of Propagation (Vp) X Time (µs) foot are exactly like the foot before and exactly 2 like the next foot.Figure 23: Aircraft radar12 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 15. How to See Underground Cable Problems SECTION IV DESCRIPTIONS AND APPLICATIONS Low-Voltage TDR/Cable Radar A low-voltage TDR is an appropriate method to localize faults and other impedance changes on electrical cable such as twisted pair, parallel pair, and coaxial structure. TDRs are available in small hand-held, larger portable, and rack mount con- figurations for a broad variety of applications.Figure 24: TDR reflections from perfect cable Low-voltage, high-frequency output pulses are transmitted into and travel between two conduc- tors of the cable. When the cable impedanceThis perfect run of cable will produce no reflec- changes, some or all of transmitted energy istions until the end of the cable appears. At the reflected back to the TDR where it is displayed.end of the cable the pulses see a high impedance Impedance changes are caused by a variety of dis-(an open circuit), causing an upward reflection. If turbances on the cable including low resistancethe cable end is grounded (a short circuit), the faults and landmarks such as the cable end, splices,pulses see a low resistance and a downward reflec- taps, and transformers. See Figures 25 through 31tion is caused. A low-voltage TDR is an excellent for typical reflections or cable traces.tool for the prelocation of series open circuits andconductor to conductor shorts. For cable shunt or Faults That a Low-Voltage TDR Will Displayground faults with a resistance higher than 200 Low resistance faults of less than 200 Ω betweenohms the reflection is so small it is impossible to conductor and ground or between conductors aredistinguish from normal clutter reflections on the displayed as downward reflections on the screen.cable. Unfortunately, almost all faults on primary Series opens, since they represent a very highunderground distribution cable are high resistance resistance, are displayed as upward going reflec-faults in the area of thousands of ohms or even tions. See Figures 27 and 28.megohms. Due to the reflection characteristics ofthese high resistance faults, they are impossible to Landmarks That a Low-Voltage TDR Willsee using only the low-voltage TDR. An alternate Displaytechnique such as arc reflection must be utilized to A TDR can localize cable landmarks, such as splices,prelocate these faults as discussed in Section VI. wye or T-taps, and transformers. See Figures 29 through 31. The TDR helps to determine the loca-Differential TDR/Radar tion of faults relative to other landmarks on theWhen a TDR such as the Megger Model CFL535F cable. This is especially true on complex circuits.which has two inputs and is programmed to allow Traces of complex circuits are necessarily also verya display of the algebraic difference between two complex and difficult to interpret. To make senseinput traces, a technique referred to as differential of these complex traces, it is extremely helpful toTDR can be used. If the two traces (L1 and L2) are confirm the position of landmarks relative to theidentical, the display will show a totally flat line. faults observed. See Figure 32.When using differential TDR, any differencebetween the two phases (L1 minus L2) will be easi- For every landmark that causes a reflection, therely identified on the display. This can be useful is slightly less transmitted pulse amplitude travel-when fault locating on a three-phase system ing from that point down the cable. This means onwhere the faulted phase can be compared to a a cable run with two identical splices, the reflec-good phase. The fault is likely where the differ- tion from the first splice will be larger than that ofence is and the cursor can be positioned to meas- the second down the cable farther. No conclusionsure the distance to that point. can be drawn based on the size or height of reflections at different distances down the cable. Fault Finding Solutions 13
  • 16. How to See Underground Cable Problems SECTION IVCONTROLS AND INPUTS TO THE TDR An alternate method to determine an unknown velocity value is to:Velocity of Propagation 1. Set the right cursor to the upward-going reflec-Certain information must be provided to the TDR tion at the end of the cable section.before it can provide distance information. Mostimportant is velocity of propagation (VP), the 2. Determine the true length of the section ofspeed at which the transmitted pulse travels down cable under test.the cable under test. This value is used by the ana- 3. Adjust the velocity until the correct distance islyzer to convert its time measurement to distance. displayed.This velocity is primarily dependent on the type ofcable insulation although technically is also affect- If a known length of cable is available on a reel,ed by conductor size and overall cable diameter. the above procedure may be used. The longer theThe table to the right shows typical velocity values sample of cable the better for an accurate deter-for various primary cable types. mination of velocity. DART Analyzer or low-voltage TDR Open End BIDDLE DART R R R ANALYSIS SYSTEMFigure 25: TDR used to measure length of cable with far end open DART Analyzer or low-voltage TDR Shorted End BIDDLE DART R R R ANALYSIS SYSTEMFigure 26: TDR used to measure length of cable with far end shorted14 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 17. How to See Underground Cable Problems SECTION IVThe units of velocity can be entered into the DART Velocity of Propagation TableAnalyzer or TDR in feet per microsecond (ft/µs),meters per microsecond (m/µs), feet per microsec- Insulation Wire Vp Vp Vp Vpond divided by 2 (Vp/2) or percentage of the speed Type kV Size Percent Ft/µs M/µs Ft/µsof light (%). EPR 5 #2 45 443 135 221The values in the Velocity of Propagation Table are EPR 15 #2 AL 55 541 165 271only approximate and are meant to serve as aguide. The velocity of propagation in power cables HMW 15 1/0 51 502 153 251is determined by the following: XLPE 15 1/0 51 502 153 251■ Dielectric constant of the insulation XLPE 15 2/0 49 482 147 241■ Material properties of the semiconducting XLPE 15 4/0 49 482 147 241 sheaths XLPE 15 #1 CU 56 551 168 276■ Dimensions of the cable XLPE 15 1/0 52 512 156 256■ Structure of the neutrals, integrity of the neu- trals (corrosion) XLPE 25 #1 CU 49 482 147 241■ Resistance of the conductors XLPE 25 1/0 56 551 168 276■ Additives in the insulation XLPE 35 1/0 57 561 171 280■ Propagation characteristics of the earth sur- XLPE 35 750 MCM 51 502 153 251 rounding the cable PILC 15 4/0 49 482 147 241With such a large number of variables and a num- XLPE 0.6 #2 62 610 186 305ber of different manufacturers, it is impossible topredict the exact velocity of propagation for a Vacuum — — 100 984 300 492given cable. Typically, utilities standardize on onlya few cable types and manufacturers and have soilconditions that are similar from installation toinstallation. It is highly recommended that faultlocation crews maintain records of propagationvelocities and true locations. Using this informa-tion, accurate, average propagation velocities canbe determined. DART Analyzer or low-voltage TDR Open End BIDDLE DART R R R ANALYSIS SYSTEM Low resistance fault to groundFigure 27: TDR measuring distance to a low-resistance fault to ground Fault Finding Solutions 15
  • 18. How to See Underground Cable Problems SECTION IVRange When the test leads are especially long (such asRange is the maximum distance the TDR sees 125 feet long on most high-voltage radar systems),across the face of the display. Initially, select a it is often desirable for you to set the left cursor torange longer than the actual cable length so the the end of the test leads. When this offset is cali-upward-going reflection from the end can be brated, the distance indicated by the right cursoridentified. Move the right cursor to that upward will not include the length of the test leads. To doreflection and measure the total length. Does the this calibration in the field simply touch the endsmeasurement make sense? A range can then be of the test leads and position the left cursor at theselected that is less than the overall cable run but toggle point as the TDR sees an open and then athe TDR will only see out the distance of the range short. Press the Save Offset to set the left cursorsetting. zero to that point.Gain ZoomGain changes the vertical height or amplitude of When you have set the cursor at the reflection ofreflections on the display. It may be necessary to interest, the distance to that point on the cableincrease the gain on a very long cable or a cable run will appear in the distance readout. When awith many impedance changes along its path to zoom feature is provided, the area centeredidentify the end or other landmarks. Gain adjust- around the cursor is expanded by the zoom factorment has no effect on measurement accuracy. selected: X2 (times 2), X4 (times four), etc. It is often possible to set the cursor to a more preciseCursors position when the zoom mode is activated and the reflection is broadened.For all TDR measurements, the cursor is positionedat the left side of the reflection, just where it Pulse Widthleaves the horizontal baseline either upward ordown. Move the right cursor to the reflection of The width of the pulses generated by the TDR typ-interest just as it leaves the base line so that the ically ranges from 80 nanoseconds up to 10TDR can calculate its distance. If the left cursor is microseconds. As range is changed from shorter toset to the left of the first upward-going reflection, longer, the pulse width is automatically increasedits zero point is at the output terminals of the in width so that enough energy is being sentinstrument. If you do not recalibrate, it will be down the cable to be able to see some level ofnecessary to subtract your test lead length from all reflection from the end. The wider the pulse thedistances measured. Remember, the TDR measures more reflection amplitude but the less resolution.every foot of cable from the connector on the The narrower the pulse the more resolution butinstrument to the reflection of interest. less reflection amplitude. For the best resolution or in order to see small changes on the cable, a nar- row pulse width is required and in order to see the DART Analyzer or low-voltage TDR BIDDLE DART R R R ANALYSIS SYSTEM Open conductor faultFigure 28: TDR used to measure distance to open in conductor16 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 19. How to See Underground Cable Problems SECTION IVend a wide pulse width may be required. The Location of the third marker (stake 3), the actualpulse width may be changed manually to override fault, may be found by using the proportionalitythe automatic selection. An effect termed pulse that exists between the fault distances, d1 and d2,dispersion widens the pulse as it travels down a and their error distances, e1 and e2. To locatelong run of cable so resolution may be worse stake 3, measure the distance d3 between stakes 1toward the end of a long cable. and 2 and multiply it by the ratio of distance d1 to the sum of distances d1 and d2. Stake 3 then isDISTANCE MEASUREMENTS placed at this incremental distance, e1, as meas- ured from stake 1 toward stake 2.Three-Stake Method e1 = d3 d1Measurements to a fault using a low-voltage TDRare strictly a localizing technique. Never dig a hole d1 + d2based solely on a TDR measurement. There are toomany variables that include: Alternatively, stake 3 can be placed at the incre-• The exact velocity mental distance, e2, as measured from stake 2• The exact cable route toward stake 1.• The accuracy of the TDR itself e2 = d3 d2The three-stake method is a means to get a rea- d1 + d2sonably accurate fault pinpoint using only theTDR. The method consists of making a fault dis-tance reading from one end (terminal 1) of the This third stake should be very close to the fault.faulted line and placing a marker (stake 1) at that A practical field approach (with no math involved)position as shown in Figure 32. With the TDR con- is to make a second set of measurements fromnected at the other end of the line (terminal 2), both ends with a different velocity. If the distancefind the fault distance for a second marker (stake between stakes 1 and 2 was 50 feet, by adjusting2). In actual practice, stake 2 may fall short of the velocity upward the new distance measure-stake 1, may be located at the same point, or may ments may reduce the difference to 30 feet. Withpass beyond stake 1. In any case the fault will lie enough tests at differing velocities the distancebetween the two stakes. It is important that the can be lowered to a reasonable backhoe trenchingsame velocity setting is used for both measure- distance.ments and the distance measurements are madeover the actual cable route. This may mean tracingthe cable. DART Analyzer or low-voltage TDR Open End BIDDLE DART R R R ANALYSIS SYSTEM SpliceFigure 29: TDR used to localize distance to a splice Fault Finding Solutions 17
  • 20. How to See Underground Cable Problems SECTION IV Open End of Tap DART Analyzer or Tee (Y) Splice low-voltage TDR Open End BIDDLE DART R R R ANALYSIS SYSTEMFigure 30: TDR used to localize distance to a T-tap Open End Low Resistance Fault to Ground DART Analyzer or Tee (Y) Splice low-voltage TDR Open End Splice BIDDLE DART R R R ANALYSIS SYSTEMFigure 31: TDR used to localize distance to a fault relative to a landmarkTerminal Stake 1 Stake 3 Stake 2 Terminal 2 Fault d3 d1 e1 e2 d2Figure 32: Three-stake method18 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 21. Surge Generators, Filters and Couplers SECTION VSURGE GENERATORS higher voltage and more energy is required toThe first commercially available surge generators locate faults with no damage to the cable. There isfor underground cable fault locating were intro- mixed opinion as to the treeing situation in EPR.duced in the late 1940’s. The device is basically a Due to this treeing situation, many utilities issuedhigh voltage impulse generator consisting of a dc work rules reducing the maximum allowable volt-power supply, a high voltage capacitor, and some age to be used for fault locating.type of high voltage switch. See Figure 33. EnergyThe power supply is used to charge the capacitor The energy output of any surge generator meas- ured in Joules (Watt-Seconds) is calculated as fol- Proof / Burn Mode lows: HV E = V2 C Surge Mode 2 HV Switch where E = Energy in Joules, C = capacitance in µf, Discharge HV dc Power Switch V = voltage in kV Supply Discharge Cap To increase the “bang” at the fault the only two Resistor HV Return options are to increase the voltage which can be done by the operator or increase the capacitance Chassis which must be done by the manufacturer. Figure Safety Ground 34 shows the output energy curve of a typical four microfarad surge generator that generates 1250Figure 33: Block diagram of surge generator Joules at a maximum voltage of 25 kV. If the fault locating crew is told that the output voltage of the thumper must be limited to 12.5 kV (one halfto a high voltage and then a contact closure dis- of 25 kV), the output energy of their thumper ischarges the capacitor into the cable under test. If reduced by a factor of four down to 312 Joules.the voltage is high enough to break down the In a practical world, 300 to 400 Joules is thefault, the energy stored in the capacitor is rapidly threshold for hearing a thump at ground leveldischarged through a flashover at the fault creat- with no acoustic amplification and with very littleing a detectable sound or “thump” at ground background noise. If the thump at the fault canlevel. The important specifications of a thumper not be heard, the only option is to increase volt-are the maximum voltage it can develop and how age in order to find the fault, make a repair andmuch energy it delivers to the fault. get the lights back on.The classical fault locating process has been tohook up the surge generator, crank up the volt-age, and walk back and forth over the cable route 1400until the thump is heard or better yet to feel the 1250 1200earth move. This process pinpoints the fault allow-ing a repair crew to dig a hole and repair the 1000cable. In some cases, it may take hours (or days) to 800 Jouleswalk the cable and definitely locate the fault. 600During that time, the cable is being exposed to 400high voltage thumping. 200A few years after polyethylene cable began to be 0installed underground, evidence began to surface 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25that due to “treeing” in the insulation, high-volt- kVage thumping of this plastic cable for long periodsof time was doing more harm than good. Thesame is not true for PILC cables where typically Figure 34: Energy vs. voltage for a 4-µF, 25-kV surge generator Fault Finding Solutions 19
  • 22. Surge Generators, Filters and Couplers SECTION VTo help in lowering the voltage required to locate Capacitanceunderground faults, the PFL-4000 Surge Generator Cables by their very nature are capacitive sinceuses a 12 microfarad capacitor producing 1536 they consist of two conductors separated by anJoules at 16 kV. See Figure 35. This allows thump- insulator. The two conductors in power cable areing at lower voltages while still delivering reason- the phase conductor and the shield, sheath, orable energy to the fault. Thumping at 12.5 kV, as concentric neutral. These two conductors are sepa-above, now produces a very audible 937 Joules. rated by XLPE, EPR, or oil impregnated paper.Different surge generator energy levels are Safety is always a priority even when a cable is not energized because, as any capacitor, the cable will 1600 hold a charge until discharged or grounded. A cable must always be grounded before making any 1400 connections even if the cable has been parked and 1536 isolated as it may pickup up a charge from the 1200 field of adjacent energized phases. 1000 The longer the cable or the more complex the sys- tem or network, the higher the capacitance. If theJoules 800 surge generator capacitor is smaller than the cable 600 capacitance, the fault will not discharge until cable capacitance is fully charged which could take mul- 400 tiple surges. If the cable capacitance is smaller than the surge generator capacitance, the fault 200 will typically flashover on the first try. 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Voltage kV Deciding on surge generator voltage levels is extremely important. Without a high enough volt- age, the fault will not break down. Very high volt-Figure 35: Energy vs. voltage for a 12-µF, 16 kVsurge generator age surging for long periods of time may promote the growth of treeing and reduce cable life. If the fault does not flashover, there will be no thumprequired to do fault locating on different lengths that identifies and pinpoints the fault. A veryand types of cable constructions. XLPE and EPR important factor to consider is that the voltageinsulated cables typically require much less energy pulse doubles in peak-to-peak amplitude on ato locate a fault than a lead cable of comparable good cable as it reflects from the isolated opensize and construction. For long runs or complexsystems of lead cable that cannot be broken downinto small manageable sections, high voltage and 3500energy may be required to flashover a fault. 3072 3072 3000There are currently two types of surge generatorsavailable, one referred to as progressive energy as 2500described above and the second, constant energy.The constant energy units contain two or more 2000 Joulescapacitors with a corresponding voltage range for 1500each capacitor. The energy is only constant at themaximum voltage on each range. A typical exam- 1000ple is a PFL-6000 with two voltage ranges of 0 to16 kV and 0 to 32 kV. When the 16 kV range is 500selected, a 24 µF capacitor is switched in and whenthe 32 kV range is selected a 6 µF capacitor is used. 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33In this case, at 16 kV or 32 kV the energy outputwill be a constant 3072 Joules. See Figure 36. Figure 36: Energy vs. voltage for a 12-µF, 16/32-µF surge generator20 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 23. Surge Generators, Filters and Couplers SECTION Vend. This also applies if the cable is faulted but the Surgevoltage doubling only occurs between the fault In the surge mode, the internal capacitor isthe open isolated end of the cable. charged up to the level selected with the voltageWhen surging at 15 kV, the cable between the control and then discharged into the cable. Thisfault and the end is exposed to a shock wave of 30 process can be automatically repeated on a timekV peak-to-peak. A hint for fault locating on a basis by adjusting the surge interval control orcable that has several splices and has been worked manually by push-button on some models. A surgeon from the same end is to look for the current of current from the discharging capacitor travelsfault past the last splice. That section of cable was down the cable, arcs over at the fault, and returnsexposed to voltage doubling during the previous back to the capacitor on the neutral or sheath.fault locate with a high probability that the pres- This rapid discharge of energy causes an audibleent fault is at a weak spot in that length of cable. explosion and the sound created travels out through the earth and is used to pinpoint the faultBASIC SURGE GENERATOR OPERATION location. See Figure 37. It is assumed that the sound travels in a straight and direct path up toProof/Burn the surface of the earth. Sometimes the soil condi-A proof test is performed to determine whether or tions are such that the sound travels away in anot a cable and accessories are good or bad. The downward direction or is absorbed and cannot beresult of a proof test is on a go/no-go basis. The heard. In this case, some type of listening device orvoltage is increased on the cable under test to the surge detector may be needed to assist in pin-required voltage level and held there for a period pointing. If the surge of current sees a high resist-of time. If there is little or no leakage current and ance path back to the capacitor, as is the casethe voltage reading is stable, the cable is consid- when the neutral is corroded, the sound level cre-ered to be good. If a voltage is reached where the ated at the fault will be minimal. This current flowreading becomes unstable or drops with a dramat- back through the earth can also cause a rise inic increase in current, it is considered to be bad. potential of any metallic structures mounted in theThis test should be done initially as described in ground and a difference in potential on the sur-Section I to help establish that the cable is actually face.bad and then to gain some information on thefault condition. A quick check can also be done Groundafter repair to be sure there is not another fault If the surge generator safety ground is connectedand to check workmanship on the splice. properly, the ground mode absolutely and posi- tively grounds and discharges the surge genera-The burn mode is used when the fault will not tor’s capacitor and the cable under test. Afterflashover at the maximum available voltage of the turning the main power switch off, which dis-surge generator. This condition is due to the elec- charges the capacitor and cable through a resistor,trical characteristics of the fault that may be always move the mode switch to ground beforealtered by applying voltage to the cable until the removing test leads.fault breaks down and then supplyingcurrent flow. This causes conditioningor additional damage at the fault loca- Surge Generatortion that in turn decreases the faultresistance and reduces voltagerequired for breakdown.When applied to paper-insulatedcable, the insulation actually burns Shock Waveand becomes charred, permanentlyaltering the fault characteristics. Asapplied to XLPE cable, heat producedby arcing at the fault can soften theinsulation but when arcing is stoppedthe insulation returns to a solid condi- Faulttion without changing its characteris-tics drastically. Burning can be effec- Figure 37: Acoustic shock wave from arcing faulttive on a splice failure or a water filledfault. Fault Finding Solutions 21
  • 24. Surge Generators, Filters and Couplers SECTION VSINGLE POINT GROUNDING A signal coupler must be added to the surge gen-For safety, always use the single point grounding erator to provide the additional capability of usingscheme as shown in Figure 38 when using a surge the surge pulse reflection method of prelocation.generator. When making or removing connections See Figure 39. The coupler can be an inductive orto a cable always follow your company’s safety capacitive type that is used to pick up reflectionsrules and regulations. on the cable and send them to the DART Analyzer. Both types of couplers work effectively and theCheck the isolated cable for voltage and ground it. only difference is that the captured wave shapesConnect the surge generator safety ground to the vary slightly.ground rod at the transformer, switch cabinet orpole. Next, connect the high-voltage return lead to An arc reflection filter is necessary to provide thethe shield or neutral as close as possible to the capability of using the arc reflection method. Thishigh-voltage connection. Leave the neutral filter allows a TDR developing 10 to 20 volt pulsesgrounded at both ends of the cable. Finally, con- to be connected to the same cable that is alsonect the high-voltage test lead to the phase con- being surged at 10,000 volts. The filter also doesductor. When removing test leads, use the oppo- some pulse routing to make sure both high- andsite sequence by removing the high voltage, high low-voltage pulses are sent down the cable undervoltage return and lastly the safety ground. The test. The primary purpose of the filter is to allowlocal ground is only required if company safety the TDR or analyzer to look down the cable whileprocedures demand it. The safest and lowest resist- it is being surged and, of course, to allow thisance safety ground connection is system neutral while not destroying the analyzer in the process.which will keep the equipment at zero volts in the The filter may also contain the coupler necessarycase of a backfeed. to provide surge pulse capability. There are two types of arc reflection filters, induc-ARC REFLECTION FILTERS AND COUPLERS tive and resistive. Both types are placed in the cir-In order to reduce the cable exposure to high volt- cuit between the surge generator and the cableage surging and thereby avoid the possibility of under test. The inductive filter, as shown in Figuresetting the cable up for future failures, some 39, uses a choke that slows the surge generatormethod of fault prelocation should be used. The pulse down, extending it over time. This makes thesurge pulse and arc reflection methods of preloca- arc at the fault last longer and reflects more TDRtion have been used for many years. In order to pulses, providing a higher probability that a down-use either method, additional equipment is ward going reflection will be captured. The induc-required including a DART® Analysis System as dis- tance of the choke also blocks the TDR pulses fromcussed in detail in Section VI. High voltage High-voltage return Safety ground Local ground (supplemental)Figure 38: Single point grounding22 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 25. Surge Generators, Filters and Couplers SECTION Vgoing back to the surge generator’s capacitor andbasically being shorted out. One advantage of the Proof burn impulse HVinductive filter is that it helps to clamp or limit thevoltage applied to the cable under test to only thelevel required to breakdown the fault. The chokein the inductive filter also absorbs less energy cre- Arc Reflectionated by the surge generator, letting more downthe cable to arc over at the fault. AnalyzerThe second type of filter, as shown in Figure 40,uses a resistor to do the job of pulse routing and Inductive surge Analyzer/TDR pulse couplerhas the benefits of lower cost and smaller size. The HV returnresistor still blocks the TDR pulses and changes thesurge generator pulse slightly but does not limit orclamp the voltage. The resistive filter tends to Figure 39: Inductive arc reflection diagramabsorb somewhat more of the surge generatorenergy than the inductive filter. Proof burn impulse HV Arc Reflection Analyzer Inductive surge Analyzer/TDR pulse coupler HV return Figure 40: Resistive arc reflection diagram Fault Finding Solutions 23
  • 26. Locating Methods SECTION VIOVERVIEW the relatively short “bad” section remaining can be replaced. If the cable is in duct or conduit, theLocalizing or prelocation methods provide an bad section can be replaced. This relatively primi-approximate distance to a fault. With cable in con- tive method is usable on most types of phase-to-duit or duct, an approximate distance is all that is ground and phase-to-phase faults.required because the bad cable will be pulled outand new back in. With direct buried underground Resistance Ratioresidential distribution loop fed circuits, localizingcan be used to isolate a bad section between two Often called thepad-mount transformers. The bad section can then bridge method, abe parked and the loop fed from both ends. In the variation of the Wheatstone B2 C2case of a radial feed localizing must be followedby an appropriate pinpointing method. Some early Bridge is anlocalizing methods are as follows: example of the D resistance ratioSectionalizing methods. See Figure 42.The earliest sectionalizing method has been calledthe “Cut and Try Method” or the “Divide and When using a B1 C1Conquer Method.” This was among the first tech- Wheatstoneniques to be used for fault locating on direct- Bridge, B1, B2,buried cable. Hopefully, its use today is limited to and C2 representthat of a last resort. See Figure 41. known resistanc- Battery es. C1 represents the unknown Figure 42: Basic Wheatstone L resistance. Bridge First Cut at 1/2 L Second Cut at 3/4 L At balance, typi- Third Cut at 5/8 L cally by adjusting the resistance values of B1 and B2 when the zero center null detector D indicates zero, C1/C2 = B1/B2 Therefore, C1 = (C2 x B1)/B2 Fault A variation on the Wheatstone Bridge is the Murray Loop Bridge. Figure 43 shows that the adjacent resistances, RC1 of a faulted cable in aFigure 41: Sectionalizing method loop with RC2 of a good cable can be made to represent C1 and C2 of the Wheatstone Bridge. Similarly, corresponding portions of a slidewireAfter isolating both ends of the cable section resistor RB1 and RB2 can be made to represent theunder test, a Megger® Insulation Tester is connect- resistances B1 and B2. At balance in the Murrayed between the conductor and neutral or ground. Loop Bridge, RC1/ RC2 is equal to RB1/RB2.A faulted cable will have a lower insulation resist-ance than a cable with no fault. After measuringthe fault resistance, a hole is dug half way downthe length of the cable section. The cable is cut atthat location and a resistance measurement is L RB2made on each half. The “bad” half of the cable Good Conductorwith the fault will a have lower resistance than the D“good” half and the resistance value on the “bad”half should be the same as the fault resistance Faulted Conductormeasured on the complete length of cable. A sec- RC2 Shorting RB1 Jumperond dig is made half the distance down the “bad” Battery RC1 Rfhalf. Again, the cable is cut and a resistance meas- Lx Fault Resistanceurement is made on each section to identify thefaulted part of the remaining section. Eventually, Figure 43: Murray Loop Bridge application24 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 27. Locating Methods SECTION VIWhen it is assumed that the resistance of a uni- mostly on network lead paper cables. Electromag-form conductor is linear and proportional to its netic detection methods are used with a surgelength, and the total length of the cable section generator which provides the impulse of currentunder test is L, the distance to the fault, Lx, is cal- necessary to produce the strong electromagneticculated as follows: field required to make the method practical. Lx = 2L RB1/RB2 Since the current impulse is polarized, the field is also polarized which gives the method much of itsWhen using the Murray Loop method the series usefulness. An iron core sheath coil with a second-resistance and length of the good phase and fault- ary winding will induce a polarized output whened phase must be identical. If the resistances are subjected to this field. When a zero centerdifferent, as would exist if one phase contains a microammeter is connected to the sheath coil sec-splice and not the other, the resulting accuracy is ondary winding, the direction of the net electro-drastically affected. This is a localizing method not magnetic field can be determined. This characteris-a pinpointing method. Figure 44 illustrates the tic allows a determination of whether the fault ispractical application of an instrument that ahead of or behind the detector. See Figures 45combines a TDR and Murray Loop Bridge in one and 46. Since the sheath coil is polarized, and toinstrument. maintain consistent information, always place the coil with arrow on top pointing toward the surgeElectromagnetic Surge Detection generator.Electromagnetic surge detection techniques havebeen used to localize faults on power cable for Single Phase, Coaxial Power Cable with Neutralmore than 50 years. Theoretically, the methods can Bridges Over the Splicesbe used to locate faults on many types of power Electromagnetic detection methods can be used tocable but they are generally used only to identify locate faults on coaxial cable systems with accessfaulted sections of cable in conduit or duct and points such as manholes, cabinets, and pull boxes as shown in Figure 45. When the cable system is designed with neutral bridges over the splices, the pickup coil is placed directly on the cable under the Shorting neutral. The current impulse produced Jumper by a surge generator will produce a Fault strong polarized indication as it passes through the phase conductor and the direction of the current impulse can be determined. As long as a strong positive- ly polarized electromagnetic field can be sensed, the fault is located in the portionFigure 44: Application of Bridge/TDR of cable still ahead. Since the phase con- ductor is isolated at the far end, the cur- rent impulse flows through the fault and - then back to the surge generator - 0 + 0 + through the neutral. Either a weak or no electromagnetic field will be sensed past Access #1 Access #2 the location of the fault. Therefore, it is Strong Field Weak Field possible to determine in which direction the fault is located. If the sheath coil is placed over the neu- tral, the electromagnetic field produced by the current impulse in the conductor Fault is balanced exactly by the return current back through the neutral and the meter provides no indication and stays at zero.Figure 45: Coaxial power cable with neutral bridges over the When bonded grounds are present in asplices Fault Finding Solutions 25
  • 28. Locating Methods SECTION VIsystem such as usually found in paper-insulated, phase cable will generate a stronger magneticlead-covered cable (PILC) construction, it may be field at the cable surface closest to the faultedpossible to use a fault locating technique involving phase. When the detector is placed at various posi-electromagnetic detectors, even though the pickup tions around the cable ahead of the fault, thecoil must be placed over the leaded neutral. readings will vary in magnitude. When the detec- tor is placed at various positions around the cableSingle-Phase PILC Cable with Bonded Grounds in in the first manhole past the fault, all readings willConduit be the same. Note that almost all of the currentAs shown in Figure 46, this method only applies to pulse returns to the surge generator through thecircuits with good bonded grounds at every man- neutral at the fault site. A small amount of surgehole location as commonly provided in network current passes through the neutral past the faultsystems. Without bonded grounds, the surge cur- and out of the next bonded ground. This smallrent through the phase conductor is exactly the current finds its way back to the surge generatorsame magnitude as the return surge current from earth through the bonded grounds ahead ofthrough the neutral. With bonded grounds, the the fault.current impulse through the phase conductoris slightly greater than the returning surgecurrent in the neutral. This differential is Surge current to Thumpercaused by the small amount of surge current First manhole in system First manhole after faultthat flows through the neutral beyond thefault and into earth through the bonded Faultground at the next manhole and back to thesurge generator through the bonded groundsbefore the fault. See Figure 46. No currentflows through the second bonded groundafter the fault. When relative readings aretaken with the sheath coil placed on the Surge Current from Thumpercable both before and after the fault, theywill all be positive. Readings taken on the Figure 46: Electromagnetic detection in single-phase PILCconductor before the fault will almost always cable with bonded groundsbe noticeably higher in magnitude than thoseafter the fault. However, the difference isoften too small to instill confidencein the cable fault location. Moreimportantly, readings taken on the Cross section of cable at last Cross section of cable at firstbonded grounds before the fault manhole before the fault manhole after the faultwill become progressively higher asthe faulted section is approached. Sensor position 1 (Strong) All Detector positions Fault to detect the same strengthAlso, the reading taken on the neutral Phase 1 being surgedbonded ground in the first manholeafter the fault will also be high.Readings taken on the bondedground in the second and succeed-ing manholes after the fault will bezero. This process allows the faultedsection of cable can be identified.Three-phase PILC Sensor position 4 (Weak)Strange as it may seem at first, it is First bonded ground after fault Sensor position 3 (Weak)usually easier to locate a fault in Sensor position 2 (Strong) First bonded ground in systemthree-phase PILC coaxial cable thanin single phase. See Figure 47. Thecurrent pulse from a surge genera- Figure 47: Electromagnetic detection of faults on three-phase powertor through one phase of a three- cable 26 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 29. Locating Methods SECTION VIDART® ANALYZER/HIGH-VOLTAGERADAR R BIDDLE R DART R ANALYSIS SYSTEMBecause the low-voltage TDR is unable to High Resistance Fault to Neutralidentify high resistance shunt faults, its Open Endeffectiveness as a fault locator on powercables is limited. When used in a high-voltage radar system with surge genera-tors, filters or couplers, the TDR/Analyzeris able to display both low and high resist-ance faults. The DART Analyzer providesboth TDR and storage oscilloscope func-tions and is able to utilize all of the cablefault locating methods listed below.Arc Reflection Low Voltage TraceThis method is often referred to as a high-voltage radar technique that overcomesthe 200 Ω limitation of low-voltage radar.In addition to the TDR, an arc reflectionfilter and surge generator is required. Thesurge generator is used to create an arc High Voltage Traceacross the shunt fault which creates amomentary short circuit that the TDR can Figure 48: Arc reflection method of high-voltage radardisplay as a downward-going reflection.The filter protects the TDR from the high-voltage pulse generated by the surge gen- Open Enderator and routes the low-voltage pulses R BIDDLE R DART R ANALYSIS SYSTEM Tee splicedown the cable. High Resistance Fault to NeutralArc reflection is the most accurate and Splice Open Endeasiest prelocation method and should beused as a first approach. The fault is dis-played in relation to other cable land- Long test leadsmarks such as splices, taps and transform-ers and no interpretation is required.Arc reflection makes it possible for theTDR to display “before” and “after”traces or cable signatures. See Figure 48. Low Voltage TraceThe “before” trace is the low-voltageradar signature that shows all cable land-marks but does not show the downwardreflection of a high resistance shunt fault.The “after” trace is the high-voltage sig-nature that includes the fault location Arc Reflection Traceeven though its resistance may be higherthan 200 Ω. This trace is digitized, storedand displayed on the screen allowing thecursors can be easily positioned in orderto read the distance to the high resistancefault. Differential Arc Reflection Trace Figure 49: Arc reflection and differential arc reflection methods of high-voltage radar Fault Finding Solutions 27
  • 30. Locating Methods SECTION VIDifferential Arc Reflection High Resistance Fault to Neutral BIDDLE DART R R R ANALYSIS SYSTEMThis high-voltage radar method isbasically an extension of arc Open Endreflection and it requires the use Current Couplerof a surge generator, an arcreflection filter, and an analyzer.Using an algorithm, the DART Distance to FaultAnalyzer displays the algebraicdifference between the low-volt-age trace and the captured high-voltage trace on a second screen.See Figure 49 on previous page.As in differential TDR, differentialarc reflection eliminates all identi-cal reflections before the faultand the first downward-goingreflection to appear is easily iden-tified as the cable fault. This sim- Figure 50: Surge pulse reflection method of high-voltage radarplifies the fault prelocation partic-ularly if the fault reflection is notwell defined or the fault is on a complex systemwith lots of clutter and unidentifiable reflections. The surge generator transmits a high-voltage pulse down the cable creating an arc at the fault thatSurge Pulse Reflection causes a reflection of energy back to the surgeThis method requires the use of a surge coupler, a generator. This reflection repeats back and forthsurge generator, and an analyzer. The analyzer between the fault and the surge generator untilacts as a storage oscilloscope that captures and dis- all of the energy is depleted. A current couplerplays reflections from the fault produced by the senses the surge reflections which are captured bysurge generator high-voltage pulse. The analyzer the analyzer and displayed on the screen as aoperates in a passive mode and is not acting like a trace. See Figure 50.TDR by actively sending out pulses. Surge pulse is To determine the location of the fault, cursors areeffective in locating faults on long runs of simple positioned at succeeding peaks in the trace. Thecircuits and on faults that are difficult to arc over analyzer measures time and calculates the distancewhich do not show up using arc reflection. This to the fault using the velocity of propagation. Formethod will find most of the same faults that can the trace shown in Figure 50, there is little difficul-be prelocated using arc reflection, but usually with ty in determining where to position the cursors toreduced accuracy and confidence due to greater obtain the distance to the fault. In many cases,difficulty in interpreting the displayed signature. interpretation of the waveform can be extremelyThe captured trace does not show landmarks on difficult due to additional reflections that can bethe cable as arc reflection does. produced by splices and taps.In this method, a surge generator is connected Surge pulse is also affected by accuracy problemsdirectly to the cable without the use of a filter due to changes in the velocity of propagation withwhich can limit both the voltage and current distance from the fault. Despite its shortcomings,applied to the fault. Some faults with water or oil this method provides an alternate tool to locatein the fault cavity require more ionizing current some faults that would not show up using arcand higher voltage than arc reflection can provide. reflection and would be much more difficult to locate. 28 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 31. Locating Methods SECTION VIVoltage Decay Reflection High dc voltage is applied gradually to the cableThis method requires the use of a surge coupler, a under test charging its capacitance until the highhigh-voltage dc test set, and an analyzer. The ana- resistance fault breaks down. At breakdown, thelyzer does the job of a storage oscilloscope that cable capacitance is discharged through the faultcaptures and displays reflections from the fault and generates a voltage pulse that travels back toproduced by the flashover of dc voltage at the the test set where it reflects back to the fault.fault. The analyzer operates in a passive mode and When the voltage pulse reaches the fault, itsis not acting like a TDR by actively sending out polarity is reversed and it again travels back to thepulses. Decay is used primarily to locate faults on test set. These reflections continue back and forthtransmission class cables that require breakdown until the energy contained in the wave is dissipat-voltages greater than typical surge generators will ed. A current coupler senses the surge reflectionsprovide. Dc dielectric test sets with output capabil- that are captured and displayed on the screen as aity up to at least 160 kV may be required to break trace. To determine the location of the fault, cur-down the fault and capture the voltage transient sors are positioned at a succeeding peak and valleyusing an appropriately rated coupler and an ana- in the trace. The analyzer measures time and cal-lyzer. See Figure 51. culates the distance to the fault using the velocity of propagation. All three phases can be tied together at both ends of the cable run to take advantage of the additional capacitance. High Resistance Fault to Neutral BIDDLE DART R R R ANALYSIS SYSTEM Open End Current Coupler HV dc Test Set Distance to FaultFigure 51: Decay method of high-voltage radar Fault Finding Solutions 29
  • 32. Locating or Pinpointing Methods SECTION VIIACOUSTIC DETECTION Other less painful approaches involve old reliableNo matter what method is used for fault locating tools such as traffic cones, shovel handles, andon direct buried underground cable, at some point modified “x” must be marked on the ground to say “dig Slightly more sophisticated equipment uses anhere.” The most commonly used prelocation acoustic pickup or microphone placed on themethods such as arc reflection or current impulse ground, an electronic amplifier, and a set of head-will get reasonably close to the fault, but are not phones. This setup amplifies the sound and helpsaccurate enough to define the exact fault location. to zero in on the source at the fault. An improve-Before digging, in order to repair the faulted ment on this technique is the addition of a secondcable, some type of pinpointing technique must be pickup. See Figure 52. A switch and meter on theused. amplifier allow comparison of the magnitude ofThe classical methods all revolve around a way to the sound from each pickup. The higher signal iszero in on the sound produced by the thump or from the pickup closest to the fault and the sen-discharge of energy at the fault created by a surge sors are moved in that direction. With pickupsgenerator. A simple and well-used method is the straddling the fault, the sound levels are equal.fault-locator-ear-on-the-ground-butt-in-the-air These acoustic techniques all assume that thetechnique. Under some conditions such as after a sound produced at the fault travels directly torain or heavy morning dew this can be a shocking ground level unimpeded and that the loudestexperience, literally. Under certain conditions such sound is heard precisely above the fault. If theas created by a corroded neutral, when surging cable happens to be in duct or conduit, underthe cable, current will flow in the earth itself paving or surrounded by tree roots, this assump-rather than back to the generator through the tion may not be valid. In duct or pipe, the loudestneutral. When this occurs, a voltage drop is pro- sound occurs at either end or at a break. If theduced between the spread hands of the fault loca- fault is under paving, the loudest sound may be attor each time the surge generator discharges. a crack or seam. Root systems seem to carry the sound off in all directions. Position #1 — Sound louder from right pickup Position #2 — Sound equal from left and right pickups Position #3 — Sound louder from left pickup Position 1 Position 3 Position 2 MAG VOLUME ON/OFF MAG VOLUME MAG VOLUME SET TIME ON/OFF ON/OFF SET TIME SET TIME AMPL AMPL AMPL FREQ SAVE FREQ SAVE FREQ SAVE LEFT SD-3000 RIGHT LEFT SD-3000 RIGHT LEFT SD-3000 RIGHT MUTE SURGE DETECTOR MUTE MUTE MUTE MUTE MUTE TM SURGE DETECTOR SURGE DETECTOR FaultFigure 52: Acoustic surge detection30 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 33. Locating or Pinpointing Methods SECTION VIIELECTROMAGNETIC SURGE DETECTION past the fault making it difficult to determine aAn alternate technique is the use of an electro- precise pinpoint location. This method may be themagnetic impulse detector. See Figure 53. The dis- only hope if the fault is very low resistance andcharge from a surge generator creates a current the surge generator is producing little or no soundimpulse that travels down the cable through the at the fault.fault and back to the capacitor of the surge gener-ator. Using the proper antenna or surface coil and ELECTROMAGNETIC/ACOUSTIC SURGEan amplifier, the magnetic field created by this DETECTIONcurrent impulse can be detected and measured The Model SD-3000 Surge Detector combines bothwhile walking above the cable. This is similar to electromagnetic and acoustic pickups to efficientlycable route tracing where the maximum signal is pinpoint the fault. See Figure 54. A pickup in thedetected directly over the cable, except that this receiver detects the magnetic field produced bysignal is only present each time the thumper dis- the current impulse and also displays its magni-charges. As the fault location is approached, the tude on a bar graph display every time theintensity of the magnetic field will generally thumper discharges. The indicated magnitude ofincrease and after passing the fault the magnitude the impulse will decrease if the fault has beenfalls off fairly rapidly. This increase and then rapid passed or if the receiver is no longer over thedecrease can sometimes be used to pinpoint an cable route. After detecting an impulse, anunderground fault accurately enough to dig. acoustic pickup placed on the ground listens for aUnfortunately, in the case of direct buried, bare- thump as a result of the discharge. The detectedconcentric neutral cables, a portion of the impulse impulse starts a timer in the receiver and when ancurrent may follow the neutral for some distance audible thump is sensed, the timer is stopped. This measurement is the time it takes the sound wave Position #1 — Detect electromagnetic signal from surge Position #2 — Detect increase in electromagnetic signal as fault is approached Position #3 — Detect decrease in electromagnetic signal as fault is passed Position 1 Position 2 Position 3 FaultFigure 53: Electromagnetic pinpointing Fault Finding Solutions 31
  • 34. Locating or Pinpointing Methods SECTION VIIproduced at the fault to travel to the acoustic phones are no longer necessary and the measure-pickup and is displayed in milliseconds. As the ments will lead the operator directly to the fault.fault is approached, this time interval decreases to The receiver also measures and displays a digitala minimum directly over the fault and increases value of the sound level, which typically increasesagain as the fault is passed. The time never goes as the fault is approached. By using the Save func-to zero because there is always the depth of the tion in the unit, two sets of time and sound levelcable between the pickup and the fault. This tech- values can be saved and displayed while observingnique relies on the elapsed time between the two the current values which confirms that the direc-events, not simply the loudness of the sound and tion being taken is correct.thereby eliminates the problems of accurate pin- The SD-3000 provides information on its liquidpointing even under difficult conditions. crystal display, which will efficiently and quicklyIf two acoustic pickups are used, the receiver guide the operator to within inches of the exactmakes dual measurements and indicates with an fault location:arrow on the display which direction to move ■ Intensity of the surge impulse.toward the fault. As the fault is approached, thetail on the arrow becomes shorter until the fault is ■ Elapsed time between the impulse and thump.passed when the direction of the arrow reverses. ■ Magnitude of the sound.At this point, small movements of the pickups aremade. When they actually straddle the fault, two ■ Direction and relative distance to the fault.arrowheads appear pointed toward each other. Figure 55 shows typical displays of the SD-3000.Once the instrument “hears” the thump, head- Position # 1 — Sound detected. Arrow points toward fault. Electromagnetic signal detected. Time decreases as fault is approached. Position # 2 — Sound detected. Arrow points toward fault. Electromagnetic signal detected. Time decreases as fault is approached Position # 3 — Loud sound detected. Arrows point toward each other. Time measurement at minimum. Position 1 Position 3 Position 2 MAG VOLUME ON/OFF MAG VOLUME MAG VOLUME SET TIME ON/OFF ON/OFF SET TIME SET TIME AMPL AMPL AMPL FREQ SAVE FREQ SAVE FREQ SAVE LEFT SD-3000 RIGHT LEFT SD-3000 RIGHT LEFT SD-3000 RIGHT MUTE MUTE TM SURGE DETECTOR MUTE TM MUTE MUTE TM MUTE SURGE DETECTOR SURGE DETECTOR FaultFigure 54: Acoustic/electromagnetic pinpointing32 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 35. Locating or Pinpointing Methods SECTION VII Impulse Elapsed Time 1. 9ms 2. 5 3. 9 1. 0ms 1. 5 1. 9 1. 9ms 2. 5 3. 9 Sound 29 25 19 59 39 29 29 25 19 Direction & DistanceFigure 55: SD-3000 display at positions 1, 2, and 3EARTH GRADIENT When using an ac transmitter as shown in FigureAlthough primarily designed to pinpoint faults on 56, the voltage measured increases as the A-framedirect buried secondary cable, an earth gradient is moved closer to the fault. When the A-frametest set can at times be used to pinpoint faults on straddles the fault, the measurement drops to zerojacketed primary cables when all else fails. A gen- and after the fault is passed, the voltage increaseserator is used to produce a flow of current again. At the indicated point of the fault, turn thebetween the point of the fault through the earth A-frame at a right angle and follow the same pro-and back to the generator by way of an earth con- cedure. This will confirm the fault location whentact. Because the earth is a resistance, current flow moving left and right at ninety degrees to thewill develop a difference in potential or earth gra- cable path.dient along the surface. A similar technique uses a dc generator that pro-The A-frame, with two isolated measuring probes duces a several second pulse of voltage at a regu-connected to its receiver, measures and displays lar time interval. In this case, a zero-center meterthe value of this potential difference. The A-frame on the A-frame will jog in one direction for everymust be moved along directly over the cable route pulse as you approach the fault, read zero whenso tracing the cable before hand is essential. If the directly over the fault, and jog to the oppositecurrent flow is equal in all directions, measuring direction after the fault is passed. This approachthe voltage drop along the cable route will lead to has the advantage that in most cases the voltage isthe point of the fault. If the current flow finds its much higher than that produced by an ac genera-way onto another conductor such as a buried pipe, tor. Higher voltage creates a larger current flowthis technique will likely be ineffective because no through the earth producing a higher earth gradi-voltage gradient is developed. ent voltage. See Figure 57. Transmitter 450 850 000 400 DC 0 0 0 0 Transmitter L1070 Locator BIDDLE R R Portable TM Voltage Drop Voltage Drop Current Flow Current FlowFigure 56: AC voltage gradient Figure 57: DC voltage gradient Fault Finding Solutions 33
  • 36. Solutions for Finding Faults SECTION VIII Megger offers solutions for finding cable faults with its comprehensive line of Power Fault Locating (PFL) systems designed specifically for performing maintenance on underground residential distribution systems (URDs). Each Megger PFL System includes a power fault locator with your choice of mounting options and capabilities, and an advanced control device (the DART® Cable Analyzer) featuring many useful improvements. In addition to Power Fault Locating systems, Megger offers test equipment for various telecommunications applications. An overview of the various products available is described below. For more information on these and the many other Megger products, please contact us at (800) 723-2861. Or visit our web site for the most up-to-date news, product and service information…24 hours a day.UNDERGROUND UTILITY LOCATING AND Split Box Pipe and Cable LocatorTRACING EQUIPMENT ■ Energized or de-energized lines tracingPortable Locators Models L1070 and L1050 ■ Conductive or inductive coupling■ Selectable AF or RF signals ■ Peak and null detection capabilities■ High power at low frequency The Split-box Pipe and Cable Locator is the classicMegger offers two Portable Locators in its “split-box” design consisting of a transmitter andextensive line of cable/pipe locating equipment. receiver. The instrument traces undergroundThe L1070 and L1050 are unparalleled in their conductive networks such as water and gas mains,capability to successfully locate cable/pipe in telephone, CATV, and electric power cables. Itvarious situations combining high power at low determines buried lines depth and locatesfrequency eliminating coupling into adjacent underground metallic masses such as valve capsobjects. Both models offer 815 Hz (AF) and 82 kHz and manhole covers.(RF) tracing frequencies. The L1070 adds 60 Hzdetection capability, push-button depthmeasurement, current flow measurement andfault locating using the optional earth frame. AccuTrace® Cable Route Tracer ■ Peak and null-tracing capability ■ Traces energized or de-energized lines through inductive or conductive coupling ■ Extremely lightweight receiver The AccuTrace Cable Route Tracer locates and traces any conductive line such as cable, pipe, or metallic conduit. Depth of the line can be established quickly by taking advantage of the swivel-mounted antenna. Cable Analyzer34 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 37. Solutions for Finding Faults SECTION VIIITIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETERS General-purpose TDRHand-held TDR Model CFL535F*Model CFL510F* Model TDR2000-2*Model TDR1000-2* ■ No blocking filter required for live line testing up to 480 Vac■ Automatic event finder key ■ Output pulse amplitude control■ No blocking filter required for live line testing up to 480 V ac ■ Automatic event finder key■ Simple keypad ■ Graphical help menu■ Bright, backlit LCD The CFL535F offers nine user-selectable ranges and measurement resolution down to four inches.This TDR is designed to test all types of cable Among its unique features are five user-selectableincluding twisted pair, coaxial, parallel conductor pulse widths for each range which enhances faultand concentric neutral and provides the user with location on both long cable runs and close-inthe ability to perform fault diagnosis. The 510F faults. Its display zoom feature allows the cursor tooffers six ranges of testing capability and features be accurately positioned at the beginning of themicroprocessor control and solid-state digital fault.signal handling processes. Among its uniquefeatures are front panel accessible controls for The 535F features a mode which allows thegain (trace amplification), balance, display contrast operator to average a number of trace samples toand display backlight. reduce the effect of intermittent noise. By averaging the traces, the inflections caused by theThe 510F includes four user selectable output noise reduce in size, allowing the actual fault toimpedance which makes the TDR multi-industry appear more clearly. The instrument has theapplicable: 25 Ω (Power); 75 Ω (CATV); 50 Ω facility to store and recall up to 15 waveforms,(Cellular); and 100 Ω (Telephony). with corresponding instrument settings for Velocity Factor, Range, Impedance, and Amplitude Gain. A standard RS232 serial output port enables results to be downloaded and uploaded from a pc.*Model CFL510F TDR is sold in North America.Model TDR1000-2 is sold in all other areas of the Model CFL535F TDR is sold in North Both instruments incorporate the same Model TDR2000-2 is sold in all other areas of thefeatures. world. Both instruments incorporate the same features. Fault Finding Solutions 35
  • 38. Solutions for Finding Faults SECTION VIIICABLE FAULT PINPOINTING EQUIPMENT Electromagnetic Impulse Detector ■ Indicates direction of faultSurge Detector Model SD-3000■ Determines distance and direction to the fault ■ Works under all weather conditions■ Operates in all weather conditions ■ Converts to voltage gradient tester with option- al earth frame■ Selectable acoustic frequency band The Electromagnetic Impulse Detector is usedThe SD-3000 has been designed to locate faults in primarily to localize faults on cable in duct orshielded, direct buried cables by detecting both conduit. The instrument is comprised of anthe electromagnetic and acoustic pulses emitted amplifier module, a sheath coil and a carryingfrom an arcing fault when it is surged. Either case. With the optional surface coil, it is possible tosingle or dual detector configurations are trace cable while surging. When used with theavailable. As a single detector, the set provides optional earth frame, it is possible to pinpointdetection of acoustic emission, measurement of faults on direct-buried cable.time delay between acoustic and electromagneticsignals, and distance to the fault. If a seconddetector is added, the set will also display thedirection to the fault. The SD-3000 can be used asan accessory to any surge generator.36 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 39. Solutions for Finding Faults SECTION VIIIHIGH VOLTAGE DC DIELECTRIC TEST SETS SUITCASE IMPULSE GENERATOR ■ Lightweight for easy transport70, 120, and 160-kV DC Test Sets■ Lightest weight available in air-insulated high- ■ Compact design voltage model ■ Noiseless discharge technique■ Advanced performance with long-term reliability The Suitcase Impulse generator is a lightweight provided by filtered half-wave rectification and compact unit that impulses at 3, 6, 9, 12, or■ Operate like a full-wave rectified unit (filtered 15-kV. Unlike conventional impulse generators, half-wave rectification) this unit incorporates a solid-state circuit generating an impulse that is transmitted to theThe High Voltage DC Dielectric Test Sets (70 kV, cable by a pulse transformer.120 kV and 160 kV) provide the most dependable,portable dc high voltage sources for checking the The Suitcase Impulse Generator offers benefitsquality of electrical power cables, motors, that ensure efficient and effective fault locating:switchgear, insulators, transformers and capacitors. Rugged construction — housed in a sturdyTests are performed by applying controlled high fiberglass case, designed to withstand the rigors ofvoltages to the unit under test at or above the field operationinsulation system’s operating level. Convenient transport/storage — its light weightEach portable set (heaviest is 73 lb, 32.8 kg) is allows one person to carry unit easily. Its compactcomprised of a control module and a high-voltage size allows for easy storage and transport in tightmodule. The three models locations.cover a range of outputvoltages that meet Noiseless discharge — SCR provides discharge withcommonly specified no air gap or moving parts. Quiet discharge isratings in 5-kV to 69- extremely desirable in confined locations.kV class cable. All are Simple operation — minimum of controls andsuitable for testing instrumentation to reduce operation complexity.power cable,switchgear androtating machinery inaccordance with IEEE,IPCEA, NEMA andANSI guidelines. Fault Finding Solutions 37
  • 40. Solutions for Finding Faults SECTION VIIICABLE ANALYZER POWER FAULT LOCATORSDART® Cable Analysis System URD Loop Power Fault Locator■ Simplified control functions developed in collab- Model PFL-1000 oration with utility service crews ■ Compact design to fit into the tool bin of a serv-■ Easy-to-use touchscreen interface ice truck■ Color or monochrome display options ■ Eliminates the need for fault current indicators This system configuration is designed specifically for use in underground residential loop sectionalizing. The PFL-1000 base unit and DART Cable Analyzer are designed for installation into the tool bin of a utility service truck. The system delivers a maximum energy surge of 1500 Joules at 16 kV providing necessary energy to overcome the capacitive loading of large URD loop circuits. It supports multiple fault location techniques including time domain reflectometry, digital arc reflection, and surge pulse reflection.The DART® Cable Analysis Systems operates as thecontrol device of each Power Fault Locating (PFL)system to simplify the process of locating highimpedance cable faults. It has the capability forusing arc reflection, differential arc reflection(DART) and surge pulse methods of fault locating.Windows® based operating software allows forease of use, quicker loading and use of futuresoftware upgrades. The DART also incorporatessimplified control functions developed incollaboration with utility service crews whoregularly perform underground cable faultlocating. Mounting options include rack mounting,a flip-top lid or stand alone package.38 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 41. Solutions for Finding Faults SECTION VIIIPower Fault Locator Power Fault LocatorModel PFL-4000 Model PFL-5000■ Compact, rugged and designed for portability in ■ Specifically designed for vehicle installation the field ■ Incorporates the base PFL-5000 unit and the■ Supports multiple test modes including arc DART Analyzer reflection, surge pulse, surge, and proof and ■ Performs multiple test modes including arc burn reflection, surge pulse, surge, and proof andThe PFL-4000 is designed for portability featuring burna rugged base unit chassis and the DART Analyzer The PFL-5000 is specifically designed forhoused in a flip-top lid for extra protection when installation and use in utility URD troubleshootingused in the field. The system delivers a maximum vehicles. This system delivers full performance andenergy surge at 1500 Joules at 16 kV providing the a multitude of fault locating methods. It is thenecessary energy to condition and break down perfect tool for isolating a faulted cable sectionfaults in cables, joints, and terminations. The between transformers with one surge andsystem also includes a 20 kV proof tester and measuring the distance to the fault. This system60-mA burner for testing and conditioning cable delivers a maximum energy surge of 1500 Joules atfaults. 16 kV providing the necessary energy to condition and break down faults in cable, joints and termination. It also features a 20-kV proof tester and 60-mA burner for testing and conditioning cable faults. Fault Finding Solutions 39
  • 42. Solutions for Finding Faults SECTION VIIIIMPULSE GENERATORS Megger offers four models to meet every application:Portable, Dual-Voltage, Standard andHeavy-Duty Models 15-kV Portable Model — For lightweight economy, this 75-lb (34 kg) portable unit delivers 536 Joules■ Maintenance-free operation for pinpointing faults on most primary distribution■ Engineered to assure optimum operator safety cable rated to 15 kV.■ Heavy-Duty model delivers up to 10,800 Joules, Dual-Voltage Model — This 80-lb (36 kg) constant the highest impulse in the industry energy unit permits up to 450 Joules to be discharged of both the 7.5 and 15 kV maximum■ Simple to use, even for the infrequent operator voltages of the unit. This model is designedImpulse generators are designed to locate faults in primarily for direct buried cable in applicationspower cable by the high voltage impulse method, that require instrument transport without a truckin which a high-voltage impulse is transmitted or van.down the cable to cause the fault to arc. The Standard Model — This unit stores up to 1250arcing fault is then pinpointed using an Joules at 25 kV to meet the requirements of aappropriate impulse detector. majority of applications. Although this unit isThe impulse generators may also be used to heavier than the dual-voltage model, it is stillperform voltage versus time acceptance tests, or to portable for convenient transport to remote sites.burn faults that fail to break down under impulse The energy output makes it effective on directto reduce their resistance. buried cable and simple network circuits. Heavy-Duty Model — This powerful unit, Heavy-duty Model designed for van or substation use, offers the highest impulse rating in the industry. It delivers up to 5400 Joules at 30 kV (12 µF). A 24 µF option is available which delivers15-kV Portable Model up to 10,800 Joules at 30 kV. This model is designed for applications such as complex network circuits and faults located in pockets of water and oil. Dual-voltage Model Standard Model40 Fault Finding Solutions
  • 43. Your “One Stop” Source for all your electrical test Megger is a world leading manufacturerequipment needs and supplier of test and measurement instruments used within the electric power,■ Battery Test Equipment building wiring and telecommunication■ Cable Fault Locating Equipment industries.■ Circuit Breaker Test Equipment With research, engineering and manufacturing facilities in the USA and UK,■ Data Communications Test Equipment combined with sales and technical support■ Fiber Optic Test Equipment in most countries, Megger is uniquely placed to meet the needs of its customers■ Ground Resistance Test Equipment worldwide.■ Insulation Power Factor (C&DF) Test Equipment For more information about Megger and■ Insulation Resistance Test Equipment its diversified line of test and measurement instruments:■ Line Testing Equipment Call: 1-800-723-2861 - USA■ Low Resistance Ohmmeters 1-800-297-9688 - Canada■ Motor & Phase Rotation Test Equipment 1-214-333-3201 - Outside the USA■ Multimeters and Canada■ Oil Test Equipment Fax: 1-214-331-7379■ Partial Discharge Test Equipment Email:■ Portable Appliance & Tool Testers Or go to our website:■ Power Quality Instruments■ Recloser Test Equipment■ Relay Test Equipment■ T1 Network Test Equipment■ Tachometers & Speed Measuring Instruments■ TDR Test Equipment■ Transformer Test Equipment■ Transmission Impairment Test Equipment■ Watthour Meter Test Equipment■ STATES® Terminal Blocks & Test Switches■ Professional Hands-On Technical and Safety Training Programs WWW.MEGGER.COM
  • 44. Megger PO Box 118 Cherrybrook NSW 2126 FAULT FINDING AUSTRALIA T +61 (0)2 9875 4765 F +61 (0)2 9875 1094 E Megger SOLUTIONS PO Box 15777 Kingdom of BAHRAIN T +973 254752 F +973 274232 E Megger Limited 110 Milner Avenue Unit 1 Scarborough Ontario M1S 3R2 CANADA T 1 800 297 9688 (Canada only) T +1 416 298 6770 F +1 416 298 0848 E Megger SARL 23 rue Eugène Henaff ZA du Buisson de la Couldre 78190 TRAPPES T +01 30 16 08 90 F +01 34 61 23 77 E Megger PO Box 12052 Mumbai 400 053 INDIA See us on the web at T +91 22 6315114 F +91 22 6328004 E Megger MBE No 393 1-800-723-2861 C/Modesto Lafuente 58 28003 Madrid Tel: 1-214-330-3255 ESPAÑA T + 44 1304 502101 Fax: 1-214-333-3533 F + 44 1304 207342 c f l @ m e g g e r. c o m E Megger Limited Archcliffe Road Dover CT17 9EN UK T +44 (0) 1304 502100 F +44 (0) 1304 207342 E Megger 4271 Bronze Way Dallas, TX 75237-1088 USA T 1 800 723 2861 (USA only) T +1 214 333 3201 F +1 214 331 7399 E WWW.MEGGER.COM WWW.MEGGER.COMThe word “Megger” is a registered trademarkMEG-231/MIL/3M/11.2003