Water Supply and Sanitation Management in Annaba: Constraints and Perspectives

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Water Supply and Sanitation Management in Annaba:
Constraints and Perspectives
lessons learned from: Delegate Management Attributed To German Operator ”GELESENWASSAR”

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  • 1. People’s Republic Democratic of Algeria Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research “U.F.C” Centre: Annaba Department of Technical English A Term Research Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of ”D.E.U.A.” Degree in Technical English Candidates: Supervisor: Lotfi Ouerrad Dr Salah Bouregbi Academic Year 2011-2012 Water Supply and Sanitation Management in Annaba: Constraints and Perspectives
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To the reader Mr Salah Bouregbi, who gracefully agreed to help us at time of need, even if it meant an enormous amount of work for them in short period of time. To all the group of teachers: Mrs Rokaya Marsaoui, Mr Abdelmalek Bouhidel, Mr Abdelwahab Bounakhla, and Mr Hocine Maoui, for their efforts in Three years of study. To all people who agreed to meet with us, provide valuable information and documentation, and helped us to obtain funding for this research. This includes friends and family. To all colleagues, without whose assistance we would not have been able to complete our dissertation. Finally, we owe a lot to our friend Gouri, an unfailing kind, intelligent and exceptional friend. We will never be able to thank him enough for his never-ending support. To our friends: Nabil, Hafid, Fayçal, and Nadjoua for their helps in all times and their never-inding support. Lotfi
  • 3. To my beloved parents and my wife for their unconditional and never-ending love and support, and to my children Taouba, Tamin Abdullah, and Mohamed Abdelrahmane: the light of my life and a source of constant joy Lotfi
  • 4. TABLE OF CONTENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………. I CHAPTER ONE: OVERVIEW OF THE AREA AND WATER SUPPLY SECTION ONE: 1. Overview of the Area …………………………………………………………………………………………..1 1.1 Geographical Situation and Administration Organization ……………………………….1 1.2 Vital Area of the Wilaya ………………………………………………………………………………….3 1.3 Climate and Hydrology ……………………………………………………………………………………3 1.4 Vocation and Potentialities of the Wilaya ………………………………………………………..4 SECTION TWO 1. Water Supply ………………………………………………………………………………………………………4 2. Water Scarcity in Annaba ……………………………………………………………………………………5 2.1 Surface Water ……………………………………………………………………………………………….5 2.2 Groundwater …………………………………………………………………………………………………5 2.3 Repartition of Water Resources …………………………………………………………………..6 3. Water Infrastructures ………………………………………………………………………………………..7 4. Accessibility of Water Service and Quality …………………………………………………………7 5. Public Investment Between1999-2010 ……………………………………………………………..8 SECTION THREE 1. Perspectives of Development of Water Supply …………………………………………………9 1.1 Investments in Additional of Mobilization Water ………………………………………….9 1.2 Aquifer Storage and Minimization Pollution Threats ……………………………………10 1.2 Nonconventional Water Resources (Desalination) ……………………………………..10 1.4 New Method of Management Water Supply System (SEATA Company) ………11 1.5Reservoirs’ Security ……………………………………………………………………………………….11 1.6 Generalization of Installation of Meters ……………………………………………………..11
  • 5. SECTION FOUR 1. Delegate Management Attributed To German Operator ”GELESENWASSAR”.12 2. The Macro-Objectives of the contract ………………………………………………………….12 3. Cancelling Contract with “Gelsenwassar “ ……………………………………………………13 4. Evaluation of the Physical and Financial Situation............................................13 4.1 Financial Evaluation ……………………………………………………………………………………13 4.2. Physical Situation ............................................................................................14 CHAPTER TWO: WASTEWATER AND FLOODS Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..17 SECTION ONE 1. Wastewater ………………………………………………………………………………………………..17 1.1Sewer Systems and Special Structures in Annaba ……………………………………….17 1.2Productive Capacity Hydraulic and Flood Resistance in Annaba …………………18 SECTION TWO 1. Case of Annaba ………………………………………………………………………………………………19 2. Area of Operation ……………………………………………………………………………………………20 3. Situation …………………………………………………………………………………………………….……21 4. Analysis of Existing Data ………………………………………………………………………………….21 5. Analysis of the BG Switzerland Study ………………………………………………………………22 SECTION THREE 1. Floods …………………………………………………………………………………………………………24 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….28 GENERAL CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 6. TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1: Geographical Situation of Annaba ……………………………………………………….1 Figure 2: Administrative Subdivision of the Wilaya ……………………………….……2 Figure 3: Area Repartition of the Wilaya …………………………………………………………….3 Figure 4: Photos satellite of the 03 dams ……………………………………………………………5 Figure 5: Repartition of Water Resources …………………………………………………………..7 Figure 6 Business plan during 5.5 years ................................................................13 Figure 7: Assessment of Business Plan during 2.5 years …………………………………..14 Figure 8: Black Spots in the City of Annaba ……………………………………………………….18 Figure 9: Annaba Geohydrological Location ………………………………………………….….19 Fig 10: Hydrographic Basin System of Annaba ………………………………………………….27
  • 7. TABLES Table 1: Administrative Subdivision of the Wilaya …………….………………………………………2 Table 2: Properties of Dams Supplying Annaba …………………………………………………………………...5 Table 3: Repartition of drilling water by Aquifer ………………………………………………………………….6 Table 4: Repartition of Water Resources ……………………………………………………………………………..6 Table 5: Infrastructure of Water Supply ……………………………………………………………………………….7 Table 6: Distribution Frequency and Rate Connection to Network ………………………………………8 Table 7: Public Investment 1999-2010 …………………………..…………………………………………………….9 Table 8: Infrastructure to Achieve: Mobilization of Surface and Underground Water ………..10 Table 9: The Latest Investigation Currently there are three other Pumping Stations in Realization ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….20
  • 8. I GENERAL INTRODUCTION Water and wastewater utilities are confronted with many challenges as they strive to make organizational improvements. Water sector utility managers must consider a wide range of issues in their management improvement initiatives. General economic conditions, staff turnover, communication between internal management and external stakeholders, involvement of staff across the organization, aging infrastructure, rate issues, and limited staff resources are some of the issues managers address. This dissertation formed from two chapters witch spook about Water Supply in the first and Wastewater and Floods in the second. In the wilaya of Annaba (local authorities), the raw water that can be processed to transform it into drinking water is available in sufficient quantity. For this raw water supply, the two dams Mexa and Cheffia, with a total storage volume of 60 million m3 have a particularly important role. Currently, expansion work of Mexa dam are underway to reach a volume retention of 90 million m3 in order to guarantee the supply of water even when dry year without precipitation. The two major waterworks Mexa and Chaiba handle about 200,000 m3 / day of surface water taken from dams to turn it into drinking water and to reach the cities and villages through a network of pipes. A number of interconnected wells, for example in Les Salines, main water of Bouteldja and Bouglez help with many deliveries un accounted for water supply of the inhabitants of the Prefecture. The amount of water availableis sufficient to cover the needs of residents - 180 l per day per capita (180 l / pe / d)and to guarantee supplies to industrial customers and the harbor. But despite the availability of raw water from the dams in quantity and despite apparently adequate treatment capacity of the waterworks, temporary disruptions of
  • 9. II supply occur frequently in cities and towns in the Willaya. In parts of the distribution area, especially in rural structures, the water supply can not even be assured beyond a few hours a week, which is mainly due to losses in the piping system. The wilaya of Annaba has based on current information, approximately1,000 km of storm water, wastewater and sewer systems of different types of materials, age and condition also different, operate in conjunction with adjacent structures (sediment basins, traps, weirs andoverflows etc..) for the evacuation without damage stormwater andsewage from households and industry. The organizational structure depends on the nature and extent of thetasks, so the number and size of the facility. Initially, it is necessary to determine current structures, tools, equipment and business assets. Installations must be designed and constructed to meet safety specifications and operation. They must be functional at all times. Theaspect of safety and economics should be taken into consideration. Annaba, is characterized inter alia by these reliefs. The latter may have significant slopes, which promotes surface runoff. The waters from these reliefs, are often lost at sea, causing catastrophic flooding in advance (Annaba 1983,2005, and 2009). In fact this city is located in a basin and is dominated by the mountains of Edough. A distance of ten miles (15 km), separating Seraidi of Annaba, moving from an altitude of zero (0) meters to over eight hundred meters above sea level (800 m), indicating a significant slope, resulting in strong flows. The water took everything in their fury, soil, plants, tree branches, power... hence the recurrent flooding in the city.
  • 10. 0 CHAPTER ONE: OVERVIEW OF THE AREA AND WATER SUPPLY
  • 11. 1 SECTION ONE: 1. Overview of the Area: 1.1 Geographical Situation and Administration Organization: Wilaya1 of Annaba is located in Nord East of Algeria .It is the fourth metropolitan of the country, with an area of 1393,20 Square kilometers .It is bordered by wilaya of Skikda to the West, wilaya of El Tarf to the East, wilaya of Guelma to the South ,and the Mediterranean Sea to the North (see figure 1). In term of demographic indicator, Annaba has a population of 609.499 (RGPH 2008). Figure 1: Geographical Situation of Annaba SPATIAL COORDINATES OF THE WILAYA: - In latitude 36°’49’58’’, North - In longitude 7°48’40’’, East - Average altitude 3m at Sea level 1 Wilaya means country
  • 12. 2 The wilaya of Annaba is divided in 06 Dairates2 with 12 municipalities (see figure 2) Table 1: Administrative Subdivision of the Wilaya DAIRATES MUNICIPALITES Square (KM2) POPULATION RGPH 2008 ANNABA Annaba 50 257.359 Seraidi 11O 7.626 EL BOUNI El Bouni 95,18 125.265 EL HADJAR El Hadjar 64,74 37.364 Sidi Amar 44,90 83.254 AIN BERDA Ain Berda 139,60 20.611 Cheurfa 165,35 9.875 El Eulma 97,19 10.316 BERRAHAL Berrahal 174,14 22.631 Oued Aneb 191,53 21.088 Treat 124,05 6.076 CHETAIBI Chetaibi 136,52 8.035 TOTAL 1393,20 609.499 Source: DPAT -Figure 2: Administrative Subdivision of the Wilaya 2 Dairat is a sub-division of a country
  • 13. 3 1.2 Vital Area of the Wilaya The vital area of the Wilaya is divided into three main zones: a) The Coastal zone: It expands from the wilaya of EL TARF in the East, to the limits of the wilaya of SKIKDA in the West. Its length is about 80 Km characterized by the diversity of Halieutic resources. b) The plain zone: It is situated in South of the coastal zone (plain of kheraza) which occupies, 20% of the territory .The 25, 82% of fertile land is used in agriculture, cereal products and arboriculture. c) Mountain zone: It represents 52,52% of the territory of Annaba characterized by the Massif of Edough and Bouzizi, which is the highest peak of around 1008 m. Its area is mostly covered by forests. This region is well known for breeding livestock. Figure 3 1.3 Climate and Hydrology The climate of the wilaya is typically Mediterranean: wet in winter, hot in summer and rainfall varies between 650 and 1000 mm per year. Also, the temperature varies between 14 and 34c°. Annaba has a dense wadis3 network, with an important lake of Fetzara with a surface of about 18 670 ha, and Seybouse wadi with a length of about 127, 5 km. 3 Wadi: means river which is dry in summer and flooded in winter
  • 14. 4 1.4 Vocation and Potentialities of the Wilaya Due to geostrategic position, combined with micro and macroeconomic parameters such, as natural potential, several infrastructures, and history, Annaba remains the leader of industries and tourism in Algeria: - Existence of infrastructure network, Maritime port, Airport, Railway Station, and other. - An opening on Mediterranean Sea, over 80 km coast - Important Halieutic potential, which produces around 30,000 tons per year. - Exceptional tourism potential for future development based on seaside tourism. There are many beautiful small beaches, such as Sidi Akacha (Chetaibi), Djenane El Bay (Seraidi), and the Bay of Chetaibi, which is one of the most wonderful Bays in the World. - Two universities with of about 53.000 students. - Industrial basis: Annaba is Algeria’s chief exporter of minerals, mainly iron ore and phosphates. Annaba has a major industries include an iron and steel complex ARECELOR MITAL, a fertilizer FERTIAL. Plant. SECTION TWO 1. Water Supply The water world commission estimates that water consumption will increase by about 50 percent in the next 30 years. Among the estimated 4 billon people, one half of the world’s population will live under conditions of severe water stress in 2025. Statistics say that each of us drinks from 2 to 4 liters of water every day, however ,most of the water we ‘drink’ is embedded in the food we eat: producing 1kilo of beef, for example ,consumes 1 500 liters of waters while 1 kilo of wheat ‘drink up’ (UN) . Algeria faces critical challenges in dealing with one of its most vital natural resources. Though the arithmetic of water might not seem so bleak in the country context, the situation is nevertheless, serious and worrisome.
  • 15. 5 2. Water Scarcity in Annaba Annaba is a clear typical case of the lack of local resources, despite a significant average rainfall about 700 mm per year, such shortage makes it dependent on bordering wilayates of Skikda, El Tarf and Guelma. Thus, it is mainly supplied from two kinds of resources, surface water and groundwater. 2.1 Surface Water: There are 03 Dams located in El Tarf: Cheffia and Mexa .They supply two wilayates at the same time Annaba and El Tarf. And the work of Bougous dam is an ongoing project (Table 2). Table 2: Properties of Dams Supplying Annaba Localization Service Date Capacity(hm3) Quota Allocated Cheffia Dam(wilaya El Tarf) 1965 95 hm3 Domestic Water supply: 34 hm3/year Industry: 15 hm3/year Agriculture: 30hm3 / year Mexa Dam(wilaya El Tarf) 1999 37hm3 Domestic Water supply: 30 hm3/year Bougous Dam (wilaya El Tarf) Ongoing project 68hm3 _ Source: DRE El Tarf Figure 4: Photos satellite of the 03 dams Bougous Dam Mexa Dam Cheffia Dam 2.2 Groundwater There are 81 drilling water contributing with 30 Hm3 in water supply to provide the wilaya of Annaba. With groundwater over-exploited in many areas, water quality and flow are deteriorating such as, Aquifer les Salines “intrusion seawater-freshwater interface”, and serious environmental problems related to water. Overexploitation of groundwater such as happing in Bouteldja alleviants Aquifer, (important number of drilling water of irrigation, Industry, and water supply), result in decreasing water levels. And become origin source of natural contamination.
  • 16. 6 Table 3: Repartition of drilling water by Aquifer Source SEATA 2012 2.3- Repartition of Water Resources: The sources of public water supply are as follows (see table 4): 30 % from groundwater. 70 % from surface water. Table 4: Repartition of Water Resources Mobilization(hm3/year) Water Production (hm3/year) Allocation of production% Groundwater surface water Total Groundwater surface water Total Water supply Industry Agriculture 70 132 202 30 104 134 70% 07.50.% 22.40% Source: SEATA Figure 5 wilayates Aquifer Drilling Water Supplied Localities El Tarf Bouteldja 32 Annaba-Seraidi-El Bouni-El Hadjar-Sidi Ammar Annaba Les salines 09 Pont Bouchet 06 Kherraza 06 Berrahal 07 Berrahal Treat 07 Treat Skikda Boumaiza 12 Cheurfa-El Eulma-berraha-Treat- Oued El Aneb-Chetaibi Guelma Guelaat Bousbaa 02 Ain Berda Total 81
  • 17. 7 3. Water Infrastructures: The length of drinking water network in Annaba is estimated to be more than 986 748 m .It is divided into two types of pipes: distributing water network, and main water network. Water infrastructures: main water, water distribution, pumping stations, and tanks are in poor repair or unusable and out of order and keeping deteriorating as a result of the lost water network estimated around 60%. Because of age, faulty initial design, or limited maintenance, many of the mobilization and conveyance infrastructures need to be rehabilitated. Table 5: Infrastructure of Water Supply DAIRATES MUNICIPALITES Main water network(ml) Distribution network(ml) Tanks Pumping stations ANNABA Annaba 41 839 238 624 42 21 Seraidi 3 149 26 804 09 09 EL BOUNI El Bouni 63 981 44 633 09 05 EL HADJAR El Hadjar 35 187 28 541 06 05 Sidi Amar 26 562 39 946 06 04 AIN BERDA Ain Berda 33 662 22 114 06 01 Cheurfa 18 796 55 176 01 01 El Eulma 25 225 53 694 01 01 BERRAHAL Berrahal 48 911 25 966 08 01 Oued Aneb 11 879 41 890 07 - Treat 36 788 16 000 05 01 CHETAIBI Chetaibi 33 173 14 208 10 07 Total 379 152 607 596 110 56 Source: SEATA 2012 4. Accessibility of Water Service and Quality: The SEATA is state Company monitors water supply as well as wastewater collection services to town of Annaba and 11 municipalities. Water supply in wilaya of Annaba is not continuous (see table 4). At present its supplying with water is of an average of 10 hours a day (example in Annaba City). In some regions of Annaba, water is still supplied to the population of an average from 4 to 6 hours per day. In some cases, water is supplied once each two days for several hours (for example, in Ain Berda) .Besides, more than 97 percent of users are connected to a public water supply system.
  • 18. 8 Table 6: Distribution Frequency and Rate Connection to Network DAIRATES MUNICIPALITES FREQUANCY TIME OF DISTRIBUTION (H) USER CONNECTED RATE(%) ANNABA Annaba Daily 10 97 Seraidi Daily 06 96 EL BOUNI El Bouni Daily 06 93 EL HADJAR El Hadjar ½ 15 96 Sidi Amar ½ 06 94 AIN BERDA Ain Berda ½ 08 96 Cheurfa ½ 05 95 El Eulma ½ 05 94 BERRAHAL Berrahal Daily 06 97 Oued Aneb Daily 09 96 Treat Daily 05 96 CHETAIBI Chetaibi Daily 04 97 Source: SEATA 2012 Lack of zoning of water supply network, inadequate capacity of daily distribution tanks, deterioration of the network, and large water losses are the main causes for water was supplying of an average of 4 to 10 hours a day, in some case, there is whole no water supply for day. Therefore, the risk of non-compliance with hygiene standards is high. Without general meter installation, people of Annaba complained a lot, trying to prove that, with scheduled supply, they do not use much water, and through, they overpay. It is impossible to prove them right or wrong when there are no meters in place. It is important that the water is billed based on meters. Billing technique, employed by both water utilities for users, creates additional incentives for meter installation. 5. Public Investment Between1999-2010: The authorities invests enormous public investment in water sector, particularly in rehabilitation of equipments, network and other during the past decade between 1999 - 2009 whose cost projects are around 132,540 Billon DA. This amount represents 23% of total investment of different sectors in Annaba. That colossal investment allows to Annaba a significant step improvement water supply indicator as follows:
  • 19. 9 Table 7: Public Investment 1999-2010 Title State 1999 State 2010 liter/day per capita 90 l/day/per capita 180/day/per capita User connected to network(water supply) 86% 97% Distribution frequency 6hours 16 hours Length network (Km) 986 1312 reservoirs 80 97 Pumping stations 29 52 Drilling water 66 81 Plant treatment 01(Chaiba) 02(Chaiba/Mexa) Source: DRE Annaba. SECTION THREE 1. Perspectives of Development of Water Supply: 1.1 Investments in Additional of Mobilization Water: Annaba has short water storage capacity, the authorities must invest in large, new dams that are contentious and costly, this is necessary to satisfy the demand, in order to secure potable and industrial water needs and to expand irrigated areas. In 2000, the droughts have focused attention on the need for additional storage and new water source that improve security, increase supply, and provide greater operating flexibility and assurance. In short, Annaba needs in 20 years forthcoming a substantial investment in new projects of water resource (07dams, 01desalination Water Sea plant),and these infrastructures can mobilize supplementary resource circa 300 hm3(ANBET4 ): 4 ANBT : National Agency of Dams and Transfer
  • 20. 10 Table 8: Infrastructure to Achieve: Mobilization of Surface and Underground Water Localization Localization Capacity(hm3) allocated WILAYA EL TARF Boukhroufa Dam 125 hm3 Water supply/industry Boulathane Dam 24hm3 Water supply/Industry Cheffia 2 Dam 73hm3 Water supply/industry Chatt Desalination water sea plant 100 000M3/Day 36Hm3 Water supply WILAYA ANNABA Ain Kouche dam(chetaibi) 34 hm3 Water supply/irregation Oued Aneb dam 9,14Hm3 Middle dams irrigate 3950 ha Oued Guiss dam 4,6Hm3 Oued Bougsaiba dam 3,1Hm3 Geophysical Study of Treat aquifer Assessment volume of the aquifer Water supply Source DRE Annaba, El Tarf, and ANBT 1.2 Aquifer Storage and Minimization Pollution Threats: Most aquifers supply the Wilaya of Annaba; need to be improved by new techniques based upon better understanding of overexploited aquifers like les Salines, which will enable increased use of artificial recharge and storage excess winter surface water. This reduces further overexploitation and increase resilience in times of drought. Available technologies consist of, amongst others: surface spreading (artificial recharge using basin), injection, induced (from wastewater treatment plant of ALLAEGUE El Bouni with capacity 86 000 l/day per capita) 1.3 Nonconventional Water Resources (Desalination): All technical and administrative aspect are taken by Ministry of Water Resource to built a new desalination water sea plant in Chatt (wilaya El Tarf) of capacity 100 000 m3/day ,which is destined to provide Annaba as complement in emergency situations , mainly during the droughts period or as a routine resource.
  • 21. 11 1.4 New Method of Management Water Supply System (SEATA Company) The SEATA Company must develop several technical activities aiming to improve the water supply system, In line with the policymaker program objectives, the following main parameters are set for assessment of SEATA operator performance. Integrate water management tools to reach a more equitable economically efficient water allocation distribution are necessary. In order to achieve these objectives, SEATA Company aims to establish a methodology allowing offering a long term renewal planning of the water pipe network with help of multicriteria analysis. This method leans on the analysis of the data of heritage managed, tool of mapping of service system of geographical information of SEATA, data notably analyzed through a hydraulic modeling as well as on the analysis of data of working and service with aid of a tool of prediction of faults. a- Renovated water mains. must use Leak detected b- Eliminated unauthorized connections to the water supply system. c- Rehabilitated a number of pumping stations ,replaced sections of rusty pipes d- Zoning(engineering exercise aimed to optimize pressure in the network) e- New equipment and machinery was purchased. f- Personnel re-training(SEATA) in new method of management g- New accounting and financial system, new software for maintenance of data base h- Better knowledge on quality of water supplies and water demand by modeling tools network i- innovation methods to detect, control and repair leakage 1.5 Reservoirs’ Security Security of domestic water supplies by achieving reservoirs for autonomy the capacity 3X50 000 m3 in order to ensure providing the Wilaya of Annaba in case of incidence on production, and transfer water installation. 1.6 Generalization of Installation of Meters: The SEATA Company must launch vast operation of installation meters through the 12 municipalities, because these actions give quick impact in order to improve financial situation of the company besides, it allows to:
  • 22. 12 a- Reduce water and sanitation bill(DA per capita a month) b- Increase transparency and, therefore, public confidence in the bill (which, in turn, increases the collection rate and improves the financial standing of the utilities) c- Increase pressure in the network and, make water accessible for upper floors d- Ensure more thrifty domestic water e- Assess water losses in the network more accurately and encourage the water utilities to eliminate them. SECTION FOUR 1. Delegate Management Attributed To German Operator ”GELESENWASSAR” During the past four year, the government has implemented a number of systemic measure to reform the sector by new public-private partnership in service delivery for urban water supply as ,in Algiers (with the French operator Suez), for Oran(with the Spain operator AGBAR), Constantine (with French operator SAUR),and Annaba (with German operator Gelsenwassar). Within the delegated management of the public services of the water supply and sanitation, the authorities confide the delegate management in order to improve the sector of two wilayas “Annaba and El Tarf”. In our disseratiion, we restrict our study only the Annaba. But, the business plan concerned the two wilayates (i.e. Annaba and El Tarf). Then, the contract is concluded in partnership between the German operator “GELSENWASSER “and the society SPA SEATA as for an amount of 23.315.305 Euro for a duration of 5.5 years starting on 16/09/2008 ,Included is the business plan of investment of an amount 36.882.031 000DA 2. The Macro-Objectives of the contract: The contract aimed to achieve some objectives in order to improve water public service water and sanitation in Annaba by: - Transfer knowledge with new method of management - Water continuous H24/24. - Improvement of the quality of the water supply public service, and sanitation.
  • 23. 13 - Accomplishment of a new Administration and center of staff training. 3. Cancelling Contract with “Gelsenwassar “ In date of 18/04/2012, the authorities cancelled the contract with “Gelsenwassar”, after audit report achieved by the group company auditors: CETICO-BERIM and CTH, for many reasons, one of them is that the company didn’t reach the objectives announced in the contract, and only few projects of development are accomplished during 2, 5 year. 4. Evaluation of the Physical and Financial Situation 4.1 Financial Evaluation : in fact, the operator “Gelsenwassar” presents a business plan with a cost of 36.882.031.000DA ,repartition during 5.5 years ,in order to improve water public service of 12 municipalities of Annaba and Tarf ( see figure 6 ). Figure 6: Business Plan during 5.5 Years Unfortaintly ,after two years of activities’ operator, we denote low significant financial investment estimated nearly 218.208.888.04 DA (see figure 7), which represents about of 0.06%. This explains a Clear failure of the company to reach their objectives mentioned in the contract.
  • 24. 14 Figure 7: Assessment of Business Plan During 2.5 years The comparison between the two graphs (Figure 6) shows the significant gap financial of the achievement than planned in business plan (figure 7). 4.2. Physical Situation When, we examine, just the four Macro-parameters above pointed out, Signpost of development of the sector, among other in the contract. We will notice that the operator is very far from the objectives of the contract: 1 - Transfer knowledge, and new method of management: Indeed, “Gelsenwassar” is a great German company of management well known in the world, but the team engineers, and management staffs participating in project of delegate management of Annaba seems without competences, mastery and lack experiences to succeed that specific kind of project. Therefore, not only the negatives results of improvement are noticed by population, but also they are confirmed in audit report. In the end, transfer knowledge, and new method of management will never be transmitted by someone without them.
  • 25. 15 2 - H24/24 Water Supply The German operator plans supplying the Wilaya of Annaba in non-stop water supply (H24/24) just after 2 years (article 25-2 .contract). Actually, the situation becomes worse than before, and beyond the populations’ hope. Example, In case of Ain Berda the population is supplied daily of an average of 17H versus once each 2 days, now (see table 4) 3 - Improvement of Quality of the Public Service of Water Supply and Sanitation: During 2, 5 years, the operator invests about of 0, 06%, automatically. There is no improvement of the water public service. 4 - Accomplishment of New (01) Administration and (01) Center of Staffs straining: There is nothing constructed (made) during the period.
  • 26. 16 Chapter two : Wastewater and Floods
  • 27. 17 Introduction: From domestic sewage, storm runoff, commerce and industry, sewage is loaded with various pollutants: microorganisms, suspended solids, nitrogenous and phosphorous, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, etc... The issue of wastewater treatment is reduced by different physical processes and biological content of these substances in order to preserve the best possible quality of natural environments in which releases are purified. We define sanitation by all the techniques of collecting, transporting and treating wastewater and storm water in an agglomeration (collective sanitation), an industrial site, or a private plot (site sanitation) before their release into the wild. “The disposal of sludge from treatment devices is also part of sanitation” 5 . SECTION ONE 1. Wastewater 1.1 Sewer Systems and Special Structures in Annaba: Unlike the lift stations and treatment plants, the elements of civil engineering network are largely underground. In addition, it is not here an Installation supervisible on each point but a network of more than 2000 km in length. In the past, it was not been executed as a network auditing. Inspection and registration of the network could not be executed in the necessary details as benchmarks in some locations because such water level is high despite dry weather and deposits. Therefore only an overall assessment is possible. In Annaba, a network of nearly 1,100 km in total, including wastewater systems, storm and combined sewers. According to estimates based on information from "Blueprint sanitation, Annaba," there are a total approximately 70,000 2 manholes and drains about100, 0002 . Approximately35%2 5 (Source: Network of Basin Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica).
  • 28. 18 of eyes could not be found or can not be opened. About 25%2 of eyes are in poor condition. The number of individual connections can be estimated at around 135,0006 . For the 12 municipalities of Annaba, it was found based on the data "Blueprint sanitation, Annaba" a correlation between the diameter distribution and the total length of the current network (R2> 0.98)2 . 1.2 Productive Capacity Hydraulic and Flood Resistance in Annaba The effects of early rainfall in the city of Annaba were analyzed in September 2008. In interviews with consecutive network operators in the city, it appeared that the only network in the city of Annaba, there are 21 black dots (see Figure 1: black spots in the city Annaba), causing even in the presence of small amounts of rain, flooding and deductions. The notes to the areas or sections of the network are generally the observations of line operations. Systematic documentation of the flood of last year is not known. Figure 8: Black spots in the city of Annaba Observations made during Phase 1, and the study "Blueprint sanitation, Annaba," show that a large number of reasons are responsible for the presence of flooding. 6 Groupement BG Suisse_ URBAN "Schéma Directeur d’Assainissement de la ville d’Annaba,"(Annaba : Urban,2007).
  • 29. 19 Due to its geographical location, during average rainfall, we can count in Annaba unusual amounts of water. The western slopes located directly to the city limits belong to the hydrological catchment area of the city of Annaba (Figure 8). Figure 9: Annaba Geohydrological Location The new districts on the slopes cause a significant entry of sand and debris in the network. In the flat area where the inclination of the urban network is very slight, there are significant sedimentation which greatly reduce the productive hydraulic capacity. In part, a complete blockage of the drains was observed (Figure 9). SECTION TWO 1. Case of Annaba Measures expressed in this development plan should enable the SEATA7 management to achieve a modern, efficient, sustainable cost of remediation. A prerequisite is to ensure the financing of such measures, including an estimate of cost and schedule witch are the core of the development plan. Benefits and responsibilities of the SEATA for sanitation, according to Algerian law on water and operating contract, the requirements in the face of all components of operations 7 Société eau et assainissement El Tarf Annaba
  • 30. 20 management (technical, organizational structures and processes and staff) will be summarized to define a state of reference for the comparison state set / actual condition. 2. Area of Operation In the following tables, for the common area of operation, daïras and Wilayas are grouped together. Wilaya Annaba has 6 daïras that include 12 municipalities with a total of about 600,000 inhabitants. In addition, the tables contain for each municipality the number of pumping stations, treatment plants and networks that are to operate with yield data sum for each of them. For lift stations, the performance rating (sum of the nominal power of self-contained pumps, flow amount) is given in l / s, for sewage design capacity equivalent per capita (Eq / cap), and for network length in meters8 . • ANO Unit Annaba, balance sheet management and operating systems Sanitation, March 2008 The data have been revised and corrected for the Wilaya of Annaba with the help of the study "Master plan sanitation, Annaba" (BG Switzerland). The new treatment plant of Annaba is not mentioned because it is still under construction and that its Commissioning is scheduled for late 2009. It is expected that the SEATA take charge of the operation early 2012 after two years of management agent. Table 9: The Latest Investigation Currently there are three other Pumping Stations in Realization9 . 8 Data are from the indications of the NAO in March 2008 9 DRE Annaba
  • 31. 21 3. Situation: * Entrance Stones, Sand, Waste and Garbage A significant amount of waste seeps areas in the river network. A large number of bar screens are destroyed. Appropriate supports exist only in a lesser proportion. There is also a grand entrance by the drains because of missing grids. Even taking into account the requirements. ("Security for unauthorized entries "), there is an urgent need for action. The need for action is considered as "urgent". The result is necessarily the need to draw up a priority list for buffer’s looks. If, for example, in the cleaning of the network, opening a gaze is necessary and that it does not open to the time, it must be repaired in time before measures cleaning. If you can forego the opening, the state of this view must be documented and can then be repaired as soon as capacity will be free. *Aération: As a part of controls, it was found that many special constructions not have enough vents. It was noticeable in ventilation caused many cases the lack of buffers. This is not an acceptable solution especially consideration of the requirement (protection against unauthorized entries). In opening the buffer in some cases, a cloud of gas of unknown content escapes. A health risk is not discarded. The need for action was estimated as "medium low". The metal elements are generally in poor condition or not available. Workplace safety is threatened because of cleats, railings or oxidized and even missing barriers. The need for action was estimated as "medium low". 4. Analysis of Existing Data A collection of general data (shots) on sanitation was carried out at the past few months. This research has revealed no studies on the synthesis of networks. Remediation has recently been performed on this Wilaya. Only the plans of sewerage of main towns (about 60%) could be obtained but may date from many years. These plans are not completely updated and are sometimes only project plans.
  • 32. 22 Differences between the ground truth and these plans are therefore possible. Field audits in relation with local officials and staff interviews were started to complete the plans and provided a map database. This field collection also allows locate and diagnose the main wastewater pumping station and wastewater treatment Wilaya plants. 5. Analysis of the BG Switzerland Study * Sewerage Diagnosis: The mission report A Study BG Switzerland is a summary of the context Environmental study area and diagnosis of the current networks sanitation (construction of network plans). The environmental context of the study area contains essential information without, however, be sufficiently precise due to the following: • operating procedures rainy rain brief and intense (type storm) or rather long rainy and moderately intense according to the times of the year. This Such information is useful in the sequel project to better tailor the choice of Rain project based on the constraints and issues for a period of years. • The geological data give a very general overview of the study area including the deep layers of geology. Out in the field of the environment, it is important to describe the surface layers of the land for better understand the capabilities of infiltration or runoff of surface layers. • The hydro geological functioning in the study area is not described. The presence of groundwater at shallow depths can cause major constraints for defining the modalities of work (excavation dewatering, type driving, etc ...) and prevent infiltration of clear water in the parasitic networks sanitation in case of cracking. • Location of water resources for drinking water production (water table groundwater, dam and lake surface). The location of these resources is an important factor to promote their protection from the wastewater discharge in the natural milieu and thus it induces the priorities for the creation of future development (construction of sewage treatment plants). Regarding the operation of the sewerage, there is no reference make to the localization of blackheads (descriptive text and map of specific synthesis) on flooding in times of rain and sewage
  • 33. 23 discharges on the streets and natural environments (wadis and natural area). The descriptions of the wastewater discharges to the natural environment should help to address the risks to human health directly compared to waterborne diseases but also by indirect water use of contaminated groundwater. The description should contain the flooding frequency (times per year) and the importance (height and water velocity) of phenomena in order to assess their importance Vs issues (risk relative to human life and equipment) the duration of Flooding can also inform about how drainage is? But also on health risks associated with the development of mosquitoes. Linking this with the data concerning the structural condition of the sewerage system (clogging, collapsing pipe ...) may permit, partly, to provide explanations for these floods. All this information is essential to prioritize dysfunction and therefore infer a program of rehabilitation and adapted repair. On major structures of the sewerage (STEP Stations lift), the mission report and makes a diagnosis. A list of equipments facilities as a whole but without mentioning the details as maintenance and electromechanical installations. On the STEP Salines, the diagnosis made dishes highlight errors design of the WWTP. • Analysis and Relationship Functioning of the Sewerage with Wadis A mission gives a very short operation and perceives relationship between the hydrological ENTERED wadis and sewerage. These two structures seem very independent; however, it does not state the consequences of major flood (Centennial) of wadis of the city and on the functioning of the network. The desk study on the wadis, run in parallel to this mission leads us to believe of severe flooding in central city of Annaba by overflowing wadis. But the study on sewerage and modeling (task B and C) does not redefine the consequences of these exceptional events.
  • 34. 24 The study completion by the consulting firm BG Switzerland is a good working basis for the wilaya of Annaba by the establishment plan of sewerage. Against by this study presents numerous deficiencies as appropriate to be completed diagnosing the operation of the networks and particularly in the analysis and interpretation of the main fault (flooding, water discharge to the natural environment). The lack of modeling tools in place and interpretation of results modeling necessitates the creation of new models of networks sanitation. For these new calculations, it will be prior necessary to verification of basic topographic data because some of these are structural inconsistencies. Similarly, the proposed solutions development presents their design of numerous difficulties of implementation (low slope) then operating. It, therefore, seems important to take all the projects proposed in an extended new global study on the wilaya of Annaba. SECTION THREE 1. Floods The wilaya of Annaba is characterized by a dense network of rivers, with high rainfall intensities and semi torrential flow regimes. Under the growing population, some cities have developed dangerously prone areas to overflow wadis and their tributaries, making them very vulnerable to frequent floods causing very important damage and casualties. The city of Annaba and, to a lesser extent, other secondary towns is still exposed to this risk. In addition to the studies undertaken (ICG: 1984, Scandiaconsult: 1985, FinELib:1991 BG: 2005) and works completed or in progress under the various programs (DRE, ADE and APC), the damage caused by the recent weather (flooding of 13 to 14 December 2005) highlighted the need for the implementation of emergency measures of protection against flooding of its most vulnerable urban areas of the wilaya. The objective of this work is a contribution to the study of the protection of the city of Annaba against flooding (if the watershed of wadi Kouba). Reducing damage caused by these calamities first requires a complete identification of natural factors (rainfall and geomorphology basin) and anthropogenic (land use) favoring the phenomena of flooding and damage resulting. A second task of listing the various spots is essential to better identify areas at risk of flooding
  • 35. 25 and actual supply parameters (hydrological and hydraulic) characterizing these events (reconnaissance visits, surveys of banks, longitudinal profiles , etc ...). A series of measures described as 'high priority' have been described before in this project. Among the measures considered in the first phase, there are: - Construction of a double jetty and deepening of the outlet channel belt at sea - Deepening and widening of the lower channel belt - Construction of concrete channels in the bed of the channel belt upstream of the hill in Wadi Bouhdid, wadi Sidi Harb and Wadi Forcha - Construction of retention basins in the headwaters of the river Bouhdid, Oued Sidi Harb and Chaabet Zaafrania - Demolition and replacement of several bridges. The study results were presented in the detailed project report published before in May 1985. Based on recommendations and data Scandiaconsult one hand, and the results of work (implementation thresholds for the fight against erosion) undertaken in 1983 by the DRE of Annaba, secondly, the National Bureau of Forestry Studies (FinELib, 1991) proposed a program of watershed management of Edough. This program is part of the fight against flooding of the city of Annaba. These measures are proposed to correct the slope under torrential rivers, reforestation and the DRS. The synthetic analysis of the work cited above shows that all studies used the rational formula as a basis for predicting the design flood. The results obtained are, tragically, different. Hence, the need to review comprehensively the situation, which is becoming an increasing concern in the urban area and progressively tends to become increasingly impervious. Indeed, this study focuses on: - The study of the physical and the description of the most significant parameters with respect to the flow, - Detailed analysis of rainfall generating floods and consequently of floods,
  • 36. 26 - Determining the flood design. - Analysis of the discharge capacity of wadis. - Development proposals. The results of this study will allow policy makers to take necessary measures for an effective fight against a phenomenon that is difficult to control flooding. To better understand the hydrological behavior of the southern slopes of Edough, it is imperative to conduct a careful analysis of different elements morphometric (shape, size, slope, relief, hydrography, etc. ...) having a direct or indirect influence on the genesis flood. The different measures of length and surface were, respectively, was performed using a map measurer and a graph paper topographic map at 10 and 25 thousandths covering the study area. Given the number, rather high parameters calculated in this section, we found it unnecessary to present all the formulas and methods used, which can be found elsewhere in the bibliography. We stick only to summarize the results in Table 1 and review the most significant parameters in the following. Wadis draining the southern slopes of Edough result of the confluence of a number of Chabeets of unequal size (Fig. 10) A few hundred meters to the west entrance to the plain, wadis are characterized by well developed beds which constitute a continuing threat to the inhabitants of this part of the city. Studied wadis draining is an area of about 35 km2 distributed as follows: - Wadi Bouhdid: 19.23 km2 - Wadi Sidi Harb: 5.88 km2 - Wadi Forcha: 8.81 km2. The values of form factor Gravelius (C) show that the basins of the wadis of Sidi Harb Bouhdid are elongated (C> 1.12). The compact shape of the basin of the river Forcha (C = 1.1) by cons promotes high intensity floods.
  • 37. 27 Fig 10: Hydrographic basin system of Annaba The hypsometric analysis and the distribution of slopes highlight that the basins of the southern slopes of Edough, mainly oriented towards the southeast (Fig. 5), are characterized by a hard terrain (vertical drop of greater than 500 m) slopes generally strong (variable slope between 200 and 365 m / km with a weighted average of about 310 m / km). The steepest slopes are often observed on the tops of rows of the watershed; the maximum values mark the upper basin of Bouhdid (800 m / km). From the perspective of evolution of the relief (Fig. 6), the watersheds of wadi Sidi Harb and Bouhdid match a relief to maturity (hypsometric integral between 35 and 65%, respectively). Against by the basin of the river Forcha has a relief at the end of maturity (hypsometric integral of around 28%). The development of the river system is related to lithology, vegetation, climate andterrain type in place. The southern side of the plain bordering Edough West is characterized by a dense network of rivers (Dd = 4-5 km/km2) and a torrential significant conditioned by the predominance of metamorphic rocksresistant and moderately resistant (gneisses, schists and mica schists), a very hard terrain and heavy rains. The maximum intensity averaged over a series of 31years is about 70 mm / day Séraidi. These same factors provide pools of streams studied a very short attention span (2 hours and 1 hour to Bouhdid Forcha and Sidi Harbi) despite a relatively high vegetation cover, but in places degraded or simply burned.
  • 38. 28 Conclusion: The long-term actions, undoubtedly more costly but more appropriate, include the construction of dams upstream of the western plain to reduce flows and suspended load of rain water running down the southern slopes of the massif of Edough. The socioeconomic impacts of the proposed restraint on the wadi Bouhdid (capacity 0.7 hm 3) can be summarized as: a. mitigation of a large proportion of flood centennial and millennial: The study of flood routing centennial and millennial shows that the effect of water retention is very low if the spillway is too full. However, retention is very significant if the bottom outlet is adopted, the inflow and outflow of flood would be, respectively, of the order of 80 and 25 m3 / s for the millennial and 60 and 20 m3 / s for centennial. This means that the reservoir should be at its minimum operating level (at the dead storage) at the beginning of the rainy period. It was towards the end of this period than we would proceed to replenishment of the reserve of the reservoir for use during the dry period. Taking into account a guard against overflow of 50 cm, the retention of water and sediment at the proposed deduction would, under current conditions, discharge without overflow flood millennial urbanized at the perimeter to the upstream of Kef N'Sour. Downstream, at the wadi Boudjemaa, the problem is posed: the normal depth required should be 6 m. However, enlargement of the bed of the lower 30 m embankment and concrete (Ks = 65 and M = 1 m) would, with a slope maintained at 0.02% (Plate 4), be the rapid evacuation of hundred year flood (normal depth of flow: 2.6 m) and to a lesser extent the millennial flood (normal depth of flow: 3.2 m). b- Water supply for domestic use In addition to protection against flooding, the proposed deduction would, during the summer, be the water of excellent quality of a significant proportion of cities of the ‘plain west’ of Annaba.
  • 39. I GENERAL CONCLUSION Water has remained a constraining factor for economic development throughout the history of Annaba. The goal of our dissertation is to examine the constraints and perspectives of management of water supply and sanitation in Annaba, sought to show a better understanding of the situation and provide some measurement as perspectives to reform the sector. Annaba suffers from severe shortage of favorable sites to build dams, in spite of important rainfall, and in order to solve the problem of the water scarcity in the country; the authorities need not only plan building and operator major water infrastructure of mobilization (available of resources) such dams in Annaba, and El Tarf , but, also recourse for non conventional resource of seawater desalination. We can see that data about water sources and uses vary according to the source of information: 70% of the water supply comes from surface water, 30% from groundwater. This water a supply an average of 180 l/p/d of water domestic not continuous .Annaba is characterized by access water service needs to be improving until to reach the best quality of public service water. The company SEATA manages water supply and wastewater collection services of 12 Municipalities, with population about of 600 000. Annaba entered into delegate management contract with German company Gelsenwassar, which expected to be more efficient than ADE (Algerienne des Eaux). After 2.5 years, the contract is cancelled for failed the company to achieve contractual objectives. Algeria’s water sector faces numerous problems in managing its water resources. While the quantities of conventional water resources are sufficient in terms of the overall land area, their availability fluctuates depending on the year and region. The demand for water, which is generally on the rise, is being exacerbated by high population growth and the rural-urban migration. It cannot be satisfied, not least because of the deficiencies in water management. The water sector’s heavily centralized institutions are working primarily to mobilize additional resources, such as seawater desalination, fossil groundwater and others. On the other hand, the option of influencing consumption, the processing and reuse of wastewater, and the conservation
  • 40. II of groundwater and the environment have so far been given lower priority. The competent institutions have not steered water management in an integrated and efficient manner, despite the existence of modern legislation and sector reform. Inadequate expertise at various levels is a core problem. Water sector institutions, the Ministry of Water and regional authorities have better skills to deliver integrated water management services. The Integrated Water Management – Algeria programme offers advice on sector policy and strategy and is supporting the creation and implementation of planning and regulation processes. It is also encouraging the introduction of an integrated and participatory water resources management model tailored to rural areas. The support consists of process and technical advice from international, regional and local experts, and also includes material contributions and training measures. The Algerian Water Ministry and its institutions have begun using an integrated planning system for the first time. It comprises a handbook for the planning of construction and investment projects, an information system for planning investments in the water sector, and instruments for devising regional water framework plans. Water catchment authorities have already drawn up four of five framework plans using a standardized planning methodology. The transparency and quality of national sector planning has thus improved. A regulatory handbook elaborated for the Algerian water sector serves as the basis for the creation and organization of the new regulatory authority. Drinking water supply and sanitation systems are currently being overhauled in large Algerian towns and cities. In this context, Gelsenwasser AG and the Algerian client SPA SEATA signed a management contract for a term of five and a half years in 2007, covering the provision of drinking water and wastewater management services in the wilayats of Annaba and El Tarf. Besides the overall aim of increasing water supply, little is being done to renovate and improve water supply networks. Most of these networks are in an extremely poor condition. It is not unusual for more than half of water production volumes to be lost as a result. The water collected in the project area consists of 70 % surface water and 30 % groundwater. Water supply is currently largely intermittent in nature, and the population cannot be guaranteed a continuous water supply. Smaller communities and some urban districts, in particular, are supplied with water only once or twice each week. These leads to biological contamination of
  • 41. III water when it is, for instance, stored in household containers. Ultimately the result is inadequate drinking water quality.
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