IMPLEMENTING TQM IN EDUCATION By Dheeraj Mehrotra (President Awardee) MS (Ed. Mgmt) Head, Total Quality Management Department City Montessori School & Degree College, Lucknow, INDIA www.sixsigmaineducation.com [email_address]
The concept of Total Quality Management (TQM) was developed by an American, W. Edwards Deming, after World War II for improving the production quality of goods and services. The concept was not taken seriously by Americans until the Japanese, who adopted it in 1950 to resurrect their postwar business and industry, used it to dominate world markets by 1980. By then most U.S. manufacturers had finally accepted that the nineteenth century assembly line factory model was outdated for the modern global economic markets.
TQM in Education
To analyse any problem is easier than to solve as it requires a wide spectrum of research and development through data analysis and reasoning. To gather the stroke of momentum towards attainment of total quality the solving of such a problem has to undergo large amount of statistics involving calculations as well. And hence, this technique of problem solving is also referred to as statistical quality control (SQC).
For any organisation to flourish with the logo of total quality management towards excellence, the SQC or the problem solving techniques utter prime importance at large. Accordingly, about 95% of the problems within an organisation can be solved by the usage of these tools.
PDCA & PSTs:
Cause and Effect Diagram
Deming Wheel - This is a rough standard under which Dr. Deming explains a four layout for any organisation to have a proper control over quality. With the age, this got developed as a Deming Wheel. With an explanative view, it is basically a PDCA cycle for effective controlling and minimisation of the problems within an organisation.
PLAN - DO - CHECK - ACT
A flow diagram is a graphical means of presenting, describing, or analyzing a process. This is done by drawing small boxes which represent steps or decisions in a chain of steps or decisions. These boxes are connected to other boxes by lines and arrows which represent sequence and dependency relationships (i.e., X must be done before Y can be done).
Also known as a Flow Chart:
Most problems are not solved automatically by the first idea that comes to mind. To get to the best solution it is important to consider many possible solutions. One of the best ways to do this is called brainstorming . Brainstorming is the act of defining a problem or idea and coming up anything related to the topic - no matter how remote a suggestion may sound. All of these ideas are recorded and evaluated only after the brainstorming is completed.
Process of Brainstorming - I:
In a small or large group select a leader and a recorder (they may be the same person).
Define the problem or idea to be brainstormed. Make sure everyone is clear on the topic being explored.
Set up the rules for the session. They should include
letting the leader have control.
allowing everyone to contribute.
ensuring that no one will insult, demean, or evaluate another participant or his/her response.
stating that no answer is wrong.
recording each answer unless it is a repeat.
setting a time limit and stopping when that time is up.
Process of Brainstorming - II:
Start the brainstorming. Have the leader select members of the group to share their answers. The recorder should write down all responses, if possible so everyone can see them. Make sure not to evaluate or criticize any answers until done brainstorming.
Once you have finished brainstorming, go through the results and begin evaluating the responses. Some initial qualities to look for when examining the responses include
looking for any answers that are repeated or similar.
grouping like concepts together.
eliminating responses that definitely do not fit.
Now that you have narrowed your list down some, discuss the remaining responses as a group.
Data collection is collecting specific information about a student's academic or behavioral performance. Collecting data helps an instructor determine a program's effectiveness. By collecting and analyzing data on a systematic basis, an instructor knows when to make changes in both academic and behavioral programs. Data collection has two critical components: information gathering and decision making. ...
A graphical presentation in which the values of the dependent variable are represented by vertical or horizontal bars, drawn at coordinates on the other axis of the corresponding values of the independent discrete variable
A circle (pie) graph:
A circle graph is used to show how a part of something relates to the whole. This kind of graph is needed to show percentages effectively.
A typical chart or table for this graph might look like this:
An Example Pie Graph:
A technique used to analyze/divide a universe of data into homogeneous groups (strata) often data collected about a problem or event represents multiple sources that need to treated separately. It involves looking at process data, splitting it into distinct layers (almost like rock is stratified) and doing analysis to possibly see a different process.
Stratification is related to, but different from, Segmentation. A stratifying factor, also referred to as stratification or a stratifier, is a factor that can be used to separate data into subgroups. This is done to investigate whether that factor is a significant special cause factor.
Pareto diagrams are named after Vilfredo Pareto, an Italian sociologist and economist, who invented this method of information presentation toward the end of the 19th century. The chart appears much the same as a histogram or bar chart, except that the bars are arranged in decreasing order from left to right along the abscissa. The fundamental idea of use of Pareto diagrams for quality improvement is the ordering of factors that contribute to a quality function.
A bar graph used to arrange information in such a way that priorities for process improvement can be established.
Purposes: To display the relative importance of data. To direct efforts to the biggest improvement opportunity by highlighting the vital few in contrast to the useful many.
How to Construct:
Determine the categories and the units for comparison of the data, such as: frequency, cost or time.
Total the raw data in each category, then determine the grand total by adding totals of each category.
Re-order the categories from largest to smallest.
Determine the cumulative percent of each category, (the sum of each category plus all categories that precede it in the rank order, divided by the grand total and multiplied by 100.)
Draw and label the left-hand vertical axis with the unit of comparison, such as frequency, cost or time.
Draw and label the horizontal axis with the categories. List from left to right in rank order.
Draw and label the horizontal axis from 0 to 100 percent. the 100 percent should line up with the grand total on the left-hand vertical axis.
Beginning with the largest category, draw in bars for each category representing the cumulative present of the total.
Draw a line graph beginning at the right-hand corner of the first bar to represent the total as measured on the left-hand axis.
Analyze the chart. A break-point in the cumulative percent line can indicate the vital few from the awkward zone and the useful many.
Use of Pareto:
To create a Pareto diagram, the operator collects random data, regroups the categories in order of frequency, and creates a bar graph based on the results. This type of chart can easily be made in Microsoft Excel or any graphing software.
This basic principle translates well into quality problems - most quality problems result from a small number of causes. Quality experts often refer to the principle as the 80-20 rule; that is, 80% of problems are caused by 20% of the potential sources.
Nutshell about Pareto:
The Pareto principle states that 80% of the impact of the problem will show up in 20% of the causes. (Originally stated: 80% of the wealth is owned by 20% of the people.) A bar chart that displays by frequency, in descending order, the most important defects. Proper use of this chart will have the cumulative percentage on a second y-axis (to the right of the chart). This chart-type is used to identify if the Pareto principle is evident in the data. If the Pareto principle is evident, about 20% of the categories on the far left will have about 80% of the impact on the problem.
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Purpose Of A Histogram A histogram is used to graphically summarize and display the distribution of a process data set.
Cause and Effect Diagram (Fish Bone Diagram)
Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a Japanese quality control statistician, invented the fishbone diagram. Therefore, it may be referred to as the Ishikawa diagram. The fishbone diagram is an analysis tool that provides a systematic way of looking at effects and the causes that create or contribute to those effects. Because of the function of the fishbone diagram, it may be referred to as a cause-and-effect diagram. The design of the diagram looks much like the skeleton of a fish. Therefore, it is often referred to as the fishbone diagram.
It is also referred to as Fish-Bone or Inshikawa Diagram. It is quite explanatory in its own and provides an overall idea of the possible causes of a chosen problem. For any concern the four main causes through which the whole story is built are MAN, MACHINE, METHOD and MATERIAL, as because any cause of improvement involves the four M’s categorically. This tool functions to find out the relationship and through this the study is conducted to execute the measure to solve the problem.
When to use the FISH BONE?
Need to study a problem/issue to determine the root cause?
Want to study all the possible reasons why a process is beginning to have difficulties, problems, or breakdowns?
Need to identify areas for data collection?
Want to study why a process is not performing properly or producing the desired results?
How to construct the FISH BONE ?
Draw the fishbone diagram....
List the problem/issue to be studied in the "head of the fish".
Label each ""bone" of the "fish". The major categories typically utilized are:
The 4 M’s:
Methods, Machines, Materials, Manpower
The 4 P’s:
Place, Procedure, People, Policies
The 4 S’s:
Surroundings, Suppliers, Systems, Skills
Use an idea-generating technique (e.g., brainstorming) to identify the factors within each category that may be affecting the problem/issue and/or effect being studied. The team should ask... "What are the machine issues affecting/causing...“
Repeat this procedure with each factor under the category to produce sub-factors. Continue asking, "Why is this happening?" and put additional segments each factor and subsequently under each sub-factor.
Continue until you no longer get useful information as you ask, "Why is that happening?“
Analyze the results of the fishbone after team members agree that an adequate amount of detail has been provided under each major category. Do this by looking for those items that appear in more than one category. These become the 'most likely causes".
For those items identified as the "most likely causes", the team should reach consensus on listing those items in priority order with the first item being the most probable" cause.
Car not starting ?????
Delayed Computer Chip Manufacturing at a unit
CHECKSHEET: Check sheet is a form designed for recording observations. It is a means for collecting continuous or discrete data. The form is made user friendly so that observations can be promptly recorded, as and when they occur.
Success Mantra to Budding Teachers……..
Involving TOTAL COMMITMENT at the Job or the Learning arena is very important to incorporate the capsules of Total Quality, right from the door man to the Top Management, the support for pursuit towards Quality is important. We all need to walk the talk in order make it in practice or else the profit margin reduces and motivation level also goes down not only for the learners but for the knowledge providers. It is easy to learn Quality Tools but to practice them at large is a difficult deed to perform towards gaining excellence for the Quality of Work life at Schools and Colleges today. The Mantra has to be Catch Them Young and Innocent………