IMPLEMENTING TQM IN EDUCATION By Dheeraj Mehrotra (President Awardee) MS (Ed. Mgmt) Head, Total Quality Management Department City Montessori School & Degree College, Lucknow, INDIA www.sixsigmaineducation.com [email_address]
The concept of Total Quality Management (TQM) was developed by an American, W. Edwards Deming, after World War II for improving the production quality of goods and services. The concept was not taken seriously by Americans until the Japanese, who adopted it in 1950 to resurrect their postwar business and industry, used it to dominate world markets by 1980. By then most U.S. manufacturers had finally accepted that the nineteenth century assembly line factory model was outdated for the modern global economic markets.
To analyse any problem is easier than to solve as it requires a wide spectrum of research and development through data analysis and reasoning. To gather the stroke of momentum towards attainment of total quality the solving of such a problem has to undergo large amount of statistics involving calculations as well. And hence, this technique of problem solving is also referred to as statistical quality control (SQC).
For any organisation to flourish with the logo of total quality management towards excellence, the SQC or the problem solving techniques utter prime importance at large. Accordingly, about 95% of the problems within an organisation can be solved by the usage of these tools.
Deming Wheel - This is a rough standard under which Dr. Deming explains a four layout for any organisation to have a proper control over quality. With the age, this got developed as a Deming Wheel. With an explanative view, it is basically a PDCA cycle for effective controlling and minimisation of the problems within an organisation.
A flow diagram is a graphical means of presenting, describing, or analyzing a process. This is done by drawing small boxes which represent steps or decisions in a chain of steps or decisions. These boxes are connected to other boxes by lines and arrows which represent sequence and dependency relationships (i.e., X must be done before Y can be done).
Most problems are not solved automatically by the first idea that comes to mind. To get to the best solution it is important to consider many possible solutions. One of the best ways to do this is called brainstorming . Brainstorming is the act of defining a problem or idea and coming up anything related to the topic - no matter how remote a suggestion may sound. All of these ideas are recorded and evaluated only after the brainstorming is completed.
Start the brainstorming. Have the leader select members of the group to share their answers. The recorder should write down all responses, if possible so everyone can see them. Make sure not to evaluate or criticize any answers until done brainstorming.
Once you have finished brainstorming, go through the results and begin evaluating the responses. Some initial qualities to look for when examining the responses include
looking for any answers that are repeated or similar.
grouping like concepts together.
eliminating responses that definitely do not fit.
Now that you have narrowed your list down some, discuss the remaining responses as a group.
Data collection is collecting specific information about a student's academic or behavioral performance. Collecting data helps an instructor determine a program's effectiveness. By collecting and analyzing data on a systematic basis, an instructor knows when to make changes in both academic and behavioral programs. Data collection has two critical components: information gathering and decision making. ...
A graphical presentation in which the values of the dependent variable are represented by vertical or horizontal bars, drawn at coordinates on the other axis of the corresponding values of the independent discrete variable
A technique used to analyze/divide a universe of data into homogeneous groups (strata) often data collected about a problem or event represents multiple sources that need to treated separately. It involves looking at process data, splitting it into distinct layers (almost like rock is stratified) and doing analysis to possibly see a different process.
Stratification is related to, but different from, Segmentation. A stratifying factor, also referred to as stratification or a stratifier, is a factor that can be used to separate data into subgroups. This is done to investigate whether that factor is a significant special cause factor.
Pareto diagrams are named after Vilfredo Pareto, an Italian sociologist and economist, who invented this method of information presentation toward the end of the 19th century. The chart appears much the same as a histogram or bar chart, except that the bars are arranged in decreasing order from left to right along the abscissa. The fundamental idea of use of Pareto diagrams for quality improvement is the ordering of factors that contribute to a quality function.
To create a Pareto diagram, the operator collects random data, regroups the categories in order of frequency, and creates a bar graph based on the results. This type of chart can easily be made in Microsoft Excel or any graphing software.
This basic principle translates well into quality problems - most quality problems result from a small number of causes. Quality experts often refer to the principle as the 80-20 rule; that is, 80% of problems are caused by 20% of the potential sources.
The Pareto principle states that 80% of the impact of the problem will show up in 20% of the causes. (Originally stated: 80% of the wealth is owned by 20% of the people.) A bar chart that displays by frequency, in descending order, the most important defects. Proper use of this chart will have the cumulative percentage on a second y-axis (to the right of the chart). This chart-type is used to identify if the Pareto principle is evident in the data. If the Pareto principle is evident, about 20% of the categories on the far left will have about 80% of the impact on the problem.
Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a Japanese quality control statistician, invented the fishbone diagram. Therefore, it may be referred to as the Ishikawa diagram. The fishbone diagram is an analysis tool that provides a systematic way of looking at effects and the causes that create or contribute to those effects. Because of the function of the fishbone diagram, it may be referred to as a cause-and-effect diagram. The design of the diagram looks much like the skeleton of a fish. Therefore, it is often referred to as the fishbone diagram.
It is also referred to as Fish-Bone or Inshikawa Diagram. It is quite explanatory in its own and provides an overall idea of the possible causes of a chosen problem. For any concern the four main causes through which the whole story is built are MAN, MACHINE, METHOD and MATERIAL, as because any cause of improvement involves the four M’s categorically. This tool functions to find out the relationship and through this the study is conducted to execute the measure to solve the problem.
Use an idea-generating technique (e.g., brainstorming) to identify the factors within each category that may be affecting the problem/issue and/or effect being studied. The team should ask... "What are the machine issues affecting/causing...“
Repeat this procedure with each factor under the category to produce sub-factors. Continue asking, "Why is this happening?" and put additional segments each factor and subsequently under each sub-factor.
Continue until you no longer get useful information as you ask, "Why is that happening?“
Analyze the results of the fishbone after team members agree that an adequate amount of detail has been provided under each major category. Do this by looking for those items that appear in more than one category. These become the 'most likely causes".
For those items identified as the "most likely causes", the team should reach consensus on listing those items in priority order with the first item being the most probable" cause.
CHECKSHEET: Check sheet is a form designed for recording observations. It is a means for collecting continuous or discrete data. The form is made user friendly so that observations can be promptly recorded, as and when they occur.
Involving TOTAL COMMITMENT at the Job or the Learning arena is very important to incorporate the capsules of Total Quality, right from the door man to the Top Management, the support for pursuit towards Quality is important. We all need to walk the talk in order make it in practice or else the profit margin reduces and motivation level also goes down not only for the learners but for the knowledge providers. It is easy to learn Quality Tools but to practice them at large is a difficult deed to perform towards gaining excellence for the Quality of Work life at Schools and Colleges today. The Mantra has to be Catch Them Young and Innocent………