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Intergrating listening skills revised 10-17

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  • 1. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Chapter 8 Integrating Listening Skills: How to Conduct a Well-Formed Interview
  • 2. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Integrating Skill Function Chapter Goals Review listening skills, foundation of effective interviewing. Introduce five-stage interviewing structure. Transition toward intentional competence.
  • 3. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Three Themes Ivey Taxonomy Empathic understanding Five Stages / Dimensions of the interview
  • 4. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Ivey Taxonomy Discrete skills relevant to relationships and interviewing. Each skill offers predictable results. Offers alternative actions with unexpected results. Requires interviewer flexibility and range of action choices.
  • 5. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Empathic Understanding Empathic dimensions supplement the microskills. Enables you to rate the quality and helpfulness of your interventions. Listening skills, as presented so far, are from the behavioral basis of empathy.
  • 6. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Positive regard Respect and warmth Concreteness Immediacy Nonjudgmental attitude Authenticity or congruence Empathic Understanding … But In addition to empathic understanding, qualitative dimensions are also important.
  • 7. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Five Stage / Dimension Interview Structure
    • Initiating the session
    • Gathering information
    • Mutual goal setting
    • Working
    • Terminating and generalizing learning to daily life
  • 8. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Five Stage / Dimension Interview Structure Ensures purpose and direction. Helps define specific outcomes. Dimensions denote uniqueness of each client and the holistic nature of the interview. Fits many theories; different interview theories give different emphasis to each of the stages. The ability to conduct a whole interview with only listening skills may be considered a prime competency of intentional interviewing.
  • 9. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning All interviewing is multicultural. Microskills offer a way to have some predictability of results. Reliance on predictability of results can be dangerous. Same skills may have different effects on people with different individual and cultural backgrounds. Intentional competence requires flexibility to change in the moment with shifting client needs. Cultural Intentionality Review
  • 10. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning All interviewing is multicultural. Microskills offer a way to have some predictability of results. Reliance on predictability of results can be dangerous. Same skills may have different effects on people with different individual and cultural backgrounds. Intentional competence requires flexibility to change in the moment with shifting client needs. Cultural Intentionality and Intentional Competence Review
  • 11. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Go beyond intentionality. Flex, change direction and skills. Look for new ways to “be” with your client. Intentional Competence Review Have more than one alternative action in any given situation. Predict the resulting response from the action chosen. ~ ~
  • 12. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Cultural Intentionality Know and integrate communication styles and relationship experiences of diverse cultural groups into your own personal helping style. Age Race Gender Lifestyle Ethnicity Individuality Sexual Orientation Religion / Spirituality Health Ability Disability Development
  • 13. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Review Basic Listening Sequence
  • 14. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Skills of questioning, encouraging, paraphrasing, reflection of feeling, and summarizing. Used in many settings to define problems and outcomes. Is critical in identifying client positive assets and strengths. Basic Listening Sequence (BLS)
  • 15. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning An overall summary of the issue. The key facts of a situation. The central emotions and feelings. Three-Part Goal of BLS Elicit
  • 16. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Enter the world of the client. See and experience the client’s world. Communicate understanding of the world from the client’s perspective. Empathy and Microskills Listening carefully allows the counselor to
  • 17. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Interviewer responses are very similar to the client. Interviewer accurately feeds back to the client. Accurate use of BLS demonstrates basic empathy. Three Types of Empathy 1. Basic
  • 18. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Interviewer response may add to the client response. Addition may link to earlier client response or provide bridge to new perspective. Skilled use of listening and influencing enables interviewer to become additive. Three Types of Empathy 2. Additive
  • 19. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Interviewer response is distorted, inaccurate, or less than the client’s response. When this occurs, listening and influencing skills are used inappropriately. Three Types of Empathy 3. Subtractive
  • 20. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Interviewer observes and chooses a verbal lead (skill) and responds to client. Facilitating Client Development 1-2-3 Pattern 3 1 2 Client reacts to counselor’s statement with verbal and nonverbal behavior. Again, interviewer observes and chooses another verbal lead.
  • 21. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Positive regard Respect and warmth Concreteness Empathic Dimensions Measured on a five-point scale. Enhance the quality of the interview relationship Immediacy Nonjudgmental attitude Authenticity or congruence
  • 22. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Five-Point Scale 1 2 3 4 5 Subtractive Interchangeable Additive
  • 23. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Selectively attending to positive aspects and responding to the client as a worthy human being. Positive Regard
  • 24. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Most easily rated from kinesthetic and nonverbal perspective. Demonstrate by open posture, smiling, and vocal qualities. Keep your comments congruent with client’s comments. Respect and Warmth
  • 25. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Seek specific feelings, thoughts, descriptions, and examples of action. “ Could you give me an example of . . .?” Interviewer responses need to be very specific. Concreteness
      • ~ The directive
      • ~ Feedback
      • ~Interpretation
  • 26. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Be in the moment with the client. Most useful response is generally in the present tense. Change of tense may speed up or slow down the interview. Shifting to new tense from client’s constant tense may be useful. Immediacy
  • 27. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Suspend your own opinions and attitudes. Assume a value of neutrality. Expressed through vocal qualities, body language, and neutral statements. There are no absolutes on how to use non-judgmental attitude. Interviewers may be challenged by dishonest, violent, sexist and/or racist clients. Nonjudgmental Attitude
  • 28. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Are you personally real? Authenticity and congruence are the reverse of discrepancies and mixed messages. Counselor remains congruent and genuine. Counselor flexibility responding to the client demonstrates authenticity. Authenticity or Congruence
  • 29. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Figure 8-1, p.228 The circle of interviewing stages Well-Formed Interview Positive Asset Search Mutual Goal Setting What does the client want to happen? Working Exploring alternatives… Terminating Generalizing and acting on new stories. Gathering Data Drawing out stories / issues Initiating the Session Rapport & structuring
  • 30. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Building rapport is critical before the client will trust you to help. Structuring helps the client understand how the interview will proceed. Your ability to recognize and respect multicultural differences may be essential for the success of your interview. Initiating the Session
  • 31. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Listen to the client’s story -- find out why the client is present. The positive asset search is included in this part of the interview. Clients grow from strength. The word problem may not be a good choice for some clients. Different cultures may prefer issues, stories, or concerns and to discuss them at a later stage in the interview. Gathering Data
  • 32. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Don’t assume you and your client have the same goal. Define explicit goals. Search for positive assets to help achieve the goal. Examine the nature of the concern. Mutual Goal Setting
  • 33. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Open client thought leading to new solutions. Explore alternatives for action. Confront client incongruities and conflict. Restory -- act on new stories. Working
  • 34. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Role-playing -- practice new behaviors. Imagery -- imagine future events and behavior. Behavioral progress notes -- specific and/or subjective reports of occurrence. Homework -- Counselor assigns weekly tasks. Family or group counseling -- involve spouses or family members therapy. Follow-up and support -- periodic checks on behavior maintenance. Terminating and Generalizing Strategies for Client Change
  • 35. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Identification and Classification Identify and classify listening skills. Identify and define empathy and its accompanying dimensions. Identify and classify the five stags of structure of the interview. Discuss issues in diversity relating to these ideas.
  • 36. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Basic Competence Use listening skills in a real or role-played interview. Demonstrate the empathic dimensions in a real or role-played interview. Demonstrate five dimensions of a well-formed interview, real or role-played.
  • 37. Copyright ©2007 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Intentional Competence Produce predicted results (Ivey Taxonomy) in clients using listening skills. Express empathy to facilitate client comfort, ease, and emotional expression. Enable clients to reach objectives of the five-stage interview process.