Elements of a Short Story Setting Characters Plot Conflict Point of View Theme
Setting• Place - Geographical location. Where is the action of the story taking place?• Time - When is the story taking place? (historical period, time of day, year, etc.)• Weather Conditions - Is it rainy, sunny, stormy, etc.?• Social Conditions -What is the daily life of the characters like? Does the story contain local color (writing that focuses on the speech, dress, mannerisms, customs, etc. of a particular place)?• Mood or Atmosphere - What feeling is created at the beginning of the story? Is it bright and cheerful or dark and frightening?
CharactersCharacter is a person, or sometimes even an animal, who takes part in the action of a short story or a piece of literary work.• main characters - those who are most important in the story• minor characters - usually static or unchanging
Characters According to Principality 1.Protagonist • is the character with whom the reader empathizes 2.Antagonist • is the character that goes against the protagonist
Characters According to Development 1.Dynamic• a character that exhibits noticeable development 2.Static• a character who exhibits no changes and development
Characters According to Personality 1.Round • is a character that displays different/multiple personalities throughout the story 2.Flat • it is the character that reveals conventional traits; who remains the same throughout the story
CharacterizationCharacterization is the method used by the writer/author to reveal the personality of the character/s.The characters are revealed according to:1. actions of the character2. thoughts of the character3. descriptions of the character4. descriptions of other characters5. descriptions of the author
PlotIt is the sequence of events in a story or play.Kinds of Plot1. Linear plot - Moves with the natural sequence of events where actions are arranged sequentially.2. Circular plot - A kind of plot where linear development of the story merges with an interruption in the chronological order to show an event that happened in the past.3. En Medias Res - A kind of plot where the story commences in the middle part of the action.
Five Stagesa) Introduction - The beginning of the story where thecharacters and the setting is revealed.b) Rising Action - This is where the events in the storybecome complicated and the conflict in the story is revealed(events between the introduction and climax).c) Climax - This is the highest point of interest and the turningpoint of the story. The reader wonders what will happen next; willthe conflict be resolved or not?d) Falling action - The events and complications beginto resolve themselves. The reader knows what hashappened next and if the conflict was resolved or not(events between climax and denouement).e) Denouement - This is the final outcome or untangling ofevents in the story.
ConflictConflict is the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plot move.Two Major Types1. External - A struggle with a force outside ones self.2. Internal - A struggle within ones self; a person must make some decision, overcome pain, quiet their temper, resist an urge, etc.
Externala. man vs. man- a type of conflict where one character in the story has a problem with one or more of the other charactersb. man vs. society- a type of conflict where a character has a conflict orproblem with some element of society-the school, thelaw, the accepted way of doing things, and so onc. man vs. nature- a type of conflict where a character has a problem withsome natural happening: snowstorm, typhoon, avalanche,bitter cold, or any elements common to nature
Internalman vs. self-is a type of conflict where a character has trouble deciding what to do in a particular situation
Point of ViewThe angle from which the story is told.Types:1. First-Person POT - The story is told by the protagonist or one of the characters who interacts closely with the protagonist or other characters (using pronouns I, me, we, etc).2. Stream of Consciousness - The story is told so that the reader feels as if they are inside the head of one character and knows all their thoughts and reactions.3. Third-Person Omniscient POT (third person) - The narrator tells the story from an all-knowing point of view. He can move from character to character, event to event, having free access to the thoughts, feelings and motivations of his characters and he introduces information where and when he chooses.
ThemeThe theme is the controlling idea or the central insight.It is the authors underlying meaning or main idea that he is trying to convey.The theme may be the authors thoughts about a topic or view of human nature.
SETTING In a single hour in an American home in the 19th century.CHARACTERS -Mrs. Louise Mallard -Mr. Brently Mallard -Josephine -Richards - DoctorsPLOT Exposition - Mrs. Mallard had a heart ailment. And his husband Brently Mallard is believed to be killed in a train accident. Rising Action -Josephine broke the news of Brently Mallard’s “death”. Climax -Mrs. Mallard cried and went to her room. In the room, she saw all signs of new life coming. Falling Action -She was delighted about the freedom. She went down and joined Josephine and Richards when somebody opened the door. Denouement - Surprised and disappointed, Mrs. Mallard died of heart attack.CONFLICT Man vs. self Man vs. societyPT. OF VIEW Third person omniscientTHEME There was discrimination of women in a male-dominated society in the 19th century. Freedom seems like a terrible thing to Mrs. Mallard, whos restricted in lots of ways: through her marriage, by her bad heart, and even inside her home, which she doesnt leave during "The Story of an Hour."