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    Action research 2012 Action research 2012 Document Transcript

    • 1 Chapter I THE PROBLEMRationale "Their vocabularies are limited and grammar is alien to them, as arepunctuation and capitalization. Beyond "noun" and "verb," most cannot tell youany of the other parts of speech. Their English is so fractured; they make errorsthe grammarians have yet to name." (Michael Ackley) Grammar is the sound, structure, and meaning system of language. Alllanguages have grammar, and each language has its own grammar. People whospeak the same language are able to communicate because they intuitively knowthe grammar system of that language—that is, the rules of making meaning.Students who are native speakers of English already know English grammar.They recognize the sounds of English words, the meanings of those words, andthe different ways of putting words together to make meaningful sentences.
    • 2 However, while students may be effective speakers of English, they needguidance to become effective writers. They need to learn how to transfer theirknowledge of grammatical concepts from oral language to written language. Effective grammar instruction begins with what students already knowabout grammar, and it helps them use this knowledge as they write. Byconnecting their knowledge of oral language to written language, teachers candemystify abstract grammatical terminology so that students can write—and read—with greater competence and confidence. Writing, a skill required by many jobs on the planet, contains manychances for mistakes that can make your writing unclear or even unreadable.Understanding the significance behind subject-verb agreement can help youwrite better and make your writing much easier to understand. Because writing is a complex and challenging activity for many students,teachers should focus on the grammatical concepts that are essential for the
    • 3clear communication of meaning. As students revise and edit their writing,teachers can provide grammar instruction on subject-verb agreement that guidesstudents in their attempts to identify and correct problems in sentence structureand usage. Integrating grammar instruction on subject-verb agreement into therevising and editing process helps students make immediate applications, thusallowing them to see the relevance of grammar to their own writing. To communicate clearly in the English language, you must match asingular subject with a singular verb and a plural subject with a plural verb.Research strongly suggests that the most beneficial way of helping studentsimprove their command of grammar skill on subject-verb agreement is to usestudents writing as the basis for discussing grammatical concepts. Researchersagree that it is more effective to teach punctuation, sentence variety, and usagein the context of writing than to approach the topic by teaching isolated skills(Calkins, 1980; DiStefano and Killion, 1984; Harris, 1962).
    • 4 In Christ the King College, English 3 is considered a major subject for allThird Year students. It is a subject that deals with special instruction designedand delivered to alleviate deficiencies in the achievement of some of the learningobjectives of an instructional study may it be on listening, speaking, reading,writing, or grammar. This subject intends to help the students to alleviate learning deficiencies,to improve academic performance, to advance in their studies, to catch up intheir studies, to make the necessary adjustment in their learning, to achieve thegoals of instruction, to pursue the demands of academic work and most of all tobe equipped with lifelong grammar skills especially on the subject-verbagreement. Comprehending what was written on a reading material or the sentenceshad been a difficulty on the part of the students especially when it involvessubject-verb agreement. This matter stirred the researcher’s curiosity andconcern if how inclined and competent the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna
    • 5are. After all, developing strong grammar skill is essential for a rich academic,professional, and personal life. Being able to derive meaning from the writtenword also enables students to develop intellectually, socially, and emotionally. The researcher thought of utilizing worksheets with the hope of improvingthe grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the students involved. Theresearcher believe that without grammar skill on subject-verb agreement, writingand communicating are nothing more than tracking symbols on a page with youreyes and sounding them out. Thus, a study is deemed necessary in determiningthe grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine ofSienna students of Christ the King College.Statement of the Problem This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of utilizing worksheets inEnglsih 3 in improving the grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the ThirdYear Saint Catherine of Sienna students of Christ the King College. It was intended to answer the following questions:
    • 6 1. What is the grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students in the first test material? 2. What is the grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students using worksheets in English 3 in the second test material? 3. Is there an improvement in the grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students in the second test material after the utilization of worksheets? 4. Is there a significant difference in the grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students in the first and second test material after the use of worksheets in English 3 as reflected in the second test material?Hypotheses This research is guided by the following hypotheses:
    • 7 1. The students’ grammar skill on subject-verb agreement is fair in the first test material in English 3. 2. The students’ grammar skill on subject-verb agreement is satisfactory in the second test material after using worksheets in English 3. 3. There is an improvement in the grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students in the second test material after the utilization of worksheets. 4. There is no significant difference in the grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students in the first and second test material in English 3.Significance of the Study Grammar skill on subject-verb agreement is important because it is thelanguage that makes it possible for us to talk about language. Grammar skill on
    • 8subject-verb agreement names the types of words and word groups that makeup sentences not only in English but in any language. As human beings, we canput sentences together even as children--we can all do grammar. But to be ableto talk about how sentences are built, about the types of words and word groupsthat make up sentences--that is, knowing about grammar skill on subject-verbagreement. And knowing about grammar skill on subject-verb agreement offers awindow into the human mind and into our amazingly complex mental capacity. This study was conducted to: 1. Help the students enhance their grammar skill on subject-verb agreement by using worksheets. 2. Aid the teacher in determining effective strategies in grammar skill on subject-verb agreement in English 3. 3. Determine if the use of worksheets is effective in improving the students’ grammar skill on subject-verb agreement.
    • 94. Encourage other researchers to conduct a similar study on effectiveness of strategies used in teaching English 3 on grammar skill on subject-verb agreement.
    • 10 Chapter II METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses the objectives, strategy used in action research,the data collected and the tools used for data analysis.A. Objective The study purports to improve the grammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreementof the third year Saint Catherine of Sienna students of Christ the King College byusing Worksheets.B. StrategyUtilizing Worksheets to Enhance Grammar Skill on Subject-VerbAgreement Worksheets are an effective tool in ongoing efforts encouraging ourstudents to engage their brains during class. Worksheets used in class can alsohelp direct students learning out-of-class.
    • 11 The following lists are examples of goals that can be addressed by usingworksheets. (http://www.maa.org/t_and_l/exchange/ite11/worksheets.htm) • Helping students focus on an underlying “big picture”. • Bridging the gap between watching and doing. • Focusing students’ attention in class. • Delivering and/or summarizing content efficiently. • Encouraging students to communicate their mathematical ideas. • Teaching students how to learn from their textbooks. • Connecting new material to previously-covered material.C. Persons Involved The persons involved were the Third Year Saint Catherine of Siennastudents of Christ the King College, the researcher (Practice Teacher), and Mrs.Rose Dacumos, the cooperating teacher. Mrs. Dacumos agreed to utilizeworksheets in improving the grammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreement of theaforecited students. The researcher is the one who observed the utilization of the
    • 12worksheets in the class. The first test material is 40 points which was formulatedand given by the researcher and at the same time the practice teacher.D. Implementation Analysis and Tools for Data Strategy Data Collected Interpretation AnalysisUse of The data - The number of Frequency CountWorksheets collected were the students who and Percentages,The teacher used results of the first improved in their Means andthe worksheets for and second test performance was Standardtheir next topics. material of considered. Deviation.The teacher gave students in - A test ofthe class a English 3. The significant T-test dependentworksheet each first test material difference in the means.containing was given before scores of thesentences that the teacher use students in the firstneeds proper worksheets. and second test
    • 13subject-verb Whereas, the material after theagreement and second test utilization ofasked them to material was worksheets.identify the correct given using theform of the verb worksheets.that would makethe sentencecorrect.E. Success Indicator The students’ grammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreement improvedsignificantly higher in the second test material than in the first test material inEnglish 3.
    • 14 Chapter III PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA In this chapter, the data gathered were subjected to statistical analysisand systematically presented to reflect the performance of the students in thefirst test material and second test material in English 3 and their respecteddifferences. Table 1 Grammar Skill on Subject-Verb Agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna in English 3 in the First Test Material (Total number of points = 40) Student Score A 20 B 26 C 14 D 9 E 21 F 14
    • 15G 27H 19I 13J 29K 32L 21M 39N 39O 18P 25Q 22R 22S 21T 25U 31V 19W 19X 30Y 28Z 24
    • 16a 26b 20c 19d 39e 18f 26g 24h 29i 32j 34k 24l 19m 20n 25o 20p 16q 29r 24s 20t 21
    • 17 u 23 Mean: 23.72- Good Standard Deviation: 6.65- Slightly Heterogeneous Data Categorization 37 – 40 Excellent 31 – 36 Very Good 22 – 30 Good 16 – 21 Fair 1 – 15 Poor Frequency Percentage Passing 26 55% Failing 21 45% Total 47 100% The table 1 presents the grammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreement of theThird Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students of Christ the King College inEnglish 3 in the first test material. It can be seen from the table that the
    • 18respondents have poor grammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreement in the first testmaterial; 55% passed and 45% failed. This implies that some of the studentsdon’t have enough grammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreement although more thanhalf of the class passed the first test material. Most of them could have beentrained in the elementary and previous secondary level and they still have withthem the basic skills needed in grammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreement.However, it can be noted that there were 21 out of 47 who failed. This impliesthat there were few of them who lack in the needed grammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreement like inferences, identifying the correct form of the verb andanalyzing the sentences which hinder them to analyze the sentences they arereading. It could also be that they have the basic grammar skill on Subject-VerbAgreement but were distracted due to some factors like environment, emotions,time pressure, and noise which are barriers in reading and understanding.Moreover, it can also be noted that their standard deviation is 6.65 which means
    • 19they are Slightly Heterogeneous. Thus, they are slightly varied in terms of theirgrammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreement. Table 2 Grammar Skill on Subject-Verb Agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna in English 3 in the Second Test Material (Total number of points = 40) Student Score A 25 B 38 C 23 D 14 E 22 F 29 G 33 H 22 I 20 J 37 K 39 L 36
    • 20M 40N 37O 32P 12Q 40R 30S 30T 29U 38V 35W 26X 40Y 38Z 30a 26b 34c 20d 40e 21
    • 21 f 26 g 36 h 20 i 40 j 40 k 27 l 30 m 20 n 38 o 13 p 21 q 38 r 33 s 36 t 37 u 37 Mean: 30.38- GoodStandard Deviation: 8.15- Slightly Heterogeneous
    • 22 Frequency Percentage Passing 38 81% Failing 9 19% Total 47 100% The table 2 presents the grammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreement of theThird Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students of Christ the King College usingWorksheets as a strategy in English 3 in the second test material. It can begleaned from the table that students’ grammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreementis satisfactory in the second test material; 81% of them passed. This implies thatthe students perform better in the second test material. They were able to learnthe basic skills necessary in grammar on Subject-Verb Agreement. It could alsobe that through this strategy, they were able to focus on the sentences they wereanalyzing, that is why they were not distracted by some barriers in answering.Furthermore, it can be noted from the table that their standard deviation is 8.15.Its decreased of 1.5 from the first material means they became more Slightly
    • 23Heterogeneous. Thus, they are still slightly varied in terms of their grammar skillon Subject-Verb Agreement. Table 3 Students with Improved Grammar Skill on Subject-Verb Agreement in English 3 Second First Test Student Test Improved Increase Material Material A 20 25 / 5 B 26 38 / 12 C 14 23 / 9 D 9 14 / 5 E 21 22 / 1 F 14 29 / 15 G 27 33 / 6 H 19 22 / 3 I 13 20 / 7
    • 24J 29 37 / 8K 32 39 / 7L 21 36 / 15M 39 40 / 1N 39 37 X -2O 18 32 / 14P 25 12 X -13Q 22 40 / 18R 22 30 / 8S 21 30 / 9T 25 29 / 4U 31 38 / 7V 19 35 / 16W 19 26 / 7X 30 40 / 10Y 28 38 / 10Z 24 30 / 6a 26 26 X 0b 20 34 / 14
    • 25c 19 20 / 1d 39 40 / 1e 18 21 / 3f 26 26 X 0g 24 36 / 12h 29 20 X -9i 32 40 / 8j 34 40 / 6k 24 27 / 3l 19 30 / 11m 20 20 X 0n 25 38 / 13o 20 13 X -7p 16 21 / 5q 29 38 / 9r 24 33 / 9s 20 36 / 16t 21 37 / 16u 23 37 / 14
    • 26 Mean: 6.66 Frequency Percentage Improved 40 85% Did Not Improve 7 15% Total 47 100% The table 3 presents the number of Third Year Saint Catherine of Siennastudents of Christ the King College with improved grammar skill on Subject-VerbAgreement in English 3. The table reflects that 85% of the respondents improvedin their grammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreement. This implies that the use ofWorksheets as a strategy helps most of the student to acquire the needed skillsin grammar on Subject-Verb Agreement. It also aided them to easier decode andcomprehend the sentences they were analyzing and answering. However it issad to note that there are 7 out of 47 who did not improve. Their scoresdecreased in 2 and 5 points and three of them remained in the grammar skill on
    • 27Subject-Verb Agreement posttest. This implies that they have enough skills ingrammar on Subject-Verb Agreement as reflected in their passing scores butthey just lost their focus in some of the items in the second test material. Table 4 Comparison in the Improved Grammar Skill on Subject-Verb Agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students in English 3 In the First and Second Test Material T- Decisio Means T-Stat Remarks Critical n 6.81 2.01 Reject There a significant HO difference in the First Test 23.72 grammar skill on Material Subject-Verb Agreement of the Second 30.38
    • 28 Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students using Test Worksheets as a Material strategy in the first and second test material in English 3. The table 4 presents the comparison in the grammar skill on Subject-VerbAgreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students of Christ theKing College using Worksheets as a strategy in English 3 in the first and secondtest material. The table reveals that the grammar skill on Subject-VerbAgreement in the first test material had a mean of 23.72 while the second testmaterial had a mean of 30.38. This shows that there is an improvement in thegrammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of
    • 29Sienna students after the utilization of the strategy. Furthermore, using the t-testfor dependent means, the t-stat of 6.81 is greater than the t-crit of 2.01. Thisclearly implies that after the use of Worksheets as a strategy, the studentsperformed significantly better in their grammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreement.Thus, utilization of Worksheets as a strategy greatly helped the students inlearning and acquiring the basic skills needed in grammar and most especially incommunication either written or oral. Through these findings it was proven thatusing Worksheets as a strategy is effective and useful in improving the grammarskill on Subject-Verb Agreement of students. This finding runs parallel to the Research conducted since the early 1960sshows that grammar instruction that is separate from writing instruction does notimprove students grammar and writing competence (Braddock and others, 1963;Hillocks, 1986). In addition, research indicates that the transfer of formalgrammar instruction to writing is not applicable to larger elements of composition.Through detailed studies of students writing, Shaughnessy (1977) concludes that
    • 30the best grammar instruction is that which gives the greatest return for the leastinvestment of time. Shaughnessy advocates four important grammaticalconcepts: the sentence, inflection, tense, and agreement. She recommends thatteachers encourage students to examine grammatical errors in their own writingor in sentences given by the teacahers. Weaver (1998) proposes a similar approach to teaching grammar in thecontext of writing. She writes, "What all students need is guidance inunderstanding and applying those aspects of grammar that are most relevant towriting." Weaver proposes five grammatical concepts that enable writers to showimprovement in sentence revision, style, and editing.
    • 31 Chapter IVSUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the summary, findings, conclusions andrecommendations of the study.Summary The action research aimed to improve the grammar skill onSubject-Verb Agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna studentsusing Worksheets as a strategy in English 3. The persons involved were theThird Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students of Christ the King College and thePractice Teacher (researcher). There were forty-seven (47) Third Year SaintCatherine of Sienna students of Christ the King College. Specifically, this studyaimed to determine the effectiveness of utilizing worksheets in Englsih 3 inimproving the grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the Third Year SaintCatherine of Sienna students. It was intended to answer the following questions:
    • 32 1. What is the grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students in the first test material? 2. What is the grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students using worksheets in English 3 in the second test material? 3. Is there an improvement in the grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students in the second test material after the utilization of worksheets? 4. Is there a significant difference in the grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students in the first and second test material after the use of worksheets in English 3 as reflected in the second test material?Hypotheses This research is guided by the following hypotheses:
    • 33 1. The students’ grammar skill on subject-verb agreement is fair in the first test material in English 3. 2. The students’ grammar skill on subject-verb agreement is satisfactory in the second test material after using worksheets in English 3. 3. There is an improvement in the grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students in the second test material after the utilization of worksheets. 4. There is no significant difference in the grammar skill on subject-verb agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students in the first and second test material in English 3.Findings The following are the salient findings of this study: 1. The Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students’ grammar skill on subject-verb agreement is poor in the first test material in English 3 with 55% passing rate.
    • 342. The Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students’ grammar skill on subject-verb agreement is satisfactory in the second test material after using Worksheets as a strategy. Almost all of the students passed in the second test material with 81% passing rate.3. Majority of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students improved in their grammar skill on subject-verb agreement after the utilization of Worksheets as a strategy with 81% improved in their grammar skill on subject-verb agreement and 19% of them did not improve.4. There is a significant difference in the grammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students using Worksheets as a strategy in the first and second test material in English 3. With the use of Worksheets as a strategy, the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students’ grammar skill on subject-verb agreement is significantly higher in the second test material than in the first test material.
    • 35Conclusions: In the light of the aforecited findings above, the following conclusions aredrawn: 1. Some Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students lacks the necessary competencies and skills in grammar specifically on Subject-Verb Agreement during the first test material. 2. Students were able to learn and understand better the lesson with the use of worksheets since they can focus on the material carefully. Implementation of the Worksheet as a strategy helped the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students to learn and comprehend better the lessons given by the teacher. Thus, they performed significantly better in the second test material 3. The grammar skill on Subject-Verb Agreement of the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students improved after the implementation of
    • 36 Worksheets as a strategy. Thus the implementation of the said strategy was proven effective. 4. Implementation of Worksheets as a strategy was of great help for the Third Year Saint Catherine of Sienna students to perform significantly better in the second test material than in the first test material. Hence, the strategy is effective.Recommendations: Based on the conclusions, the researchers offer the followingrecommendations: 1. Worksheet as a strategy is strongly recommended to be implemented not just in English subject but in other subject areas. 2. In implementing Worksheets as a strategy, the teacher should still be there and act as a facilitator, and let the students discuss the topic themselves because the students still need assistance from the teacher.
    • 373. After the students have understand the lesson the teacher discussed them, the teacher should comment or commend on some important points for the improvement of the students.4. The teacher should also let the students tutor their peers because students learn better from peers.5. The teacher must have student-centered classroom, where the students do the talking or activity most often.6. It is strongly recommended that teachers must encourage students to examine grammatical errors in their own writing.7. Grammar instruction that is separate from writing instruction does not improve students grammar and writing competence, thus, writing as a form of grammar application is recommended.
    • 38References:1. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/20196333? uid=3738824&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=211007604410812. http://www.k12reader.com/the-importance-of-grammar- subjectverbagreement/3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Worksheets4. http://www.maa.org/t_and_l/exchange/ite11/worksheets.htm
    • 39 APPENDICES A. FIRST TEST MATERIALName:________________________________________ Score:________Year and Section:_______________________________ September 26, 2012 Subject / Verb AgreementDirections: Read and analyze the sentences. Underline the correct verb formin order to form the correct agreement between the subject and the verb. Thenon the space before each number, write what rule it follows. (40pts.)
    • 401.It (are, is) never too late to say sorry for the wrong things we’ve done.2. The world (change, changes) so rapidly that we can hardly keep up.3. All of the students (walk, walks) quickly to get to class on time.4. Life (is, are) wonderful and at the same time challenging.5. All she hopes (are, is) world peace.6. All of the children (was, were) hunting eggs in the garden for their activity.7. The Drama Club, not the Speech classes, (meet, meets) on Tuesdays andThursdays at three oclock.8. Mr. and Mrs. Jones (commutes, commute) to the city by train.9. The big oak tree in the front yard (shade, shades )our front porch most of the day.10. Either Sue or Jill (is, are) likely to be voted for this years prom queen.11. Nothing ever (seems, seem) to bother him. 12. A notebook and a pen (is, are) lying on the desk in the library. 13. None of the workers (is, are) coming to the conference. 14. One-fourth of the students will (attends, attend) the seminar. 15. You (is, are) proud to be CKCians. 16. All of the dogs in the neighborhood (was, were) barking. 17. The students, not the Principal, will (joins, join) the Vocation weekcelebration. 18. None but the industrious (clean, cleans) the room. 19. You (are, is) the author of your own life. 20. All of the members (are, is) cooperating and welcoming.
    • 41
    • 42 B. SECOND TEST MATERIALName:________________________________________ Score:________Year and Section:_______________________________ September 26, 2012 Subject / Verb AgreementDirections: Read and analyze the sentences. Underline the correct verb formin order to form the correct agreement between the subject and the verb. Thenon the space before each number, write what rule it follows. (40pts.)1. Each of the men (were/was) given ten minutes to speak to the president ofthe company.2. Beyond the river (is/are) a dress store and a shoe store.3. Here (is/are) your notebook and dictionary.4. Neither of the corporations (has/have) received the necessary state charter
    • 43yet.5. My entire supply of checks (was/were) missing.6. Physics (is/are) taken by many students to complete their sciencerequirement.7. A natural monopoly (is/are) public utilities.8. Neither of the unions (has/have) studied the working conditions yet.9. Sitting in the chair by the file cabinets (is/are) the secretary.10. The data (was/were) published by the company.11. The cost of goods (vary/varies) greatly in the different states.12. Where (is/are) one of the letters from Brown and Company?13. Neither of the salesmen (wants/want) to help me.14. One of the trade marks (has/have) not been registered yet.15. Five percent of the profits (is/are) to be distributed to the stockholders.16. Food tests taken on Friday (confirm/confirms) my original diagnosis.17. Neither the employers nor the union (desire/desires) to strike vote.
    • 4418. Neither the size nor the color of the envelopes (are/is) correct.19. Each of the loans (has/have) been recalled by the bank.20. The news of the economic decline (has/have) been upsetting.
    • 45Answer Key1. Each of the men (was) given ten minutes to speak to the president ofthe company.2. Beyond the river (are) a dress store and a shoe store.3. Here (are) your notebook and dictionary.4. Neither of the corporations (has) received the necessary state charteryet.5. My entire supply of checks (was) missing.6. Physics (is) taken by many students to complete their sciencerequirement.7. A natural monopoly (is) public utilities.8. Neither of the unions (has) studied the working conditions yet.9. Sitting in the chair by the file cabinets (is) the secretary.10. The data (were) published by the company.11. The cost of goods (varies) greatly in the different states.
    • 4612. Where (is) one of the letters from Brown and Company?13. None of the salesmen (want) to help me.14. One of the trade marks (has) not been registered yet.15. Five percent of the profits (is) to be distributed to the stockholders.16. Food tests taken on Friday (confirm) my original diagnosis.17. Neither the employers nor the union (desires) a strike vote.18. Neither the size nor the color of the envelopes (is) correct.19. Each of the loans (has) been recalled by the bank.20. The news of the economic decline (has) been upsetting.
    • 47