Mountain building ppt nc 13

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  • 1. Mrs. Z’s Mountain Building notes ONLY! Mountain Building
  • 2. Rock Deformation AKA – Mountain Building • Deformation - the bending, breaking, and tilting of the earth’s crust. • Three types of Stress: 1. Compressional   2. Tensional   3. Shear 
  • 3. FOLDING - flat layers of rock are under severe compression and are squeezed from the sides. The layers moved into folded positions without breaking (although some cracks may appear).
  • 4.  Three types of Folds: 1. Anticlines - upward folds 2. Synclines – downward folds 3. Monoclines – gently dipping bends in horizontal rock layershttp://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/geology/publications/bul/1508/images/fig27.jpg
  • 5. Features formed by tectonic activity Normal 1. Faults - A break in the rock layers along which there is no movement is called a fracture. Once movement occurs, the fracture is known as a fault. Three Main Types of Faults:
  • 6.  2. Reverse Fault • occurs along convergent boundaries (compression force) • The hanging wall moves up above the foot wall  Thrust Fault o reverse fault where the hanging wall is pushed at such a low angle (not steep) that it moves UP AND OVER the foot wall
  • 7.  3. Strike-Slip Fault • occurs at transform boundaries (shearing force) • The rocks along either side of the fault slide horizontally  Ex. San Andreas Fault
  • 8. North Carolina Fault System
  • 9. Four Types of Mountains 1. Folded Mountains - Found where continents have collided. Ex. Appalachian Mts., Himalayan Mts. • Plateaus - areas of flat-topped land high above sea level. Ex. Colorado Plateau (Grand Canyon) 2. Fault-Block Mountains - Formed by faults, where part of the earth’s crust have been broken into large blocks and then were lifted above the surrounding crust. Ex. Grand Teton, MT
  • 10. 3. Volcanic Mountains - Form when molten rock erupts onto earth’s surface. Ex. Cascade Mts. in Pacific NW and the mid-Ocean ridges 4. Dome Mountains - An unusual type that is formed when molten rock rises but does not break through the surface. Ex. Adirondacks, NY