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  • Hot car example: sun’s energy streams into car, seats absorb and change light energy into heat energy, heat is trapped by glass windows
    Greenhouses: use glass since it traps sun’s energy, grow plants in warm air, even when it is cold outside
  • Meteorology

    1. 1. Earth’s Atmosphere
    2. 2.  Energy from the SUN – INcoming SOLAr radiaTION Through the seasons, it heats our world, some parts more and some less and this drives both climate (global) and weather (local).
    3. 3. The electromagnetic spectrum includes visible light, as well as X-rays, ultraviolet rays and infrared rays.
    4. 4. Climate is the average temperature and moisture conditions over a long period of time.  Water Budget – a system of accounting for moisture income, storage, and outgo for the soil in a specific area.
    5. 5. Humid climates are those in which the total amount of precipitation is greater than the total amount of Potential Evapotranspiration (Loss of water to atmosphere)
    6. 6. Arid climates have significantly more total Potential Evapotranspiration than Precipitation
    7. 7. Latitude • Most important factor in determining climate, especially temperatures • As latitude increases, yearly temperature range (difference between highest and lowest temperature) increases. •
    8. 8.  As elevation increases, average yearly temperature decreases.
    9. 9. Marine Continental Location: Ocean/large lake Interior (land) Winds from: OCEAN LAND Summers: Cooler than Average (Mild) Warmer than Ave. (Mild) Warmer than average (HOT) Colder than Ave. (Harsh) Kansas, NE, IA, Syracuse Winters: Example: San Francisco, LA, DC
    10. 10. Uneven heating of the Earth produces global wind belts and pressure belts. These “pressure belts” determine the wetness or dryness of a particular location. Low pressure occurs where air is rising and thus precipitation occurs. High pressure regions are areas that lack rainfall (DRY).
    11. 11.  The "Global Conveyer Belt" shows how the oceans move energy from the tropics to the poles and back again in order to moderate Earth's climate. This is accomplished through long-term ocean circulation. •Interesting fact: It takes up to 1000 years for water to completely circulate the oceans!
    12. 12.  A warm ocean current resulting from a reversal of the ocean current in the Pacific which results in climate variability around the globe.
    13. 13.    Orographic Effect – Mountains act as barriers to prevailing winds. As the wind hits the windward side of a mountain, the air is forced up, cools, condenses and forms clouds with precipitation. Windward side – Side of the mountain that is exposed to the wind. WET Leeward Side – Descending air warms and it holds more moisture, making it DRY.
    14. 14. *Why does rising air cool? *As air temperature decreases, its ability to hold water___DECREASES______ DECREASES *Why does falling air warm? Si s, Co Ex ol pan s ds r Ai & Condensation & Precipitation pr Ai rR ise m Co s, nk s se es WINDWARD & W s Topography m ar Prevailing Wind Cascade Mountains LEEWARD
    15. 15. Weather = the condition of the atmospheric variables, such as temperature, air pressure, wind, and water vapor, at a particular location for a relatively short period of time.
    16. 16.   Direct result of TILT & parallelism in orbit distribute energy from vertical to oblique rays Tilt (inclination) spreads concentration of energy over broader area
    17. 17. This UNEVEN HEATING causes earth’s atmosphere to react and become a gigantic engine that produces an infinite variety of WEATHER.
    18. 18. 1. 2. 3. 4. Temperature Air Pressure Moisture Conditions (Precipitation & Humidity) Wind (Speed & Direction)
    19. 19.  Barometer – measures AIR PRESSURE
    20. 20.  Pyschrometer – measures amount of water vapor (relative humidity)  Rain Gauge – Measures liquid precipitation
    21. 21.  Wind Vane – measures wind direction  Anemometer – measures wind speed
    22. 22.  Thermometer – measures air temperature  Note: In the USA we still use degrees Fahrenheit – the rest of the world measures in oCelsius
    23. 23.  Atmosphere  Complete the questions in the note packet while you watch!
    24. 24.      Composition of the lower atmosphere (troposphere): 1. Nitrogen = 78% used by bacteria in soil to make nitrates 2. Oxygen = 21% used by humans and animals for respiration 3. Argon = 0.84% 4. Carbon Dioxide = 0.03% used by green plants to make food
    25. 25.  5. Others = 0.01% which include:  Helium, Hydrogen, Ozone, Krypton, neon and xenon 6. Also: water vapor, dust particles and pollution
    26. 26.  What is Ozone?  O3 – we breathe O2  It occurs naturally in trace amounts in the stratosphere. protects life on Earth from the Sun’s UV radiation.  Ozone  Ozone is created naturally when sunlight splits apart O2 into single O atoms – these then bond to form more O2 or O3
    27. 27.    NO!! The ozone molecules are randomly scattered among other particles in the stratosphere layer Ozone molecules are exceedingly rare: In every one million molecules of air, fewer than 10 are ozone
    28. 28.   Filters out harmful UV radiation, which can cause skin cancer, cataracts, faster aging & weakened immune systems UV is also harmful to plants & marine life and it can disrupt the food chain
    29. 29. CFC – chlorofluorocarbons, which are used in: 1. 2. 3. Coolants in refrigerators Propellants in aerosol cans Electronic cleaning solvents
    30. 30.  Ground-level ozone triggers chest pain, nausea, bronchitis, reduced lung capacity, and aggravates asthma Air Quality Index  An index for reporting daily air quality  Focuses on health effects that can happen within a few days of breathing polluted air  Used for: ground level ozone, particulate matter, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide
    31. 31. AIR POLLUTION -any substance in the atmosphere that is harmful ( usually produce long term health effects and can cause death ) Main Sources – burning fossil fuels ( coal and petroleum ) Ex: SOx, CO ( carbon monoxide ), lead, various hydrocarbons Acid Rain ( precipitation ) – side effect of air pollution - gases from burning fossil fuels combine with water in the air to produce acids, then falls back to the earth as precipitation Long Term effects: kills fish, soil contamination, destruction of plants, and crops Mt. Mitchell, NC  Temperature Inversion ( very serious problem ) trees,
    32. 32.  In order for this reaction to occur, it must be extremely cold. Conditions for this reaction are perfect over Antarctica in the winter months. Can we fix it??  The ozone hole will fix itself given enough time  Many major countries, including the U.S., have placed heavy restrictions on ozone-polluting substances
    33. 33. December 2013 The false-color view of the monthlyaveraged total ozone over the Antarctic pole. The blue and purple colors are where there is the least ozone, and the yellows and reds are where there is more ozone.
    34. 34. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 6% reflected from atmospheric scattering (aerosols) 20% reflected by clouds 4% Reradiation: Reflected by Earth’s surface 3% Absorbed by clouds 51% Absorbed by Earth’s surface 16% Absorbed by atmosphere
    35. 35.     Short wave energy (UV) from the Sun comes in and heats the Earth As heat reradiates up from the earth, it is emitted in the form of LONG wave energy (infrared) The long wave energy becomes trapped by gases in the troposphere This trapped gas warms the air much like your car on a hot day.
    36. 36.      Water vapor Methane (CH4) Carbon dioxide Nitrous oxide CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons)
    37. 37. CONDUCTION– Transfer of heat within solids atoms are closely packed. CONVECTION – Transfer of heat in liquid or gas results from differences in density RADIATION: The emission or giving off of energy HEAT
    38. 38. Heat in the atmosphere is recorded as a temperature reading and can then be plotted on a map to see a picture of change. • ISOTHERMS are lines that connect points of equal temperature. Showing temperature distribution in this way making patterns easier to see.
    39. 39. Why do the isotherms seem to run E – W across the map?
    40. 40. LAND vs. WATER Land heats up and cools faster than water
    41. 41. Color DARK vs. LIGHT Darker colors tend to absorb more insolation than they reflect. Surfaces with lighter colors tend to reflect more insolation than they absorb.
    42. 42. TEXTURE Smooth vs. Rough A surface which has a rough or uneven surface will absorb more insolation.
    43. 43. Phase Change Diagram
    44. 44. The primary source of moisture for the atmosphere are the OCEANS. Other sources include: Lakes, Rivers, streams Transpiration Moisture in the atmosphere exists in all three states/phases. 1) Gas – known as water vapor 2) Liquid – tiny droplets suspended in the air that form clouds 3) Solid – tiny crystals suspended in the air that form clouds
    45. 45. HUMIDITY is the general term used to describe the amount of water vapor in the air Temperature determines the amount of water vapor the air can hold.
    46. 46.  e)  As air temperature INCREASES, the amount of water vapor the air can hold INCREASES. Saturation –100% humidity in the atmosphere (precipitation results) At 350C, a cubic meter of air can hold 35 g/m3 of water vapor.
    47. 47. Temperature – As temperature increases, evaporation increases Wind – As wind increases, evaporation increases Surface Area – As surface area increases, evaporation increases Humidity – As humidity goes UP, evaporation rates go DOWN
    48. 48.   The temperature to which air must be cooled to reach saturation. And Condense…….and make clouds! If the air temp drops down to the dew point, condensation will occur. The dew point can tell us how high clouds will form. Clouds form where condensation is occurring.
    49. 49. a) The drier the air, the faster/more evaporation will occur resulting in greater/more cooling. In turn, the difference in temperature between the dry bulb and wet bulb will be greater/more.
    50. 50. b. c. The more humid the air, the LESS evaporation will occur resulting in LESS cooling of the wet bulb thermometer. In turn, the difference in temperature between the dry bulb and wet bulb will be LESS At saturation (100% humidity), the temperature difference between the dry bulb and wet bulb would be zero and precipitation will usually occur!.
    51. 51.  Maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold at a given temperature.  The actual amount of water vapor in the air is the absolute humidity. Relative humidity tells "how full" the air is with water. It is expressed in %. 100% is full and can't hold any more. It is saturated. Warm Air = higher humidity (wet) Cold Air = low humidity (dry)   
    52. 52. Changing Air Temperature If temperature increases and moisture in the air remains the same, relative humidity will decrease.
    53. 53. Changing Absolute Humidity Temperature Relative Humidity If moisture content of the air increases and temperature stays the same, relative humidity will increase.
    54. 54. Complete the worksheet while watching!
    55. 55. Using the chart to determine Dew Point & Relative Humidity  It’s easy; if….. – – – You have ½ a brain Pay attention Do your practice!
    56. 56. The “Dry Bulb”  Don’t let it fool you. It is just a thermometer.  It measures the air temperature.  Duh! 20°C
    57. 57. The “Wet Bulb”  Has a little wet booty tied to the bottom.  Gets cool when water evaporates. Wet Booty 12°C
    58. 58. A Dry Day…  A lot of moisture will evaporate.  The wet bulb will be a lot cooler than the dry bulb. 20°C Difference between wet bulb & dry bulb is 12 °C. 20°C 14°C 12°C 8°C
    59. 59. A Humid Day…  A little bit of moisture will evaporate.  The wet bulb will not be much cooler than the dry bulb. 20°C Difference between wet bulb & dry bulb is 6 °C. 14°C
    60. 60. Page of your notes has a chart with Dewpoint (DPT) and Relative Humidity (RH)!    Warning #1: Be sure to READ the correct chart: DPT or RH Warning #2: Dew Point Temperature IS NOT “Difference between wet bulb and dry bulb”. Warning #3: The wet bulb temp IS NOT the DPT.
    61. 61. Dry-bulb temperature is your air temperature. 20 °C
    62. 62. 14 °C
    63. 63. 4 °C
    64. 64. Subtract (the difference) between the dry bulb and wet bulb
    65. 65. 20°C 14°C 20-14=6
    66. 66. 18°C 16°C 18-16=2
    67. 67. Put it all together 20°C 8°C 20-8=12 Relative Humidity = 11%
    68. 68. 14°C 10°C 14-10=4 Relative Humidity = 60%
    69. 69. The Dew Point Chart works the same way 14°C 10°C 14-10=4 Dew Point = 6°C
    70. 70. Try These. Dry Bulb Wet Bulb 26°C 20 °C 6 °C 5 °C 12 °C 8 °C R Humidity 57% 86% 57% DPT 17 °C 4 °C 4 °C Now do the worksheet for homework on the next page of your notes
    71. 71. How Do Clouds Form? Expan si on & C ooli ng R ising AIR Con den s ati on Nu Re clei De a c wP hin oi g t nt h Te e mP . W ate rV ap or
    72. 72.  Adiabatic Cooling As air rises, the atmospheric pressure surrounding the parcel of air decreases. Therefore, the parcel of air expands as it rises.
    73. 73.  As it expands, it becomes cooler. When the temperature of this parcel of air falls to its dew point temperature, the water vapor in the air condenses and a cloud appears in the sky.
    74. 74. Air pressure acts equally in all directions; it also exists within any object containing air like a building, the human body and “empty” bottles. When you mess with the pressure – “bad” things happen!~ CRUSH!
    75. 75. a. b. Factors/Variables that cause atmospheric pressure to change: Temperature Moisture Altitude Effect of temperature on air pressure: As air temperature increases; (air molecules move further apart/become less dense) – the air pressure decreases
    76. 76. c. Effect of moisture on air pressure: As humidity increases, air pressure decreases – because when water vapor molecules enter the air, they replace heavier air molecules
    77. 77. d. Effect of altitude on air pressure  As altitude increases, air pressure decreases (less air is above and air is less dense
    78. 78. a. Isobars are lines that connect points of equal air pressure. Showing air pressure distribution in this way makes patterns easier to see. On U.S. Weather Bureau maps, the interval between isobars is 4 mb.
    79. 79. On weather maps, barometric pressure is represented by a three-digit number to the upper right of a circle; this circle represents a city on the map. 053
    80. 80.  Rules to follow to determine the value of this number:  A decimal point is omitted between the last 2 digits on the right.  The number 9 or 10 is omitted in front of this number. If the original number is above 500, place a 9 in front. If it is below500, place a 10 in front. (Hint: use whichever will give a result closest to 1000 mb)  Example: 053 – 1005.3
    81. 81. Components of Weather High Pressure System: Anticyclone
    82. 82.   Winds blow in a clockwise direction and away from the center Caused by: More dense air “falling”
    83. 83. Components of Weather Low Pressure System: Depression or Cyclone
    84. 84.  Winds move Counterclockwise and IN towards the center  Therefore – once they get to the middle, there is nowhere to go but UP
    85. 85.   The horizontal movement of air parallel to Earth’s surface. All wind deflects to the RIGHT in the Northern Hemisphere!
    86. 86. How is Wind Formed? As air cools it can no longer rise Air rises and cools in the atmosphere Cold air sinks Ground heats air WIND moves from high to low pressure HIGH LOW Sun heats ground
    87. 87. 1. 2. Uneven heating at Earth’s surface Examples: a. b. c. Land vs. water Poles vs. equator Dark forest vs. snow field
    88. 88. 1. Winds always blow from regions of high pressure to regions of low pressure.
    89. 89. Winds are named for the direction that they come FROM
    90. 90. feather   The direction of the line always points to the center of the circle (in this case pointing east) and indicates the direction in which the wind is blowing at this location. Each “feather” represents the wind speed –   Whole feather = 10 knots Half feather = 5 knots
    91. 91. North Westerly Wind
    92. 92. 2. 3. 4. The speed of the wind is determined by the difference in air pressure. Pressure gradient – difference in air pressure ÷ distance between cities. As the pressure gradient increases (isobars are very close together), wind speed increases.
    93. 93. a. The coriolis effect – Earth’s rotation on it’s axis causes winds to be deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere.
    94. 94.   The unequal distribution of Insolation causes unequal heating of the Earth which causes differences in pressure which result in winds. Cooler air, being more dense, sinks toward Earth due to gravity, causing warmer, less dense air to rise
    95. 95.  Earth’s rotation causes the Coriolis Effect which results in the three (or six) cell circulation of winds as illustrated in your notes.
    96. 96. Components of Weather Air Masses What is an Air Mass? An air mass is a large body of air in the troposphere moving in a particular direction, with the same temperature, pressure and humidity throughout.
    97. 97. Components of Weather Air Masses Affecting the U.S.
    98. 98. 2. Types of Air Masses a) b) c) Tropical – originates in the tropics (low latitudes). Characterized by warm air. Polar – originates in polar regions (high latitudes). It is characterized by cold air. Arctic – originates in ice covered arctic regions (winter only). It is very cold and dry.
    99. 99. It’s right here in ESRT d. Continental – think LAND. It is dry. e. Maritime – think SEA. It is wet. 3. Air masses are a combination of temperature and moisture conditions.
    100. 100. Types of Fronts a. Cold b. Warm c. Stationary d. Occluded
    101. 101. IT’S in the ESRT!
    102. 102. IT’S in the ESRT!
    103. 103. The Stages of Front Formation
    104. 104. Table is on page 26 of notes! Warm Front Cold Front Occluded Front Warm air Cold Air –moves fast Cold air meets warm air and mixes Showers for long period Air is dense and hugs the ground precipitation Lots of Clouds as air rises up “bullies” the warm air UP quickly Wind changes Covers wide area Brings intense change – brief periods of stormy weather (severe) Thunderstorms, lightning, tornadoes Stationary Front: Warm and Cold air meet head on and neither gives way. Low pressure usually
    105. 105.  Thunderstorms: A storm that generates lightning and thunder.  Frequently produce strong winds, heavy rain, and hail.  At any given time, there are an estimated 2000 thunderstorms in progress on Earth.  In the US, Florida and the eastern Gulf Coast region experience the most activity.  Develop when warm, humid air rises in an unstable environment. 
    106. 106. Lightning
    107. 107.  Tornadoes Violent windstorms that take the form of a rotating column of air called a vortex, which extends downward from a cumulonimbus cloud.  The US experiences approximately 700 tornadoes each year.  Greatest occurrence is from April-June (but can happen anytime).  Most frequently in the Central USA! Unique…..  Measured using the Enhanced Fujita Scale. 
    108. 108. The Birth of a Tornado The Birth of a Tornado
    109. 109. A hurricane is a heat engine that gets its energy from warm ocean water. These storms develop from tropical depressions which form off the coast of Africa in the warm Atlantic waters. When water vapor evaporates it absorbs energy in the form of heat. As the vapor rises it cools within the tropical depression, it condenses, releasing heat which sustains the system. •A tropical depression becomes a hurricane when its sustained recorded winds reach 74 mph. •Although hurricane forecasting has improved over the years tremendously, the path of these storms may only be approximated.
    110. 110. What do you mean there are no more Earth Science notes??