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Earth/Environmental - Introduction
 

Earth/Environmental - Introduction

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    Earth/Environmental - Introduction Earth/Environmental - Introduction Presentation Transcript

    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman Introduction to Earth/EnvironmentalIntroduction to Earth/Environmental ScienceScience 1.1. GeologyGeology Study of the origin,Study of the origin, history, andhistory, and structure of thestructure of the earthearth
    • 2.2. MeteorologyMeteorology Study atmosphere,Study atmosphere, especially weatherespecially weather & weather conditions& weather conditions
    • 3.3. OceanographyOceanography Study of the ocean and its phenomenaStudy of the ocean and its phenomena 4. Astronomy4. Astronomy Study of theStudy of the position, compositionposition, composition of stars, planets & other objectsof stars, planets & other objects
    • EarthEarth’s 4 Spheres’s 4 Spheres Geosphere/
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman I.I. Observation -Observation - Interaction of ourInteraction of our senses.senses. A.A. The five sensesThe five senses include:include: 1.1. SightSight 2.2. HearingHearing 3.3. Touch/FeelTouch/Feel 4.4. TasteTaste 5.5. SmellSmell How do Scientists GatherHow do Scientists Gather Information?Information?
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman B. Testing your powers ofB. Testing your powers of observation:observation: 1.1. Use only your senseUse only your sense of sight to makeof sight to make observations toobservations to determine:determine: A.A. Which (if either) ofWhich (if either) of the two center circlesthe two center circles is largest or smallest.is largest or smallest.
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman  Is this a youngIs this a young woman or an oldwoman or an old woman?woman?
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman Our powers of observation areOur powers of observation are limited by our senses.limited by our senses. C.C. InstrumentsInstruments – can be used to improve– can be used to improve or extend our powers of observation.or extend our powers of observation. These devices have been invented byThese devices have been invented by people topeople to extend the human senses beyond their normal limits, and thus, and thus enable us to make observations thatenable us to make observations that would otherwise be impossible or highlywould otherwise be impossible or highly inaccurate.inaccurate.
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman II.II. InferenceInference  An interpretation or aAn interpretation or a conclusion (educatedconclusion (educated guess) based onguess) based on observations.observations.  They may or may notThey may or may not be true.be true.
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman A. For example, if you observed the appearanceA. For example, if you observed the appearance of more and more clouds that were darker andof more and more clouds that were darker and darker in color, you might infer that:darker in color, you might infer that:  It will rainIt will rain  ThereThere’s a storm’s a storm comingcoming Read the statements in your notes and decide whether they are an observation or inference.
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman III. MeasurementIII. Measurement A.A. A measurement is a way of expressing anA measurement is a way of expressing an observation with greater precision. It providesobservation with greater precision. It provides a numerical value for some property of thea numerical value for some property of the object or the event being observed.object or the event being observed. 1.1. All measurements consist of:All measurements consist of: (a)(a) Numerical valueNumerical value (b)(b) Label (units)Label (units) 2.2. Properties that can be measured include; length, area,Properties that can be measured include; length, area, volume, mass, weight, temperature, density, time, etc.volume, mass, weight, temperature, density, time, etc.
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman B. Linear Measurement (orB. Linear Measurement (or “one dimensional”) –“one dimensional”) – distance between two (2) pointsdistance between two (2) points 1.1. Instrument –Instrument – RulerRuler 2.2. Unit – MeterUnit – Meter a)a) centi – 1/100 metercenti – 1/100 meter 100100 centimeters = 1 metercentimeters = 1 meter b)b) milli – 1/1000 metermilli – 1/1000 meter 10001000 millimeters = 1 metermillimeters = 1 meter c)c) kilo – 1000 meterskilo – 1000 meters 11 kilometer = 1000 meterskilometer = 1000 meters Read and convert the model in your notes!
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman C. Mass –C. Mass – The amount of matter an objectThe amount of matter an object possessespossesses 1.1. Instrument –Instrument – Triple-beam or electronic balanceTriple-beam or electronic balance 2.2. Units: (a)Units: (a) gramsgrams (b)(b) milligramsmilligrams
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman D.D. DensityDensity –– Concentration of matter in an object expressed in a ratio of mass percent per unit volume
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman Blinding You With ScienceBlinding You With Science  DensityDensity Density and your understanding of it is the key to understanding almost everything in Earth Science! It applies to: Ocean Currents Separation of spheres Force behind plate tectonics Movement of air and wind
    • IV. ErrorsIV. Errors  Since allSince all measurements aremeasurements are made by senses or bymade by senses or by extensions of sensesextensions of senses (instruments), they(instruments), they cannot be expected tocannot be expected to bebe “exact”. Therefore“exact”. Therefore a small margin of errora small margin of error is expected.is expected. Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman V.V. Nature of ChangeNature of Change  The Earth environment is in a constant state of change. These changes can be sudden, one time events (ex: Volcanic eruption) or cyclic (ex: Tides).  Dynamic EquilibriumDynamic Equilibrium –– EarthEarth’s tendency to try to’s tendency to try to balance opposing forces.balance opposing forces.
    • VI. Methods of ScienceVI. Methods of Science To answer questions, scientists use manyTo answer questions, scientists use many approaches, but they all use commonapproaches, but they all use common steps – SCIENTIFIC METHODsteps – SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1.1. Problem/QuestionProblem/Question Develop a question or problem that canDevelop a question or problem that can be solved through experimentationbe solved through experimentation 2.2. Observation/ResearchObservation/Research Make observations and research yourMake observations and research your topic of interest.topic of interest.
    • 3.3. HypothesisHypothesis Possible explanation forPossible explanation for the problem.the problem. - Must be testable!- Must be testable! - Example:- Example: If soil temperatures rise,If soil temperatures rise, then plant growth willthen plant growth will increase.increase. 4.4. ExperimentExperiment Develop a procedure toDevelop a procedure to test your hypothesis. Musttest your hypothesis. Must be measurablebe measurable (quantifiable).(quantifiable).
    • 55.. Collect & Analyze ResultsCollect & Analyze Results -- DataData is information obtained fromis information obtained from an experimentan experiment - Can disprove or prove a- Can disprove or prove a hypothesishypothesis - Include tables, graphs &- Include tables, graphs & photographs, numbers, descriptorsphotographs, numbers, descriptors 6.6. ConclusionConclusion - Statement that accepts or rejects- Statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesisthe hypothesis - Make recommendations for- Make recommendations for further studyfurther study
    • VII. Representing DataVII. Representing Data GraphingGraphing- A visual representation of data- A visual representation of data collected in an experimentcollected in an experiment 1.1. LineLine Shows trends easilyShows trends easily
    • Experimental VariablesExperimental Variables 1.1. IndependentIndependent VariableVariable  On theOn the XX axisaxis  Intentionally manipulated variableIntentionally manipulated variable  Ex: Time will be taken every 1 minuteEx: Time will be taken every 1 minute beginning at T= 0beginning at T= 0 1.1. DependentDependent VariableVariable  On theOn the YY axisaxis  Factor that may change as a result ofFactor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variablechanges made in the independent variable  Ex: Temperature of hot liquid after T= 20Ex: Temperature of hot liquid after T= 20 minutes.minutes.
    •  Direct Relationship - Both variables change in the same direction (both increase) Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman Ex: The effect of temperature on volume of gas
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman  Inverse (Indirect)Inverse (Indirect) Relationship -Relationship - When one variable increases as the other decreases. EX: Volume vs. Pressure on a gas You would say as pressure increases, the volume of the gas decreases.
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman Cyclic changesCyclic changes:: involve events that repeat in time and space in an orderly manner.  Ex: TidesEx: Tides
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman ExtrapolationExtrapolation • Making aMaking a prediction about aprediction about a future event basedfuture event based on the graphedon the graphed data.data. • The "trend" of theThe "trend" of the data is extendeddata is extended past the last pointpast the last point given and angiven and an estimate made ofestimate made of the value.the value.
    • 2.2. BarBar Shows countsShows counts.. 3. Pie Shows percent of a whole.
    • Created by: L.ZimmermanCreated by: L.Zimmerman Graph Checklist What Makes for a Good Graph? For a Good Graph, You Should Answer "Yes" to Every Question Have you selected the appropriate graph type for the data you are displaying? Yes / No Does your graph have a title? Yes / No Have you placed the independent variable on the x- axis and the dependent variable on the y-axis? Yes / No Have you labeled the axes correctly and specified the units of measurement? Yes / No Does your graph have the proper scale (the appropriate high and low values on the axes)? Yes / No Is your data plotted correctly and clearly? Yes / No