Thinking and Language
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Thinking and Language Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Thinking & Language Chapter 10
  • 2. Thinking
  • 3. Thinking
    • Cognition
      • mental activity associated with processing, understanding, and communicating information
    • Cognitive Psychology
      • the study of these mental activities
        • concept formation
        • problem solving
        • decision making
        • judgement formation
      • study of both logical and illogical thinking
  • 4. Thinking
    • Concept
      • mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people
        • address
          • country, city, street, house
          • zip codes
    • Prototype
      • the best example of a category
        • matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin.)
  • 5. Thinking
    • Algorithm
      • methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
      • contrasts with the usually speedier but also more error-prone use of heuristics
  • 6. Thinking
    • Heuristic
      • rule-of-thumb strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently
      • usually speedier than algorithms
      • more error-prone than algorithms
      • sometimes we’re unaware of using heuristics
  • 7. Thinking
    • Unscramble
    • S P L O Y O C H Y G
    • Algorithm
      • all 907,208 combinations
    • Heuristic
      • throw out all YY combinations
      • other heuristics?
  • 8. Thinking
    • Insight
      • sudden and often novel realization of the solution
      • to a problem
      • contrasts with strategy-based solutions
    • Confirmation Bias
      • tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions
    • Fixation
      • inability to see a problem from a new perspective
      • impediment to problem solving
  • 9. Thinking- Insight
    • Wolfgang Kohler’s experiment on insight by a chimpanzee
  • 10. Thinking
    • Mental Set
      • tendency to approach a problem in a particular way
      • especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem
  • 11. Thinking
    • Functional Fixedness
      • tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
      • impediment to problem solving
  • 12. Heuristics
    • Representativeness Heuristic
      • rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes
      • may lead one to ignore other relevant information
  • 13. Heuristics
    • Availability Heuristic
      • estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
      • if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
      • Example: airplane crash
  • 14. Thinking
    • Overconfidence
      • tendency to be more confident than correct
      • tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgements
  • 15. Thinking
    • Framing
      • the way an issue is posed
      • how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
      • Example: What is the best way to market ground beef- As 25% fat or 75% lean?
  • 16. Thinking
    • Belief Bias
      • the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning
      • sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
    • Belief Perseverance
      • clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
  • 17. Artificial Intelligence
    • Artificial Intelligence
      • designing and programming computer systems
        • to do intelligent things
        • to simulate human thought processes
          • intuitive reasoning
          • learning
          • understanding language
  • 18. Artificial Intelligence
    • Artificial Intelligence
      • includes practical applications
        • chess playing
        • industrial robots
        • expert systems
      • efforts to model human thinking inspired by our current understanding of how the brain works
  • 19. Artificial Intelligence
    • Computer Neural Networks
      • computer circuits that mimic the brain’s interconnected neural cells
      • performing tasks
        • learning to recognize visual patterns
        • learning to recognize smells
  • 20. Language
  • 21. Language
    • Language
      • our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaning
    • Phoneme
      • in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
  • 22. Language
    • Morpheme
      • in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning
      • may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
    • Grammar
      • a system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others
  • 23. Language
    • Semantics
      • the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language
      • also, the study of meaning
    • Syntax
      • the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
  • 24. Language We are all born to recognize speech sounds from all the world’s languages 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage able to discriminate Hindi t’s Hindi- speaking adults 6-8 months 8-10 months 10-12 months English- speaking adults Infants from English-speaking homes
  • 25. Understanding/Producing Language
    • Bottom-up processing
      • Pure uninterrupted data sent from peripheral nervous system
    • Top-down processing
      • Brain making meaning of information; interprets data factoring in experience and expectations
    • Broca’s Area
      • In charge of producing /speaking language
      • B – front of alphabet (frontal lobe)
    • Wernicke’s area
      • In charge of comprehending language spoken to us
      • W- rear of alphabet (rear temporal lobe)
  • 26. Language Development
    • Prelinguistic Vocalization
      • Crying, cooing, babbling
    • overextension
      • Applying one word to other things that seem similar, but for which the child has not developed a vocabulary
    • overregularization
      • Learning set of rules, but then wrongly applying them beyond what they are meant for
    • holophrase
      • Single words used by young children to express complex meaning
  • 27. Language
    • Babbling Stage
      • beginning at 3 to 4 months
      • the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
    • One-Word Stage
      • from about age 1 to 2
      • the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words
  • 28. Language
    • Two-Word Stage
      • beginning about age 2
      • the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
    • Telegraphic Speech
      • early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram – “go car” – using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words
  • 29. Language Summary of Language Development Month (approximate) Stage 4 10 12 24 24+ Babbles many speech sounds. Babbling reveals households language. One-word stage. Two-world, telegraphic speech. Language develops rapidly into Complete sentences.
  • 30. Theories of Language Development
    • Social Cognitive Perspective (Behavioral)
    • Nativist Views of Language Development
      • 1. Dr. Noam CHOMSKY (MIT professor) Pre-Linguistic Theory
        • Language Acquisition Device
      • 2. Dr. Lenneberg
        • Sensitive Periods
      • 3. Dr. Benjamin WHORF - Linguistic-Relativity Hypothesis
  • 31. Bilingualism
    • Majority of people around the world speak at least 2 languages
  • 32. Language Genes Environment spoken language heard Brain Mechanisms for understanding and producing language Behavior Mastery of native language provides input to design