Sexual Motivation


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Myers chp 12/13

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Sexual Motivation

  1. 1. Sexual Motivation
  2. 2. Sexual Motivation <ul><li>Sex is a physiologically based motive, like hunger, but it is more affected by learning and values </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sexual Motivation <ul><li>Sexual Response Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>excitement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plateau </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>orgasm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Refractory Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Sexual Motivation <ul><li>Sex Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogen: a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tends to organize females in the direction toward feminine mating patterns (aka “organizing effect”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tends to organize males in the direction toward masculine mating patterns (aka “organizing effect”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activating effects - the arousal producing effects of sex hormones </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Sexual Motivation <ul><li>Estrus - periodic excitement state of female mammals, when they can conceive and are receptive to the sexual advances of males. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sexual Disorders
  7. 7. Sexual Disorders <ul><li>Problems that consistently impair sexual arousal or functioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>premature ejaculation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ejaculation before they or their partners wish </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>impotence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inability to have or maintain erection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>orgasmic disorder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>infrequent or absent orgasms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Sexual Motivation <ul><li>Same drives, different attitudes </li></ul>Iceland Germany Great Canada Mexico United India Taiwan Singapore Britan States Country 100% 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percent answering wrong “ Do you think it is, or is not, wrong for a couple to have a baby if they are not married?”
  9. 9. Sexual Motivation <ul><li>Births to unwed parents </li></ul>United States Canada Japan Britain 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year 40% 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Percentage of births to unwed mothers
  10. 10. Sexual Motivation <ul><li>Sexual Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own gender (homosexual orientation) or the other gender (heterosexual orientation) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Sexual orientation is NOT to be confused wih sexual activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. In some environments male-to-male sexual activity may reflect limited partners or an absence of females (prisons…ancient Greece[Sparta]) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Changing attitudes </li></ul>Source: National Opinion Research Center (University of Chicago) General Social Survey Extramarital sex is “always wrong” Homosexual sex is “always wrong” 1987 1998 Year 100% 80 60 40 20 0
  13. 13. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Psychodynamic View: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tied to faulty identification with same gender parent and lack of resolution of the Oedipus or Electra Complex. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Learning Theory View: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early reinforcement of same sex sexual behavior… early pleasure associated with same gender sexuality… this reinforcement increases the likelihood that the behavior (response) will occur again. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Biological View: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic and hormonal factors… there is evidence to support family patterns in sexual orientation… Science magazine published a report that proposes that the chromosome is on the X passed down from mother to son, for example. High concordance rate among identical twins that both will be gay even when raised apart. Prenatal levels of sex hormones can “masculinize” or “Feminize” the brains of laboratory rats. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>In short, determinants of sexual orientation and motivation are complex and still somewhat mysterious </li></ul><ul><li>The best research suggests that they involve multiple factors: genetics, prenatal hormone levels, and postnatal socialization </li></ul>
  17. 17. Stimulus Motives (not necessarily sexual) <ul><li>Motivation to increase the simulation impinging on an organism. </li></ul><ul><li>We want more of it; what will we do go keep the stimulation going? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sensory Deprivation <ul><li>Research method of systematically decreasing the amount of stimulation impinging on an organism (to see if the organism will be motivated to try to get the stimulation to begin again) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Sensation Seekers” those who seek to raise their bodily arousal levels to more stimulating levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ novel stimuli” an unusual source of arousal or excitement; also a hypothesized primary drive to seek out new and different stimulation </li></ul></ul>