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Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics
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Research Methods & Statistics

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Chapter 1 Myers …

Chapter 1 Myers
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  • Examines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence
  • Hindsight Bias tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon Overconfidence we tend to think we know more than we do
  • Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations Hypothesis a testable prediction often implied by a theory
  • Operational Definition a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables Example- intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
  • Replication repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other subjects and circumstances usually with different subjects in different situations Case Study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
  • Survey technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them False Consensus Effect tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
  • Population all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study Random Sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
  • Transcript

    • 1. Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Research & Statistics Chapter 1
    • 2. <ul><li>Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>discerns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evaluates </li></ul></ul></ul>Assumptions Hidden Values evidence
    • 3. Limits of Intuition and Common Sense <ul><li>Hindsight Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Overconfidence </li></ul>
    • 4. Research Strategies <ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul>
    • 5. The Scientific Method generate or refine research and observations lead to hypothesis theories
    • 6. <ul><li>Operational Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example- </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IQ TESTS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 7. <ul><li>Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study </li></ul>
    • 8. <ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><li>False Consensus Effect </li></ul>
    • 9. <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Random Sample </li></ul>
    • 10. Research Strategies <ul><li>If marbles of two colors are mixed well in the large jar, the fastest way to know their ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller one and count them </li></ul>
    • 11. <ul><li>Naturalistic Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation </li></ul></ul>
    • 12. <ul><li>Correlation Coefficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus how well either factor predicts the other </li></ul></ul>Correlation coefficient Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) r = +.37
    • 13. <ul><li>Scatterplot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>little scatter indicates high correlation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also called a scattergram or scatter diagram </li></ul></ul>
    • 14. scatterplots Perfect positive correlation (+1.00) No relationship (0.00) Perfect negative correlation (-1.00)
    • 15. <ul><li>Scatterplot of Height and Temperament </li></ul>55 60 65 70 75 80 85 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 Temperament scores Height in inches
    • 16. Research Strategies Height and Temperament of 20 Men 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 80 63 61 79 74 69 62 75 77 60 64 76 71 66 73 70 63 71 68 70 75 66 60 90 60 42 42 60 81 39 48 69 72 57 63 75 30 57 84 39 Subject Height in Inches Temperament Subject Height in Inches Temperament
    • 17. Research Strategies (1) Low self-esteem Depression (2) Depression Low self-esteem Low self-esteem Depression (3) Distressing events or biological predisposition could cause could cause could cause or or and
    • 18. Illusory Correlation <ul><li>Illusory Correlation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the perception of a relationship where none exists </li></ul></ul>Conceive Do not conceive Adopt Do not adopt disconfirming evidence confirming evidence disconfirming evidence confirming evidence
    • 19. Random Sequences <ul><li>Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960. </li></ul>
    • 20. <ul><ul><li>the investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable) while controlling other relevant factors by random assignment of subjects </li></ul></ul>Experiment
    • 21. Experiment cont. <ul><li>by random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors </li></ul>
    • 22. <ul><li>Double-blind Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Placebo </li></ul>
    • 23. <ul><li>Experimental Condition </li></ul><ul><li>Control Condition </li></ul>
    • 24. <ul><li>Random Assignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>**minimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups </li></ul></ul>
    • 25. <ul><li>Independent Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>**the variable whose effect is being studied </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… in psychology it is usually a behavior or mental process </li></ul></ul>
    • 26. Statistical Reasoning <ul><li>Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Mean </li></ul><ul><li>Median </li></ul>
    • 27. Statistical Reasoning <ul><li>A Skewed Distribution </li></ul>15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 90 475 710 70 Mode Median Mean One Family Income per family in thousands of dollars
    • 28. Statistical Reasoning <ul><li>Range </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Deviation </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Significance </li></ul>
    • 29.  
    • 30. Negative Skew
    • 31. Positive Skew
    • 32.  
    • 33.  
    • 34.  
    • 35. polygon
    • 36. HISTOGRAM

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