Chapter 6   Perception
Perception <ul><li>Selective Attention </li></ul><ul><li>focus of conscious  awareness on a  particular stimulus </li></ul>
Perceptual Organization- Gestalt <ul><li>Visual Capture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency for vision to dominate the other se...
Perceptual Organization- Gestalt <ul><li>Gestalt - an organized whole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to integrate pieces o...
Perceptual Organization <ul><li>Figure and Ground   </li></ul><ul><li>organization of the visual field into objects (figur...
Perceptual Organization- Grouping Principles
Perceptual Organization- Grouping Principles <ul><li>Gestalt grouping principles are at work here. </li></ul>
Perceptual Organization- Depth Perception <ul><li>Depth Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to see objects in three d...
Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception <ul><li>Visual Cliff </li></ul>
Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception <ul><li>Monocular Cues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relative size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception Relative Size
Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception
Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception <ul><li>Monocular Cues  (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relative height </li></ul><...
Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception Perspective Techniques
Perceptual Constancy <ul><ul><li>perceiving objects as unchanging despite changes in retinal image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Perceptual Organization-Muller-Lyer Illusion
Perceptual Organization- Size-Distance Relationship
Perceptual Organization-Brightness Contrast
Sensory Restriction- Blakemore & Cooper, 1970 <ul><li>Kittens raised without exposure to horizontal lines later had diffic...
Perceptual Interpretation <ul><li>Perceptual Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(vision) ability to adjust to an artificiall...
Perceptual Set- Schemas <ul><li>What you see in the  center is influenced    by perceptual set </li></ul>
Perceptual Set- Schemas Flying Saucers or Clouds?
Perceptual Set-  Human Factors
Perception without Sensation? <ul><li>Extrasensory Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>controversial claim that perception ca...
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Perception Chp6

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Myers Chp. 6
Psychology

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Perception Chp6

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Perception
  2. 2. Perception <ul><li>Selective Attention </li></ul><ul><li>focus of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus </li></ul>
  3. 3. Perceptual Organization- Gestalt <ul><li>Visual Capture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency for vision to dominate the other senses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grouping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Perceptual Organization- Gestalt <ul><li>Gestalt - an organized whole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grouping Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proximity - group nearby figures together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>similarity - group figures that are similar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>continuity - perceive continuous patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>closure - fill in gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connectedness - spots, lines and areas are seen as unit when connected </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Perceptual Organization <ul><li>Figure and Ground </li></ul><ul><li>organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Perceptual Organization- Grouping Principles
  7. 7. Perceptual Organization- Grouping Principles <ul><li>Gestalt grouping principles are at work here. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Perceptual Organization- Depth Perception <ul><li>Depth Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to see objects in three dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows us to judge distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binocular cues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>retinal disparity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>images from the two eyes differ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>closer the object, the larger the disparity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>convergence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>neuromuscular cue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>two eyes move inward for near objects </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception <ul><li>Visual Cliff </li></ul>
  10. 10. Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception <ul><li>Monocular Cues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relative size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smaller image is more distant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>closer object blocks distant object </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relative clarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hazy object seen as more distant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>texture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coarse --> close fine --> distant </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception Relative Size
  12. 12. Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception
  13. 13. Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception <ul><li>Monocular Cues (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relative height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>higher objects seen as more distant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relative motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>closer objects seem to move faster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linear perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parallel lines converge with distance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relative brightness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>closer objects appear brighter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception Perspective Techniques
  15. 15. Perceptual Constancy <ul><ul><li>perceiving objects as unchanging despite changes in retinal image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>color </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>shape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>size </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Perceptual Organization-Muller-Lyer Illusion
  17. 17. Perceptual Organization- Size-Distance Relationship
  18. 18. Perceptual Organization-Brightness Contrast
  19. 19. Sensory Restriction- Blakemore & Cooper, 1970 <ul><li>Kittens raised without exposure to horizontal lines later had difficulty perceiving horizontal bars. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Perceptual Interpretation <ul><li>Perceptual Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(vision) ability to adjust to an artificially displaced visual field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prism glasses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Perceptual Set- Schemas <ul><li>What you see in the center is influenced by perceptual set </li></ul>
  22. 22. Perceptual Set- Schemas Flying Saucers or Clouds?
  23. 23. Perceptual Set- Human Factors
  24. 24. Perception without Sensation? <ul><li>Extrasensory Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>telepathy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clairvoyance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>precognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Parapsychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the study of paranormal phenomena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ESP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>psychokinesis </li></ul></ul></ul>

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