Intro Psych


Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • 2. Everyday Situations
  • John B. Watson
  • Intro Psych

    1. 1. PSYCHOLOGY How psychology is used every day to get desired behaviors
    2. 2. <ul><li>Getting a child to eat </li></ul><ul><li>Getting your little sister to do work for you </li></ul><ul><li>“ outpsych” your opponent (poker) </li></ul><ul><li>Getting students to behave </li></ul><ul><li>*This is how ordinary people use psychology </li></ul>
    3. 3. Psychology <ul><li>What does it mean? </li></ul>Inner sensations- mental processes Observable behavior
    4. 4. Psychology: A Definition <ul><li>The science of behavior and mental processes. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>The Need for Psychological Science </li></ul>
    6. 6. 98% Certainty w/o going under <ul><li>The area of the US in square miles? </li></ul><ul><li>American battle deaths in Spanish-American War? </li></ul><ul><li>GM advertising budget in 1999? </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of officers in the U.S. army that were female in 2000? </li></ul><ul><li>The population of Afghanistan in 2001? </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Area of US: </li></ul><ul><li>Afghan population: </li></ul><ul><li>Battle deaths: </li></ul><ul><li>GM advertising: </li></ul><ul><li>Female officers: </li></ul><ul><li>3.6 million sq. miles </li></ul><ul><li>26.8 million </li></ul><ul><li>385 </li></ul><ul><li>$2.9 billion </li></ul><ul><li>9.953 </li></ul>
    8. 8. Why The Need for a Psychological Science? <ul><li>Limits of intuition and common sense </li></ul><ul><li>1. Hindsight bias </li></ul><ul><li>2. Overconfidence </li></ul><ul><li>We will come back to these later. </li></ul>
    9. 9. What psychologists study <ul><li>Common everyday behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating, bathing, sleeping, speech patterns, ability to remember, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Everyday Situations </li></ul><ul><li>- interview (role of appearance, gender, age, distance) </li></ul><ul><li>-parties (life of party vs. wallflower) </li></ul>
    10. 10. What psychologists study cont. <ul><li>Abnormal behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental disorders (examples?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime, drugs, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologists first try to diagnose the problem by determining the cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fired, marital problems, history, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. 4 GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY <ul><li>DESCRIBE </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLAIN </li></ul><ul><li>PREDICT </li></ul><ul><li>INFLUENCE </li></ul><ul><li>* FOCUS IS ALWAYS ON BEHAVIOR * </li></ul>
    12. 12. Psychology’s Big Issues Stability v. Change Continuity v. Discontinuity Nature v. Nurture
    13. 13. Stability v. Change <ul><li>As the years pass, do we change or remain the same? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we become adults or are we always just big kids? </li></ul><ul><li>Personality traits, physical appearance, sense of humor, tastes, etc… </li></ul>
    14. 14. Continuity v. Discontinuity <ul><li>Does growth occur gradually or in stages? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One continuous process or… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>marked by significant transitions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage Theorists </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Psychology and other sciences <ul><li>Physics: instruments for measuring bodily changes </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry: how the body’s chemistry relates to mood, performance, and personality disturbance (adrenalin, hormones) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biology: information about sense organs, nervous system, and glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain- basis of human behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of heredity </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Focus is always on?????? <ul><li>BEHAVIOR </li></ul>
    17. 17. Other sciences cont. <ul><li>Anthropology: the study of the culture, or way of life of people in all parts of the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How people learn and are affected by their surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender roles determined by culture not biology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sociology: closely related to many areas of psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focus mainly on groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of behavior of human groups </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Nature v. Nurture <ul><li>Biology versus Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Am I the way I am because I was born that way or because of my surroundings? </li></ul>Can I ever be like these people, or does nature give me limitations?
    19. 19. Psychology’s Perspectives The Big Seven
    20. 20. Neuroscience Perspective <ul><li>Focus on how the physical body and brain creates our emotions, memories and sensory experiences. </li></ul>If you could not remember the names of your parents and went to a psychologist who adheres to the neuroscience perspective, what might they say?
    21. 21. Evolutionary Perspective <ul><li>Focuses on Darwinism. </li></ul><ul><li>We behave the way we do because we inherited those behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, those behaviors must have helped ensure our ancestors survival. </li></ul><ul><li>Mother nature practicing selective breeding </li></ul>How could this behavior ensured Homer’s ancestors survival?
    22. 22. Psychodynamic Perspective <ul><li>Fathered by Sigmund Freud. </li></ul><ul><li>Our behavior comes from unconscious drives. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually stemming from our childhood. </li></ul>What might a psychoanalyst say is the reason someone always needs to be chewing gum?
    23. 23. Behavioral Perspective <ul><li>Focuses on our OBSERVABLE behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Only cares about the behaviors that impair our living, and attempts to change them. </li></ul>If you bit your fingernails when you were nervous, a behaviorist would not focus on calming you down, but rather focus on how to stop you from biting your nails.
    24. 24. BEHAVIORISTS <ul><li>How people learn </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards and punishment </li></ul>John B. Watson
    25. 25. Cognitive Perspective <ul><li>Focuses on how we think (or encode information) </li></ul><ul><li>How do we see the world? </li></ul><ul><li>How did we learn to act to sad or happy events? </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Therapist attempt to change the way you think. </li></ul>Meet girl Get Rejected by girl Did you learn to be depressed Or get back on the horse
    26. 26. Social-Cultural Perspective <ul><li>Focus on how your culture effects your behavior. </li></ul>Even in the same high school, behaviors can change in accordance to the various subcultures.
    27. 27. Humanistic Perspective <ul><li>Focuses on positive growth </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to seek self-actualization </li></ul><ul><li>Therapists use active listening and unconditional positive regard. </li></ul>Mr. Rogers would have made a great Humanistic Therapist!!!
    28. 28. Approaches cont. <ul><li>HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people try to achieve their maximum potential (self actualization) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote health and self-growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ECLECTIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of approaches </li></ul></ul>