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Emotion13

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Myers Chp13

Myers Chp13


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  • 1. The Biology of Emotion Chapter 13
  • 2.
    • Emotion Defined as states of feelings that have the following components
      • Cognitive (what we believe)
      • Physiological ( ANS arousal)
      • Behavioral (avoidance & attack tendencies, etc.)
  • 3. Brain Mechanisms
    • Limbic System
    • Hemispheres
  • 4. Limbic System
    • The amygdala appears to have an important role in emotions
    • Amygdala removal in animals produces lack of fear and rage responses
  • 5. Hemispheres
    • The right hemisphere is active during many displays of emotion
    • Damage to the right hemisphere often leaves individuals emotionally indifferent and unable to read emotions
  • 6. Autonomic Nervous System
  • 7. Autonomic Nervous System
    • The sympathetic nervous system releases acetylcholine that prepares the body for vigorous activity
    • Examples include dilated pupils, increased respiration, and accelerated heartbeat
  • 8. Theories of Emotion
  • 9. Plutchik’s Theory of Emotion
    • 8 primary emotions; secondary emotions(like love) are derived from combinations of primary emotions
      • Joy
      • Anticipation
      • Anger
      • Disgust
      • Sadness
      • Surprise
      • Fear
      • Acceptance
  • 10. James-Lange
    • Emotional stimulus causes physiological reaction
    • Physiological reaction produces emotion
      • "We are afraid because we run."
      • "We feel sorry because we cry."
  • 11. Cannon-Bard
    • Thalamus relays emotional stimuli to cortex and internal organs simultaneously
    • Emotional awareness and physiological changes occur at the same time
  • 12. Cognition & Emotion Theory
  • 13. Schacter & Singer
    • How we think about events affects the experience of the emotion
    • Physiological arousal is an undifferentiated state that we can be given any of a number of labels
    • The labels we use to describe our emotions depend on our immediate environment and what is on our mind at that particular moment
  • 14. Expressing Emotion
  • 15. Facial Expressions Theory
  • 16. Ekman
    • Universal occurrence of facial expressions of emotions
    • Facial expressions amplify and regulate the emotion
  • 17. Facial Feedback Hypothesis
    • Stereotypical facial expressions can contribute to stereotypical emotions
    • (put on a happy face can really work… if you want to be happy!)
  • 18. Culture & Emotional Expression
  • 19. Expression
    • The meaning of gestures varies with the emotion
    • Display rules
      • Cultural norms that tell us which emotions we display
      • Learned during childhood and act to exaggerate, minimize, or mask emotional expressions
    • Expression of emotions depend on the situation and who is present
  • 20. Experiencing Emotion
  • 21. 7 Recognized Emotions
    • Anger
    • Disgust
    • Fear
    • Happiness
    • Sadness
    • Surprise
    • Contempt
    • ( Matsumoto, 1994)
  • 22. Anger
  • 23. Causes of Anger
    • Annoyances
    • Foul odors
    • Extreme temperatures
    • Aches and pains
  • 24. Catharsis Hypothesis
    • reduction of anger by release through aggressive actions
      • Advantage: can be temporarily calming if it does not leave us feeling guilty or anxious
      • Disadvantage: expressing anger leads to more anger
  • 25.
    • Appropriate Ways to Channel Anger
    • Exercising
    • Playing music
    • Talking to a friend
  • 26. Catharsis
    • Evidence supports the opposite of catharsis -
      • an increase in aggression
  • 27. Disgust
  • 28. Fear
  • 29. Fear
    • Adaptive response preparing our bodies to flee danger
    • Acquired through classical conditioning (i.e., those reflecting our past traumas)
    • Acquired through observational learning (i.e., those reflecting fears of parents and friends)
    • Biological predispositions (i.e., snakes, cliffs, spiders, not cars and electricity)
  • 30. Happiness
  • 31. Happiness
    • The adaptation-level principle:
      • we adapt to levels of a stimulus and need something even better to make us feel happy
    • The relative-deprivation principle:
      • the sense that we are worse off than others with whom we compare ourselves
  • 32. Predictors of Happiness
    • High self-esteem
    • Outgoing
    • Close relationships
    • Work that engages
    • Religious faith
    • Sleeping well
    • Exercise
  • 33. Sadness
  • 34. Surprise
  • 35. Contempt