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Myers Chp13

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  1. 1. The Biology of Emotion Chapter 13
  2. 2. <ul><li>Emotion Defined as states of feelings that have the following components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive (what we believe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological ( ANS arousal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral (avoidance & attack tendencies, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Brain Mechanisms <ul><li>Limbic System </li></ul><ul><li>Hemispheres </li></ul>
  4. 4. Limbic System <ul><li>The amygdala appears to have an important role in emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala removal in animals produces lack of fear and rage responses </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hemispheres <ul><li>The right hemisphere is active during many displays of emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to the right hemisphere often leaves individuals emotionally indifferent and unable to read emotions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Autonomic Nervous System
  7. 7. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>The sympathetic nervous system releases acetylcholine that prepares the body for vigorous activity </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include dilated pupils, increased respiration, and accelerated heartbeat </li></ul>
  8. 8. Theories of Emotion
  9. 9. Plutchik’s Theory of Emotion <ul><li>8 primary emotions; secondary emotions(like love) are derived from combinations of primary emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disgust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sadness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. James-Lange <ul><li>Emotional stimulus causes physiological reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological reaction produces emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;We are afraid because we run.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;We feel sorry because we cry.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Cannon-Bard <ul><li>Thalamus relays emotional stimuli to cortex and internal organs simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional awareness and physiological changes occur at the same time </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cognition & Emotion Theory
  13. 13. Schacter & Singer <ul><li>How we think about events affects the experience of the emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological arousal is an undifferentiated state that we can be given any of a number of labels </li></ul><ul><li>The labels we use to describe our emotions depend on our immediate environment and what is on our mind at that particular moment </li></ul>
  14. 14. Expressing Emotion
  15. 15. Facial Expressions Theory
  16. 16. Ekman <ul><li>Universal occurrence of facial expressions of emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expressions amplify and regulate the emotion </li></ul>
  17. 17. Facial Feedback Hypothesis <ul><li>Stereotypical facial expressions can contribute to stereotypical emotions </li></ul><ul><li>(put on a happy face can really work… if you want to be happy!) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Culture & Emotional Expression
  19. 19. Expression <ul><li>The meaning of gestures varies with the emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Display rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural norms that tell us which emotions we display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned during childhood and act to exaggerate, minimize, or mask emotional expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expression of emotions depend on the situation and who is present </li></ul>
  20. 20. Experiencing Emotion
  21. 21. 7 Recognized Emotions <ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Disgust </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul><ul><li>Contempt </li></ul><ul><li>( Matsumoto, 1994) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Anger
  23. 23. Causes of Anger <ul><li>Annoyances </li></ul><ul><li>Foul odors </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Aches and pains </li></ul>
  24. 24. Catharsis Hypothesis <ul><li>reduction of anger by release through aggressive actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage: can be temporarily calming if it does not leave us feeling guilty or anxious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: expressing anger leads to more anger </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Appropriate Ways to Channel Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Exercising </li></ul><ul><li>Playing music </li></ul><ul><li>Talking to a friend </li></ul>
  26. 26. Catharsis <ul><li>Evidence supports the opposite of catharsis - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an increase in aggression </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Disgust
  28. 28. Fear
  29. 29. Fear <ul><li>Adaptive response preparing our bodies to flee danger </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired through classical conditioning (i.e., those reflecting our past traumas) </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired through observational learning (i.e., those reflecting fears of parents and friends) </li></ul><ul><li>Biological predispositions (i.e., snakes, cliffs, spiders, not cars and electricity) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Happiness
  31. 31. Happiness <ul><li>The adaptation-level principle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>we adapt to levels of a stimulus and need something even better to make us feel happy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The relative-deprivation principle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the sense that we are worse off than others with whom we compare ourselves </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Predictors of Happiness <ul><li>High self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Outgoing </li></ul><ul><li>Close relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Work that engages </li></ul><ul><li>Religious faith </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping well </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul>
  33. 33. Sadness
  34. 34. Surprise
  35. 35. Contempt