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Chapter 1 Reg. psych
 

Chapter 1 Reg. psych

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    Chapter 1 Reg. psych Chapter 1 Reg. psych Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter One: Intro/History
      • Why Study Psychology?
      • Overview of Goals of Psychology
      • A Brief History of Psychology
      • Psychology as a Profession
    • I. Why Study Psychology?
      • Insight
      • Practical Information
    • Psychology
      • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes . Such study can involve both animal and human behavior. When applied to humans, psychology covers everything that people think , feel , and do .
    • The Goals of Psychology
      • Description
      • Explanation
      • Prediction
      • Control
        • Basic Science
        • Applied Science
    • II. Goals Of Psychology
      • Description
      • Explanation
      • Prediction
      • Control
    • Description
      • Gather information
      • State the facts
      • (What it is)
    • Explanation
      • Formulate hypotheses
      • Develop theories
      • (Why it is)
    • Hypothesis
      • An educated guess about the relationship between two variables
    • Theory
      • An integrated set of principles that organizes, explains, and predicts observations.
      Exploring Psychology , Myers, 1990
    • Prediction
      • Study theories and descriptive accounts of past behaviors
      • Predict subsequent behaviors
      • (What it will be)
    • Control
      • Influence or manipulate behavior
        • Basic science
        • Applied science
    • Basic Science
      • The pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena for its own sake (to gain knowledge simply for the sake of knowledge)
      • (acquire knowledge)
    • Applied Science
      • Discovering ways to use scientific findings to accomplish practical goals
      • (use knowledge)
    • Hypothesis-building Studies done on Orphanage Children
      • Dennis, W. “Causes of Retardation Among Institutional Children: Iran.” Journal of Genetic Psychology , 96 (1960):47-58 -
        • Applied or Basic?
      • White, B.L. “Child Development Research: An Edifice Without a Foundation.” Merrill- Palmer Quarterly of Behavior and Development , 15 (1969): 49-79
        • Applied or Basic?
      • Shaffer (1993)
        • Applied or Basic?
    • The Scientific Method
      • State the problem
      • Develop a hypothesis
      • Conduct research
      • Organize and interpret data
      • Draw conclusions
      • Communicate the results
      Psychology: A Concise Introduction , Pettijohn, 1992
    • III. A Brief History of Psychology
      • Psychology as a Discipline
    • A. Psychology as a Discipline - Early History
      • Stone Age
      • BC: The Ancient Greeks
      • The Middle Ages
      • 16th century: Copernicus and Galileo
      • 17th century: Descartes and the pseudo-sciences
    • 1. The Stone Age
      • Trephining
      • Evil spirits
      • Archeology
    • Trephining
    • Trephining Instruments
    • 2. The Ancient Greeks
      • The will of the gods
      • Aristotle
      • Hippocrates
      • Galen
    • Aristotle
      • Greek philosopher
      • People are rational, thinking organisms
    • Hippocrates
      • The Father of Modern Medicine
      • Mental and emotional problems have natural causes
      • Some disorders are caused by head injury
      • Some mental and physical characteristics are inherited
    • Ancient Greeks
      • Observation as a means of knowing the world
    • The Natural World: Four Basic Elements
      • Fire
      • Air
      • Earth
      • Water
    • The Natural World: Four Basic Elements
      • Fire Warm
      • Air Cool
      • Earth Dry
      • Water Moist
    • The Four Humors
      • Blood (warm and moist)
      • Black bile (cold and dry)
      • Yellow bile (warm and dry)
      • Phlegm (cold and moist)
    • Galen
      • Greek physician
      • Personality types
    • Galen: Personality Types
      • An excess of…
        • blood = sanguine personality (cheerful, warm-hearted)
        • black bile = melancholic personality (sad)
        • yellow bile = choleric personality (hot-tempered)
        • phlegm = phlegmatic personality (apathetic)
    • 3. The Middle Ages
      • Witchcraft
      • Demon possession
    • 4. The 16th Century
      • Nicolaus Copernicus
      • Galileo Galilei
    • Nicolaus Copernicus
      • Polish astronomer
      • The sun is the center of the universe
      • Observations on the movements of planets in the solar system
    • Galileo Galilei
      • Italian astronomer and physicist
      • Telescope confirms star positions and movements
    • The 16th Century
      • Introduced the concept of observation as an element of scientific study (Copernicus)
      • Introduced the concept of experimentation as an element of scientific study (Galileo)
    • 5. The 17th Century
      • Dualism
      • Rene Descartes
      • Pseudo-sciences
    • Dualism
      • Philosophy which teaches that the mind and body are separate and distinct from each other.
    • Rene Descartes
      • French philosopher
      • Extended dualism
      • The mind and body work together to create a person’s experiences
    • The Pseudo-sciences
      • Phrenology
      • Physiognomy
      • Typology
    • Phrenology
      • The study of personality based on the ‘bumps’ of the skull
    • Modern Science
      • A combination of…
        • Philosophy
        • Logic
        • Math
        • Observation
    • Psychology as a Discipline - Basic Theories
      • Structuralism
      • Functionalism
    • Structuralism
      • Thoughts have structure, just as a molecule does
    • Structuralism
      • Wilhelm Wundt
      • German physiologist
      • Laboratory of Psychology,1879
      • University of Leipzig, Germany
    • Structuralism
      • The mind must be studied as scientifically as other ‘natural laws’
      • Wundt, Wilhelm, Principles of Physiological Psychology , 1878
    • Introspection
      • A detailed examination of one’s own thinking
      • A controlled situation with trained subjects reporting their thoughts so that the basic structure of thought processes can be mapped
    • Functionalism
      • The functions of the human mind -- thinking, feeling, learning, remembering -- exist to help man survive as a species
    • William James
      • founded the Functionalist branch of psychology
      • Established the first American psychology laboratory, at Harvard College
      • Principles of Psychology (1890)
    • A Brief History of Psychology
      • B. Psychology as the Study of...
        • Unconscious Processes
        • Individual Differences
        • Observable Behavior
        • Cognitive Processes
    • 1.) Unconscious Processes
      • Psychoanalysis
      • Study of the unconscious mind
      • Sigmund Freud
    • Sigmund Freud
      • Viennese doctor
      • Unconscious, or subconscious, mind
      • Biological/sociological conflict
      • Free association (talking cure)
      • Dream analysis
      • Case studies
    • 2.) Individual Differences
      • Sir Francis Galton
    • Sir Francis Galton
      • English mathematician
      • Heredity/genius
      • Nature vs. Nurture
      • Secondary research
      • Personality/IQ tests
      • Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development (1883)
    • 3.) Observable Behavior
      • Behaviorism
      • Humanistic Psychology
    • Behaviorism
      • Ivan Pavlov
      • John B. Watson
      • B. F. Skinner
    • Ivan Pavlov
      • Russian physiologist
      • Nobel Prize (1904)
      • The mechanics of digestion
      • Classical conditioning
    • Classical Conditioning
      • UCS = unconditioned stimulus
      • UCR = unconditioned response
      • NS = neutral stimulus
      • CS = conditioned stimulus
      • CR = conditioned response
    • Pavlov’s Experiment
    • Classical Conditioning Paradigm
      • Before Conditioning :
        • UCS ----> UCR
        • NS ----> No response
      • During Conditioning :
        • UCS + CS ----> UCR
      • After Conditioning :
        • CS ----> CR
    • Classical Conditioning Paradigm
      • Before Conditioning :
        • UCS (meat) ----> UCR (salivation)
        • NS (tone) ----> No response
      • During Conditioning :
        • UCS (meat) + CS (Tone) ---->
        • UCR (salivation)
      • After Conditioning :
        • CS (tone) ----> CR (salivation)
    • Behaviorism
      • Behavior occurs as a result of learning
    • John B. Watson
      • Father of Behaviorism
      • Prior learning
      • Observable behavior
      • Little Albert Experiment
    • B. F. Skinner
      • Stimulus-Response (S-R) psychology
      • Walden II (1949)
      • Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971)
      • Reinforcement
      • Teaching machine
    • Humanistic Psychology
      • The third force
      • Backlash to behaviorism
      • Study of the individual as a whole person
      • Self-actualization
    • Carl Rogers
      • Believed behaviorism was de-humanizing
      • Human nature is naturally active, not reactive.
    • Abraham Maslow
      • Self-Actualization
      • Hierarchy of Needs
    • Humanism
      • Behaviorism is de-humanizing
      • Deprives man of free will
      • Human nature is active, not reactive
    • 4.) Cognitive Psychology
      • Study of cognitive processes
      • Internal knowledge
    • Jean Piaget
      • Theory of Psycho-Social Development
    • Cognitive Psychology
      • Behavior is affected by…
        • Perception
        • Interpretation
        • Thinking
        • Problem-solving
        • Assessment of knowledge
        • Use of language
    • IV. Psychology as a Profession
      • What is a Psychologist?
      • Specialty Fields in Psychology
    • A. Psychiatry vs.. Psychology
      • A psychiatrist’s training ...
        • medical doctor
        • specialty in psychiatric medicine
        • hospital or private practice
        • freely prescribe medicines
    • Psychiatry vs.. Psychology
      • A psychologist’s training …
        • observe and analyze patterns of behavior
        • develop theories of behavior
        • apply knowledge to influence behavior
    • B. Specialty Fields
      • Clinical psychology
      • Counseling psychology
      • Personality psychology
      • Social psychology
      • Developmental psychology
      • Educational psychology
      • Community psychology
      • Industrial/Organizational psychology
      • Experimental psychology