Chapter Seven: Altered States of Consciousness <ul><li>Sleep and Dreams </li></ul>
Sleep <ul><li>An altered state of consciousness, characterized by specific patterns of brain activity and inactivity </li>...
Consciousness <ul><li>A state of awareness </li></ul>
EEG <ul><li>Electroencephalograph </li></ul><ul><li>A device that records the electrical activity of the brain </li></ul>
Sleep and Dreams <ul><li>Sleep and Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Why Do We Sleep? </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Sleep </li...
Characteristics of Sleep <ul><li>Unresponsiveness to the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Limited physical mobility </li></ul>
Purpose of Sleep <ul><li>Restorative; recovery from exhaustion/stress </li></ul><ul><li>Primitive hibernation; conservatio...
Purpose of Sleep <ul><li>Adaptive behavior; evolution of night time safety strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Defragmentation of d...
Physical Characteristics of  Sleep <ul><li>Lowered body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Lowered pulse rate </li></ul><ul><li...
Stages of Sleep <ul><li>Early Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage II </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Early Stages of Sleep: Stage I <ul><li>Lightest level of sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Slow pulse/ muscles relaxed </li></ul><ul...
Early Stages of Sleep: Stage II <ul><li>Shifting waves </li></ul><ul><li>Eye rolling </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 30 minutes </...
Early Stages of Sleep: Stage III <ul><li>Large amplitude delta waves </li></ul><ul><li>One wave per second </li></ul><ul><...
Later Stages of Sleep: Stage IV <ul><li>Deepest level of sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Large delta waves </li></ul><ul><li>50% o...
Later Stages of Sleep:  REM Sleep <ul><li>Rapid Eye Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Irregul...
Later Stages of Sleep:  REM Sleep <ul><li>Slow waves (similar to waking waves) </li></ul><ul><li>15 minutes (early) to 45 ...
How Much Sleep? <ul><li>1/3 of your life is spent in sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Newborns: 16 hours (1/2 REM) </li></ul><ul><l...
How Much Sleep? <ul><li>25 % REM </li></ul><ul><li>75% NREM </li></ul>
Circadian Rhythm <ul><li>Internal biological clock </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates your sleep/wake cycle </li></ul><ul><li>24-...
Circadian Rhythm <ul><li>Need for sleep is dictated by the environment and the 24 hour day </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of sleep...
Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Apnea </li></ul><ul><li>Narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Nightmares/N...
Insomnia <ul><li>A prolonged and abnormal inability to sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Can be caused by stress, depression, anxiet...
Sleep Apnea <ul><li>Frequent interruption of breathing during sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include 10-15 minute snorin...
Sleep Apnea <ul><li>1 out of every 100 Americans have the disorder  </li></ul><ul><li>More common among older people </li>...
Narcolepsy <ul><li>Permanent sleepiness and fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual sleep/dream patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep...
Nightmares/Night Terrors <ul><li>Nightmares occur during the dream phases of REM sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Night terrors occ...
Sleepwalking/Sleep Talking <ul><li>Sleepwalkers are partially but not completely awake. </li></ul><ul><li>Disorder usually...
Sleepwalking/Sleep Talking <ul><li>Not a psychological disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to stress, fatigue, and sedative ...
Sleepwalking/Sleep Talking <ul><li>Occurs in both REM and NREM </li></ul><ul><li>Many people do it, but don’t remember it ...
Dreams <ul><li>The mental activity that takes place during sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams become longer and more complex a...
Dreams <ul><li>People generally remember the last dream (of many) they have during a sleep cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep d...
Dreams <ul><li>We remember interesting dreams more than dull ones </li></ul><ul><li>Most dreams involve everyday subjects ...
Dreams <ul><li>Negative dreams are nightmares </li></ul><ul><li>The emotional quality associated with nightmares probably ...
Dream Interpretation <ul><li>Ancient peoples interpreted dreams as long ago as 5000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Freud believed...
Dream Interpretation <ul><li>Inuit peoples believe dreams have hidden meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Dreamers enter a spiritual...
Dream Interpretation <ul><li>Kleitman: dreams may serve no purpose at all </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams may be the result of ra...
Dream Interpretation <ul><li>Dreams facilitate problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams clean out the memory closet </li><...
Chapter Seven: Altered States of Consciousness <ul><li>II. Hypnosis, Biofeedback, and Meditation </li></ul>
Hypnosis <ul><li>Yet another form of altered consciousness in which attention is very narrowly focused  and people become ...
Hypnosis <ul><li>Allows shifts in the perception of your consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Hypnosis induces a trance state, ...
Hypnosis <ul><li>Unlike sleep, people under hypnosis are much more open and receptive to internal and external stimuli  </...
Theories of Hypnosis <ul><li>Barber: Hypnosis is just the result of suggestibility </li></ul><ul><li>Hilgard: neodissociat...
Theories of Hypnosis <ul><li>Green: degree of suggestibility is critical to the success of hypnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Smit...
Uses of Hypnosis <ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy </li></ul>
Post-hypnotic Suggestion <ul><li>A suggestion made to a hypnotized subject to perform a particular behavior; or to repress...
Medical/Theraputic Uses <ul><li>Pain reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Reveal problems </li></ul><ul><li>Gain insight </li></ul>
Biofeedback <ul><li>A technique used to control ones internal physiological processes </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a biofeed...
Biofeedback <ul><li>Brain waves (EEG) </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Skin...
Meditation <ul><li>A heightened state of relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced for thousands of years </li></ul>
Three Major Approaches  to Meditation <ul><li>Transcendental meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness meditation </li></ul...
Transcendental Meditation <ul><li>Mantra </li></ul><ul><li>Sanskrit </li></ul><ul><li>15-20 minutes twice a day </li></ul>
Mindfulness Meditation <ul><li>Buddhist origin </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing and visualizing each body part, one at a time </...
Breath Meditation <ul><li>Focus on the process of breathing -- inhaling and exhaling </li></ul>
Benefits of Meditation <ul><li>Lowers blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers respirat...
Chapter Seven: Altered States of Consciousness <ul><li>III.Drugs and Consciousness </li></ul>
How Drugs Work <ul><li>Absorbed through the capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Carried to tissue throughout the body </li></ul>
Marijuana <ul><li>THC -- tetrahydrocannabinol </li></ul><ul><li>Cannabis sativa/ Indian hemp </li></ul><ul><li>Hashish </l...
Marijuana <ul><li>Enhanced sensory experience </li></ul><ul><li>Heightened emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological addicti...
Marijuana <ul><li>Enhanced sensory experience </li></ul><ul><li>Heightened emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological addicti...
Hallucinations <ul><li>Perception that have no direct external cause </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinations are sensory, involvi...
Causes of Hallucinations <ul><li>Hypnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Drug with...
Causes of Hallucinations <ul><li>Dream states </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>Heightened emotional s...
Similarity of experience <ul><li>Seigel (1977) </li></ul><ul><li>Native American peyote rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Simultan...
Hallucinogens <ul><li>Also called psychedelics </li></ul><ul><li>Produce a loss of contact with reality </li></ul>
LSD <ul><li>Lysergic acid diethylamide </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic substance </li></ul><ul><li>Usage is referred to as a ‘...
LSD <ul><li>Effects last anywhere from 6-14 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery method is usuage dissolution onto a paper str...
Effects of LSD <ul><li>Impaired thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Panic attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Flashbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Po...
Opiates <ul><li>Narcotics </li></ul><ul><li>Opium </li></ul><ul><li>Morphine </li></ul><ul><li>Heroin </li></ul>
Effects of Opiates <ul><li>Analgesia (pain reduction) </li></ul><ul><li>Euphoria (pleasurable state somewhere between waki...
Dangers of Opiates <ul><li>Physically addictive </li></ul><ul><li>Overdosing causes breathing to stop resulting in death f...
Alcohol <ul><li>Most widely used (and abused) mind-altering substance in America </li></ul><ul><li>Legal in every state by...
Alcohol <ul><li>Loosens inhibitions </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits normal brain functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Lessens self-con...
Effects of Alcohol <ul><li>Determined by the amount consumed and the body weight of the drinker </li></ul><ul><li>Slurred ...
Effects of Alcohol Abuse <ul><li>Brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>Liver damage </li></ul><ul><li>Change in personality </li>...
Perceptions of Alcohol <ul><li>Physical effects </li></ul><ul><li>Social effects </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><u...
Reasons for Drug Use <ul><li>Boredom </li></ul><ul><li>Peer influence </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>...
Risks of Drug Use <ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><li>Injury </li></ul><ul><li>Overdose </li></ul><ul><li>Accident </li></ul><...
Treatment of Drug Use <ul><li>The drug abuser must admit that he has a problem </li></ul><ul><li>The drug abuser must ente...
Treatment of Drug Use <ul><li>The drug abuser must remain drug free </li></ul><ul><li>Support groups help prevent relapse ...
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Ch7 alteredstates Reg. Psych

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Chp. 7 Reg. Psychology
Altered States

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Ch7 alteredstates Reg. Psych

  1. 1. Chapter Seven: Altered States of Consciousness <ul><li>Sleep and Dreams </li></ul>
  2. 2. Sleep <ul><li>An altered state of consciousness, characterized by specific patterns of brain activity and inactivity </li></ul>
  3. 3. Consciousness <ul><li>A state of awareness </li></ul>
  4. 4. EEG <ul><li>Electroencephalograph </li></ul><ul><li>A device that records the electrical activity of the brain </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sleep and Dreams <ul><li>Sleep and Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Why Do We Sleep? </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>How Much Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams </li></ul>
  6. 6. Characteristics of Sleep <ul><li>Unresponsiveness to the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Limited physical mobility </li></ul>
  7. 7. Purpose of Sleep <ul><li>Restorative; recovery from exhaustion/stress </li></ul><ul><li>Primitive hibernation; conservation of energy </li></ul>
  8. 8. Purpose of Sleep <ul><li>Adaptive behavior; evolution of night time safety strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Defragmentation of disks </li></ul><ul><li>Dream </li></ul>
  9. 9. Physical Characteristics of Sleep <ul><li>Lowered body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Lowered pulse rate </li></ul><ul><li>Lowered rate of respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Brief alpha wave period </li></ul><ul><li>Body twitching, eye rolling, brief visual imagery </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stages of Sleep <ul><li>Early Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage III </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Later Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage IV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REM Sleep </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Early Stages of Sleep: Stage I <ul><li>Lightest level of sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Slow pulse/ muscles relaxed </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular brain waves </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 10 minutes along </li></ul><ul><li>Theta waves </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting waves move to Stage II </li></ul>
  12. 12. Early Stages of Sleep: Stage II <ul><li>Shifting waves </li></ul><ul><li>Eye rolling </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 30 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Deeper drift into Stage III </li></ul>
  13. 13. Early Stages of Sleep: Stage III <ul><li>Large amplitude delta waves </li></ul><ul><li>One wave per second </li></ul><ul><li>Move to Stage IV </li></ul>
  14. 14. Later Stages of Sleep: Stage IV <ul><li>Deepest level of sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Large delta waves </li></ul><ul><li>50% of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Sleepwalking; sleep talking; bedwetting </li></ul><ul><li>Descent into REM sleep </li></ul>
  15. 15. Later Stages of Sleep: REM Sleep <ul><li>Rapid Eye Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular pulse rate and breathing patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Increased levels of adrenaline and sexual hormones </li></ul>
  16. 16. Later Stages of Sleep: REM Sleep <ul><li>Slow waves (similar to waking waves) </li></ul><ul><li>15 minutes (early) to 45 minutes (late) </li></ul><ul><li>90 minute cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Stage IV Decreases </li></ul><ul><li>REM increases </li></ul>
  17. 17. How Much Sleep? <ul><li>1/3 of your life is spent in sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Newborns: 16 hours (1/2 REM) </li></ul><ul><li>HS Students: 10-11 hours </li></ul><ul><li>College students: (8 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>Elderly: 5 hours </li></ul>
  18. 18. How Much Sleep? <ul><li>25 % REM </li></ul><ul><li>75% NREM </li></ul>
  19. 19. Circadian Rhythm <ul><li>Internal biological clock </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates your sleep/wake cycle </li></ul><ul><li>24-25 hours long </li></ul><ul><li>Operates even without daytime/nighttime cues </li></ul>
  20. 20. Circadian Rhythm <ul><li>Need for sleep is dictated by the environment and the 24 hour day </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of sleep interrupts your circadian rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Jet lag: one day recovery for each hour of time change </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Apnea </li></ul><ul><li>Narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Nightmares/Night Terrors </li></ul><ul><li>Sleepwalking/talking </li></ul>
  22. 22. Insomnia <ul><li>A prolonged and abnormal inability to sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Can be caused by stress, depression, anxiety, overuse of alcohol or drugs </li></ul>
  23. 23. Sleep Apnea <ul><li>Frequent interruption of breathing during sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include 10-15 minute snoring episodes; breathing actually stops </li></ul>
  24. 24. Sleep Apnea <ul><li>1 out of every 100 Americans have the disorder </li></ul><ul><li>More common among older people </li></ul><ul><li>Causes include enlarged tonsils; infection; obesity </li></ul>
  25. 25. Narcolepsy <ul><li>Permanent sleepiness and fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual sleep/dream patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep attacks with brief REM periods </li></ul>
  26. 26. Nightmares/Night Terrors <ul><li>Nightmares occur during the dream phases of REM sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Night terrors occur during Stage IV sleep (usually during the first or second episode of Stage IV) </li></ul><ul><li>Terrors last from 5-20 minutes; subjects usually have no memory of them </li></ul>
  27. 27. Sleepwalking/Sleep Talking <ul><li>Sleepwalkers are partially but not completely awake. </li></ul><ul><li>Disorder usually associated with children </li></ul><ul><li>May be inherited </li></ul>
  28. 28. Sleepwalking/Sleep Talking <ul><li>Not a psychological disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to stress, fatigue, and sedative use </li></ul><ul><li>Usually outgrown </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sleepwalking/Sleep Talking <ul><li>Occurs in both REM and NREM </li></ul><ul><li>Many people do it, but don’t remember it </li></ul>
  30. 30. Dreams <ul><li>The mental activity that takes place during sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams become longer and more complex as the sleep cycle advances </li></ul>
  31. 31. Dreams <ul><li>People generally remember the last dream (of many) they have during a sleep cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep deprivation increases the amount of time spent in REM sleep, and therefore the time dreaming </li></ul>
  32. 32. Dreams <ul><li>We remember interesting dreams more than dull ones </li></ul><ul><li>Most dreams involve everyday subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Negative dreams are nightmares </li></ul>
  33. 33. Dreams <ul><li>Negative dreams are nightmares </li></ul><ul><li>The emotional quality associated with nightmares probably results from increased brain activity in the limbic system </li></ul>
  34. 34. Dream Interpretation <ul><li>Ancient peoples interpreted dreams as long ago as 5000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Freud believed that dreams contain thoughts the consciousness refuses to acknowledge </li></ul>
  35. 35. Dream Interpretation <ul><li>Inuit peoples believe dreams have hidden meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Dreamers enter a spiritual realm and interact with the dead </li></ul>
  36. 36. Dream Interpretation <ul><li>Kleitman: dreams may serve no purpose at all </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams may be the result of random brain cell stimulation </li></ul>
  37. 37. Dream Interpretation <ul><li>Dreams facilitate problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams clean out the memory closet </li></ul>
  38. 38. Chapter Seven: Altered States of Consciousness <ul><li>II. Hypnosis, Biofeedback, and Meditation </li></ul>
  39. 39. Hypnosis <ul><li>Yet another form of altered consciousness in which attention is very narrowly focused and people become extremely suggestible </li></ul>
  40. 40. Hypnosis <ul><li>Allows shifts in the perception of your consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Hypnosis induces a trance state, which is much different from sleep </li></ul>
  41. 41. Hypnosis <ul><li>Unlike sleep, people under hypnosis are much more open and receptive to internal and external stimuli </li></ul>
  42. 42. Theories of Hypnosis <ul><li>Barber: Hypnosis is just the result of suggestibility </li></ul><ul><li>Hilgard: neodissociation theory; the ‘hidden observer’ </li></ul>
  43. 43. Theories of Hypnosis <ul><li>Green: degree of suggestibility is critical to the success of hypnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Smith & Coe: subjects play the role of hypnotized subjects </li></ul>
  44. 44. Uses of Hypnosis <ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy </li></ul>
  45. 45. Post-hypnotic Suggestion <ul><li>A suggestion made to a hypnotized subject to perform a particular behavior; or to repress a specific piece of knowledge; once he is no longer in a hypnotic trance </li></ul>
  46. 46. Medical/Theraputic Uses <ul><li>Pain reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Reveal problems </li></ul><ul><li>Gain insight </li></ul>
  47. 47. Biofeedback <ul><li>A technique used to control ones internal physiological processes </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a biofeedback machine </li></ul>
  48. 48. Biofeedback <ul><li>Brain waves (EEG) </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Skin temperature (GSR) </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat gland activity </li></ul>
  49. 49. Meditation <ul><li>A heightened state of relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced for thousands of years </li></ul>
  50. 50. Three Major Approaches to Meditation <ul><li>Transcendental meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Breath meditation </li></ul>
  51. 51. Transcendental Meditation <ul><li>Mantra </li></ul><ul><li>Sanskrit </li></ul><ul><li>15-20 minutes twice a day </li></ul>
  52. 52. Mindfulness Meditation <ul><li>Buddhist origin </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing and visualizing each body part, one at a time </li></ul>
  53. 53. Breath Meditation <ul><li>Focus on the process of breathing -- inhaling and exhaling </li></ul>
  54. 54. Benefits of Meditation <ul><li>Lowers blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers respiration rate </li></ul>
  55. 55. Chapter Seven: Altered States of Consciousness <ul><li>III.Drugs and Consciousness </li></ul>
  56. 56. How Drugs Work <ul><li>Absorbed through the capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Carried to tissue throughout the body </li></ul>
  57. 57. Marijuana <ul><li>THC -- tetrahydrocannabinol </li></ul><ul><li>Cannabis sativa/ Indian hemp </li></ul><ul><li>Hashish </li></ul>
  58. 58. Marijuana <ul><li>Enhanced sensory experience </li></ul><ul><li>Heightened emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological addiction </li></ul>
  59. 59. Marijuana <ul><li>Enhanced sensory experience </li></ul><ul><li>Heightened emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological addiction </li></ul>
  60. 60. Hallucinations <ul><li>Perception that have no direct external cause </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinations are sensory, involving misapprehensions of sight, hearing, touch taste and feeling </li></ul>
  61. 61. Causes of Hallucinations <ul><li>Hypnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Drug withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological breakdown </li></ul>
  62. 62. Causes of Hallucinations <ul><li>Dream states </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>Heightened emotional states </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul>
  63. 63. Similarity of experience <ul><li>Seigel (1977) </li></ul><ul><li>Native American peyote rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous disorganization and arousal of the CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Similar hallucinations across cultures </li></ul>
  64. 64. Hallucinogens <ul><li>Also called psychedelics </li></ul><ul><li>Produce a loss of contact with reality </li></ul>
  65. 65. LSD <ul><li>Lysergic acid diethylamide </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic substance </li></ul><ul><li>Usage is referred to as a ‘trip’ </li></ul>
  66. 66. LSD <ul><li>Effects last anywhere from 6-14 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery method is usuage dissolution onto a paper strip (called a tab) or on a sugar cube </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual hallucinations are common </li></ul>
  67. 67. Effects of LSD <ul><li>Impaired thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Panic attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Flashbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of chromosomal damage </li></ul>
  68. 68. Opiates <ul><li>Narcotics </li></ul><ul><li>Opium </li></ul><ul><li>Morphine </li></ul><ul><li>Heroin </li></ul>
  69. 69. Effects of Opiates <ul><li>Analgesia (pain reduction) </li></ul><ul><li>Euphoria (pleasurable state somewhere between waking and sleeping) </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul>
  70. 70. Dangers of Opiates <ul><li>Physically addictive </li></ul><ul><li>Overdosing causes breathing to stop resulting in death from respiratory failure </li></ul>
  71. 71. Alcohol <ul><li>Most widely used (and abused) mind-altering substance in America </li></ul><ul><li>Legal in every state by age 21 </li></ul>
  72. 72. Alcohol <ul><li>Loosens inhibitions </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits normal brain functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Lessens self-control </li></ul><ul><li>Impairs judgment and physical reaction </li></ul>
  73. 73. Effects of Alcohol <ul><li>Determined by the amount consumed and the body weight of the drinker </li></ul><ul><li>Slurred speech </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred vision </li></ul><ul><li>Faulty memory </li></ul>
  74. 74. Effects of Alcohol Abuse <ul><li>Brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>Liver damage </li></ul><ul><li>Change in personality </li></ul>
  75. 75. Perceptions of Alcohol <ul><li>Physical effects </li></ul><ul><li>Social effects </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Less anxiety </li></ul>
  76. 76. Reasons for Drug Use <ul><li>Boredom </li></ul><ul><li>Peer influence </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Escape problems </li></ul>
  77. 77. Risks of Drug Use <ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><li>Injury </li></ul><ul><li>Overdose </li></ul><ul><li>Accident </li></ul><ul><li>Health risks </li></ul><ul><li>Legal issues </li></ul><ul><li>Destructive behavior </li></ul>
  78. 78. Treatment of Drug Use <ul><li>The drug abuser must admit that he has a problem </li></ul><ul><li>The drug abuser must enter a treatment program or get therapy </li></ul>
  79. 79. Treatment of Drug Use <ul><li>The drug abuser must remain drug free </li></ul><ul><li>Support groups help prevent relapse </li></ul>
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