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Ch7 alteredstates Reg. Psych

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Chp. 7 Reg. Psychology …

Chp. 7 Reg. Psychology
Altered States

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  • 1. Chapter Seven: Altered States of Consciousness
    • Sleep and Dreams
  • 2. Sleep
    • An altered state of consciousness, characterized by specific patterns of brain activity and inactivity
  • 3. Consciousness
    • A state of awareness
  • 4. EEG
    • Electroencephalograph
    • A device that records the electrical activity of the brain
  • 5. Sleep and Dreams
    • Sleep and Consciousness
    • Why Do We Sleep?
    • Stages of Sleep
    • How Much Sleep
    • Sleep Disorders
    • Dreams
  • 6. Characteristics of Sleep
    • Unresponsiveness to the environment
    • Limited physical mobility
  • 7. Purpose of Sleep
    • Restorative; recovery from exhaustion/stress
    • Primitive hibernation; conservation of energy
  • 8. Purpose of Sleep
    • Adaptive behavior; evolution of night time safety strategy
    • Defragmentation of disks
    • Dream
  • 9. Physical Characteristics of Sleep
    • Lowered body temperature
    • Lowered pulse rate
    • Lowered rate of respiration
    • Brief alpha wave period
    • Body twitching, eye rolling, brief visual imagery
  • 10. Stages of Sleep
    • Early Stages
      • Stage I
      • Stage II
      • Stage III
    • Later Stages
      • Stage IV
      • REM Sleep
  • 11. Early Stages of Sleep: Stage I
    • Lightest level of sleep
    • Slow pulse/ muscles relaxed
    • Irregular brain waves
    • Up to 10 minutes along
    • Theta waves
    • Shifting waves move to Stage II
  • 12. Early Stages of Sleep: Stage II
    • Shifting waves
    • Eye rolling
    • Up to 30 minutes
    • Deeper drift into Stage III
  • 13. Early Stages of Sleep: Stage III
    • Large amplitude delta waves
    • One wave per second
    • Move to Stage IV
  • 14. Later Stages of Sleep: Stage IV
    • Deepest level of sleep
    • Large delta waves
    • 50% of the time
    • Sleepwalking; sleep talking; bedwetting
    • Descent into REM sleep
  • 15. Later Stages of Sleep: REM Sleep
    • Rapid Eye Movement
    • Muscle relaxation
    • Irregular pulse rate and breathing patterns
    • Increased levels of adrenaline and sexual hormones
  • 16. Later Stages of Sleep: REM Sleep
    • Slow waves (similar to waking waves)
    • 15 minutes (early) to 45 minutes (late)
    • 90 minute cycles
    • Stage IV Decreases
    • REM increases
  • 17. How Much Sleep?
    • 1/3 of your life is spent in sleep
    • Newborns: 16 hours (1/2 REM)
    • HS Students: 10-11 hours
    • College students: (8 hours)
    • Elderly: 5 hours
  • 18. How Much Sleep?
    • 25 % REM
    • 75% NREM
  • 19. Circadian Rhythm
    • Internal biological clock
    • Regulates your sleep/wake cycle
    • 24-25 hours long
    • Operates even without daytime/nighttime cues
  • 20. Circadian Rhythm
    • Need for sleep is dictated by the environment and the 24 hour day
    • Lack of sleep interrupts your circadian rhythm
    • Jet lag: one day recovery for each hour of time change
  • 21. Sleep Disorders
    • Insomnia
    • Sleep Apnea
    • Narcolepsy
    • Nightmares/Night Terrors
    • Sleepwalking/talking
  • 22. Insomnia
    • A prolonged and abnormal inability to sleep
    • Can be caused by stress, depression, anxiety, overuse of alcohol or drugs
  • 23. Sleep Apnea
    • Frequent interruption of breathing during sleep
    • Symptoms include 10-15 minute snoring episodes; breathing actually stops
  • 24. Sleep Apnea
    • 1 out of every 100 Americans have the disorder
    • More common among older people
    • Causes include enlarged tonsils; infection; obesity
  • 25. Narcolepsy
    • Permanent sleepiness and fatigue
    • Unusual sleep/dream patterns
    • Sleep attacks with brief REM periods
  • 26. Nightmares/Night Terrors
    • Nightmares occur during the dream phases of REM sleep
    • Night terrors occur during Stage IV sleep (usually during the first or second episode of Stage IV)
    • Terrors last from 5-20 minutes; subjects usually have no memory of them
  • 27. Sleepwalking/Sleep Talking
    • Sleepwalkers are partially but not completely awake.
    • Disorder usually associated with children
    • May be inherited
  • 28. Sleepwalking/Sleep Talking
    • Not a psychological disorder
    • Linked to stress, fatigue, and sedative use
    • Usually outgrown
  • 29. Sleepwalking/Sleep Talking
    • Occurs in both REM and NREM
    • Many people do it, but don’t remember it
  • 30. Dreams
    • The mental activity that takes place during sleep
    • Dreams become longer and more complex as the sleep cycle advances
  • 31. Dreams
    • People generally remember the last dream (of many) they have during a sleep cycle
    • Sleep deprivation increases the amount of time spent in REM sleep, and therefore the time dreaming
  • 32. Dreams
    • We remember interesting dreams more than dull ones
    • Most dreams involve everyday subjects
    • Negative dreams are nightmares
  • 33. Dreams
    • Negative dreams are nightmares
    • The emotional quality associated with nightmares probably results from increased brain activity in the limbic system
  • 34. Dream Interpretation
    • Ancient peoples interpreted dreams as long ago as 5000 years
    • Freud believed that dreams contain thoughts the consciousness refuses to acknowledge
  • 35. Dream Interpretation
    • Inuit peoples believe dreams have hidden meaning
    • Dreamers enter a spiritual realm and interact with the dead
  • 36. Dream Interpretation
    • Kleitman: dreams may serve no purpose at all
    • Dreams may be the result of random brain cell stimulation
  • 37. Dream Interpretation
    • Dreams facilitate problem solving
    • Dreams clean out the memory closet
  • 38. Chapter Seven: Altered States of Consciousness
    • II. Hypnosis, Biofeedback, and Meditation
  • 39. Hypnosis
    • Yet another form of altered consciousness in which attention is very narrowly focused and people become extremely suggestible
  • 40. Hypnosis
    • Allows shifts in the perception of your consciousness
    • Hypnosis induces a trance state, which is much different from sleep
  • 41. Hypnosis
    • Unlike sleep, people under hypnosis are much more open and receptive to internal and external stimuli
  • 42. Theories of Hypnosis
    • Barber: Hypnosis is just the result of suggestibility
    • Hilgard: neodissociation theory; the ‘hidden observer’
  • 43. Theories of Hypnosis
    • Green: degree of suggestibility is critical to the success of hypnosis
    • Smith & Coe: subjects play the role of hypnotized subjects
  • 44. Uses of Hypnosis
    • Entertainment
    • Medicine
    • Therapy
  • 45. Post-hypnotic Suggestion
    • A suggestion made to a hypnotized subject to perform a particular behavior; or to repress a specific piece of knowledge; once he is no longer in a hypnotic trance
  • 46. Medical/Theraputic Uses
    • Pain reduction
    • Reveal problems
    • Gain insight
  • 47. Biofeedback
    • A technique used to control ones internal physiological processes
    • Requires a biofeedback machine
  • 48. Biofeedback
    • Brain waves (EEG)
    • Heart rate
    • Blood pressure
    • Skin temperature (GSR)
    • Sweat gland activity
  • 49. Meditation
    • A heightened state of relaxation
    • Practiced for thousands of years
  • 50. Three Major Approaches to Meditation
    • Transcendental meditation
    • Mindfulness meditation
    • Breath meditation
  • 51. Transcendental Meditation
    • Mantra
    • Sanskrit
    • 15-20 minutes twice a day
  • 52. Mindfulness Meditation
    • Buddhist origin
    • Focusing and visualizing each body part, one at a time
  • 53. Breath Meditation
    • Focus on the process of breathing -- inhaling and exhaling
  • 54. Benefits of Meditation
    • Lowers blood pressure
    • Lowers heart rate
    • Lowers respiration rate
  • 55. Chapter Seven: Altered States of Consciousness
    • III.Drugs and Consciousness
  • 56. How Drugs Work
    • Absorbed through the capillaries
    • Carried to tissue throughout the body
  • 57. Marijuana
    • THC -- tetrahydrocannabinol
    • Cannabis sativa/ Indian hemp
    • Hashish
  • 58. Marijuana
    • Enhanced sensory experience
    • Heightened emotion
    • Psychological addiction
  • 59. Marijuana
    • Enhanced sensory experience
    • Heightened emotion
    • Psychological addiction
  • 60. Hallucinations
    • Perception that have no direct external cause
    • Hallucinations are sensory, involving misapprehensions of sight, hearing, touch taste and feeling
  • 61. Causes of Hallucinations
    • Hypnosis
    • Meditation
    • Drugs
    • Drug withdrawal
    • Psychological breakdown
  • 62. Causes of Hallucinations
    • Dream states
    • Sleep deprivation
    • Heightened emotional states
    • Fatigue
  • 63. Similarity of experience
    • Seigel (1977)
    • Native American peyote rituals
    • Simultaneous disorganization and arousal of the CNS
    • Similar hallucinations across cultures
  • 64. Hallucinogens
    • Also called psychedelics
    • Produce a loss of contact with reality
  • 65. LSD
    • Lysergic acid diethylamide
    • Synthetic substance
    • Usage is referred to as a ‘trip’
  • 66. LSD
    • Effects last anywhere from 6-14 hours
    • Delivery method is usuage dissolution onto a paper strip (called a tab) or on a sugar cube
    • Perceptual hallucinations are common
  • 67. Effects of LSD
    • Impaired thinking
    • Panic attacks
    • Flashbacks
    • Possibility of chromosomal damage
  • 68. Opiates
    • Narcotics
    • Opium
    • Morphine
    • Heroin
  • 69. Effects of Opiates
    • Analgesia (pain reduction)
    • Euphoria (pleasurable state somewhere between waking and sleeping)
    • Constipation
  • 70. Dangers of Opiates
    • Physically addictive
    • Overdosing causes breathing to stop resulting in death from respiratory failure
  • 71. Alcohol
    • Most widely used (and abused) mind-altering substance in America
    • Legal in every state by age 21
  • 72. Alcohol
    • Loosens inhibitions
    • Inhibits normal brain functioning
    • Lessens self-control
    • Impairs judgment and physical reaction
  • 73. Effects of Alcohol
    • Determined by the amount consumed and the body weight of the drinker
    • Slurred speech
    • Blurred vision
    • Faulty memory
  • 74. Effects of Alcohol Abuse
    • Brain damage
    • Liver damage
    • Change in personality
  • 75. Perceptions of Alcohol
    • Physical effects
    • Social effects
    • Aggression
    • Sexual arousal
    • Less anxiety
  • 76. Reasons for Drug Use
    • Boredom
    • Peer influence
    • Self-confidence
    • Escape problems
  • 77. Risks of Drug Use
    • Death
    • Injury
    • Overdose
    • Accident
    • Health risks
    • Legal issues
    • Destructive behavior
  • 78. Treatment of Drug Use
    • The drug abuser must admit that he has a problem
    • The drug abuser must enter a treatment program or get therapy
  • 79. Treatment of Drug Use
    • The drug abuser must remain drug free
    • Support groups help prevent relapse