Ch7 alteredstates  Reg. Psych
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Ch7 alteredstates Reg. Psych

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Chp. 7 Reg. Psychology

Chp. 7 Reg. Psychology
Altered States

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    Ch7 alteredstates  Reg. Psych Ch7 alteredstates Reg. Psych Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter Seven: Altered States of Consciousness
      • Sleep and Dreams
    • Sleep
      • An altered state of consciousness, characterized by specific patterns of brain activity and inactivity
    • Consciousness
      • A state of awareness
    • EEG
      • Electroencephalograph
      • A device that records the electrical activity of the brain
    • Sleep and Dreams
      • Sleep and Consciousness
      • Why Do We Sleep?
      • Stages of Sleep
      • How Much Sleep
      • Sleep Disorders
      • Dreams
    • Characteristics of Sleep
      • Unresponsiveness to the environment
      • Limited physical mobility
    • Purpose of Sleep
      • Restorative; recovery from exhaustion/stress
      • Primitive hibernation; conservation of energy
    • Purpose of Sleep
      • Adaptive behavior; evolution of night time safety strategy
      • Defragmentation of disks
      • Dream
    • Physical Characteristics of Sleep
      • Lowered body temperature
      • Lowered pulse rate
      • Lowered rate of respiration
      • Brief alpha wave period
      • Body twitching, eye rolling, brief visual imagery
    • Stages of Sleep
      • Early Stages
        • Stage I
        • Stage II
        • Stage III
      • Later Stages
        • Stage IV
        • REM Sleep
    • Early Stages of Sleep: Stage I
      • Lightest level of sleep
      • Slow pulse/ muscles relaxed
      • Irregular brain waves
      • Up to 10 minutes along
      • Theta waves
      • Shifting waves move to Stage II
    • Early Stages of Sleep: Stage II
      • Shifting waves
      • Eye rolling
      • Up to 30 minutes
      • Deeper drift into Stage III
    • Early Stages of Sleep: Stage III
      • Large amplitude delta waves
      • One wave per second
      • Move to Stage IV
    • Later Stages of Sleep: Stage IV
      • Deepest level of sleep
      • Large delta waves
      • 50% of the time
      • Sleepwalking; sleep talking; bedwetting
      • Descent into REM sleep
    • Later Stages of Sleep: REM Sleep
      • Rapid Eye Movement
      • Muscle relaxation
      • Irregular pulse rate and breathing patterns
      • Increased levels of adrenaline and sexual hormones
    • Later Stages of Sleep: REM Sleep
      • Slow waves (similar to waking waves)
      • 15 minutes (early) to 45 minutes (late)
      • 90 minute cycles
      • Stage IV Decreases
      • REM increases
    • How Much Sleep?
      • 1/3 of your life is spent in sleep
      • Newborns: 16 hours (1/2 REM)
      • HS Students: 10-11 hours
      • College students: (8 hours)
      • Elderly: 5 hours
    • How Much Sleep?
      • 25 % REM
      • 75% NREM
    • Circadian Rhythm
      • Internal biological clock
      • Regulates your sleep/wake cycle
      • 24-25 hours long
      • Operates even without daytime/nighttime cues
    • Circadian Rhythm
      • Need for sleep is dictated by the environment and the 24 hour day
      • Lack of sleep interrupts your circadian rhythm
      • Jet lag: one day recovery for each hour of time change
    • Sleep Disorders
      • Insomnia
      • Sleep Apnea
      • Narcolepsy
      • Nightmares/Night Terrors
      • Sleepwalking/talking
    • Insomnia
      • A prolonged and abnormal inability to sleep
      • Can be caused by stress, depression, anxiety, overuse of alcohol or drugs
    • Sleep Apnea
      • Frequent interruption of breathing during sleep
      • Symptoms include 10-15 minute snoring episodes; breathing actually stops
    • Sleep Apnea
      • 1 out of every 100 Americans have the disorder
      • More common among older people
      • Causes include enlarged tonsils; infection; obesity
    • Narcolepsy
      • Permanent sleepiness and fatigue
      • Unusual sleep/dream patterns
      • Sleep attacks with brief REM periods
    • Nightmares/Night Terrors
      • Nightmares occur during the dream phases of REM sleep
      • Night terrors occur during Stage IV sleep (usually during the first or second episode of Stage IV)
      • Terrors last from 5-20 minutes; subjects usually have no memory of them
    • Sleepwalking/Sleep Talking
      • Sleepwalkers are partially but not completely awake.
      • Disorder usually associated with children
      • May be inherited
    • Sleepwalking/Sleep Talking
      • Not a psychological disorder
      • Linked to stress, fatigue, and sedative use
      • Usually outgrown
    • Sleepwalking/Sleep Talking
      • Occurs in both REM and NREM
      • Many people do it, but don’t remember it
    • Dreams
      • The mental activity that takes place during sleep
      • Dreams become longer and more complex as the sleep cycle advances
    • Dreams
      • People generally remember the last dream (of many) they have during a sleep cycle
      • Sleep deprivation increases the amount of time spent in REM sleep, and therefore the time dreaming
    • Dreams
      • We remember interesting dreams more than dull ones
      • Most dreams involve everyday subjects
      • Negative dreams are nightmares
    • Dreams
      • Negative dreams are nightmares
      • The emotional quality associated with nightmares probably results from increased brain activity in the limbic system
    • Dream Interpretation
      • Ancient peoples interpreted dreams as long ago as 5000 years
      • Freud believed that dreams contain thoughts the consciousness refuses to acknowledge
    • Dream Interpretation
      • Inuit peoples believe dreams have hidden meaning
      • Dreamers enter a spiritual realm and interact with the dead
    • Dream Interpretation
      • Kleitman: dreams may serve no purpose at all
      • Dreams may be the result of random brain cell stimulation
    • Dream Interpretation
      • Dreams facilitate problem solving
      • Dreams clean out the memory closet
    • Chapter Seven: Altered States of Consciousness
      • II. Hypnosis, Biofeedback, and Meditation
    • Hypnosis
      • Yet another form of altered consciousness in which attention is very narrowly focused and people become extremely suggestible
    • Hypnosis
      • Allows shifts in the perception of your consciousness
      • Hypnosis induces a trance state, which is much different from sleep
    • Hypnosis
      • Unlike sleep, people under hypnosis are much more open and receptive to internal and external stimuli
    • Theories of Hypnosis
      • Barber: Hypnosis is just the result of suggestibility
      • Hilgard: neodissociation theory; the ‘hidden observer’
    • Theories of Hypnosis
      • Green: degree of suggestibility is critical to the success of hypnosis
      • Smith & Coe: subjects play the role of hypnotized subjects
    • Uses of Hypnosis
      • Entertainment
      • Medicine
      • Therapy
    • Post-hypnotic Suggestion
      • A suggestion made to a hypnotized subject to perform a particular behavior; or to repress a specific piece of knowledge; once he is no longer in a hypnotic trance
    • Medical/Theraputic Uses
      • Pain reduction
      • Reveal problems
      • Gain insight
    • Biofeedback
      • A technique used to control ones internal physiological processes
      • Requires a biofeedback machine
    • Biofeedback
      • Brain waves (EEG)
      • Heart rate
      • Blood pressure
      • Skin temperature (GSR)
      • Sweat gland activity
    • Meditation
      • A heightened state of relaxation
      • Practiced for thousands of years
    • Three Major Approaches to Meditation
      • Transcendental meditation
      • Mindfulness meditation
      • Breath meditation
    • Transcendental Meditation
      • Mantra
      • Sanskrit
      • 15-20 minutes twice a day
    • Mindfulness Meditation
      • Buddhist origin
      • Focusing and visualizing each body part, one at a time
    • Breath Meditation
      • Focus on the process of breathing -- inhaling and exhaling
    • Benefits of Meditation
      • Lowers blood pressure
      • Lowers heart rate
      • Lowers respiration rate
    • Chapter Seven: Altered States of Consciousness
      • III.Drugs and Consciousness
    • How Drugs Work
      • Absorbed through the capillaries
      • Carried to tissue throughout the body
    • Marijuana
      • THC -- tetrahydrocannabinol
      • Cannabis sativa/ Indian hemp
      • Hashish
    • Marijuana
      • Enhanced sensory experience
      • Heightened emotion
      • Psychological addiction
    • Marijuana
      • Enhanced sensory experience
      • Heightened emotion
      • Psychological addiction
    • Hallucinations
      • Perception that have no direct external cause
      • Hallucinations are sensory, involving misapprehensions of sight, hearing, touch taste and feeling
    • Causes of Hallucinations
      • Hypnosis
      • Meditation
      • Drugs
      • Drug withdrawal
      • Psychological breakdown
    • Causes of Hallucinations
      • Dream states
      • Sleep deprivation
      • Heightened emotional states
      • Fatigue
    • Similarity of experience
      • Seigel (1977)
      • Native American peyote rituals
      • Simultaneous disorganization and arousal of the CNS
      • Similar hallucinations across cultures
    • Hallucinogens
      • Also called psychedelics
      • Produce a loss of contact with reality
    • LSD
      • Lysergic acid diethylamide
      • Synthetic substance
      • Usage is referred to as a ‘trip’
    • LSD
      • Effects last anywhere from 6-14 hours
      • Delivery method is usuage dissolution onto a paper strip (called a tab) or on a sugar cube
      • Perceptual hallucinations are common
    • Effects of LSD
      • Impaired thinking
      • Panic attacks
      • Flashbacks
      • Possibility of chromosomal damage
    • Opiates
      • Narcotics
      • Opium
      • Morphine
      • Heroin
    • Effects of Opiates
      • Analgesia (pain reduction)
      • Euphoria (pleasurable state somewhere between waking and sleeping)
      • Constipation
    • Dangers of Opiates
      • Physically addictive
      • Overdosing causes breathing to stop resulting in death from respiratory failure
    • Alcohol
      • Most widely used (and abused) mind-altering substance in America
      • Legal in every state by age 21
    • Alcohol
      • Loosens inhibitions
      • Inhibits normal brain functioning
      • Lessens self-control
      • Impairs judgment and physical reaction
    • Effects of Alcohol
      • Determined by the amount consumed and the body weight of the drinker
      • Slurred speech
      • Blurred vision
      • Faulty memory
    • Effects of Alcohol Abuse
      • Brain damage
      • Liver damage
      • Change in personality
    • Perceptions of Alcohol
      • Physical effects
      • Social effects
      • Aggression
      • Sexual arousal
      • Less anxiety
    • Reasons for Drug Use
      • Boredom
      • Peer influence
      • Self-confidence
      • Escape problems
    • Risks of Drug Use
      • Death
      • Injury
      • Overdose
      • Accident
      • Health risks
      • Legal issues
      • Destructive behavior
    • Treatment of Drug Use
      • The drug abuser must admit that he has a problem
      • The drug abuser must enter a treatment program or get therapy
    • Treatment of Drug Use
      • The drug abuser must remain drug free
      • Support groups help prevent relapse