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Memory Unit …

Memory Unit
Chapter 9 Myers

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  • 1. Chapter 9 Memory
  • 2. Memory
    • Memory
      • persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of information
    • Flashbulb Memory
      • a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
  • 3. Memory
    • Memory as Information Processing
      • similar to a computer
        • write to file
        • save to disk
        • read from disk
    • Encoding
      • the processing of information into the memory system
  • 4. Memory
    • Storage
      • the retention of encoded information over time
    • Retrieval
      • process of getting information out of memory
  • 5. Memory
    • Sensory Memory
      • the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
    • Working Memory
      • focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information
  • 6. Memory
    • Short Term Memory
      • activated memory that holds a few items briefly
      • look up a phone number, then quickly dial before the information is forgotten
    • Long Term Memory
      • the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
  • 7. A Simplified Memory Model External events Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory Sensory input Attention to important or novel information Encoding Encoding Retrieving
  • 8. Encoding- Getting Information In Encoding Effortful Automatic
  • 9. Encoding
    • Automatic Processing
      • unconscious encoding of incidental information
        • space
        • time
        • frequency
      • well-learned information
        • word meanings
      • we can learn automatic processing
        • reading backwards
  • 10. Encoding
    • Effortful Processing
      • requires attention and conscious effort
    • Rehearsal
      • conscious repetition of information
        • to maintain it in consciousness
        • to encode it for storage
  • 11. Encoding
    • Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables
      • TUV ZOF GEK WAV
      • the more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions to relearn on Day 2
    • Spacing Effect
      • distributed practice yields better long term retention than massed practice
  • 12. Encoding 20 15 10 5 0 8 16 24 32 42 53 64 Time in minutes taken to relearn list on day 2 Number of repetitions of list on day 1
  • 13. Encoding-Serial Position Effect 12 Percentage of words recalled 0 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Position of word in list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
  • 14. What Do We Encode?
    • Semantic Encoding
      • encoding of meaning
      • including meaning of words
    • Acoustic Encoding
      • encoding of sound
      • especially sound of words
    • Visual Encoding
      • encoding of picture images
  • 15. Encoding
  • 16. Encoding
    • Imagery
      • mental pictures
      • a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
    • Mnemonics
      • memory aids
      • especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
  • 17. Encoding
    • Chunking
      • organizing items into familiar, manageable units
        • like horizontal organization- 1776149218121941
      • often occurs automatically
      • use of acronyms
        • HOMES- H uron, O ntario, M ichigan, E rie, S uperior
        • ARITHMETIC- A R at I n T om’s H ouse M ight E at T om’s I ce C ream
  • 18. Encoding- Chunking
    • Organized information is more easily recalled
  • 19. Encoding
    • Hierarchies
      • complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories
    Encoding (automatic or effortful) Imagery (visual Encoding) Meaning (semantic Encoding) Organization Chunks Hierarchies
  • 20. Storage- Retaining Information
    • Sensory Memory
      • the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
    • Iconic Memory
      • a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
      • a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more that a few tenths of a second
      • Registration of exact representation of a scene
    • Echoic Memory
      • momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
  • 21. Storage- Short Term Memory
    • Short Term Memory
      • limited in duration and capacity
      • “ magical” number 7+/-2
  • 22. Storage- Short Term Memory 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 3 6 9 12 15 18 Time in seconds between presentation of contestants and recall request (no rehearsal allowed) Percentage who recalled consonants
  • 23. Storage- Long Term Memory
    • How does storage work?
      • Karl Lashley (1950)
        • rats learn maze
        • lesion cortex
        • test memory
    • Synaptic changes
      • Long-term Potentiation
        • increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
    • Strong emotions make for stronger memories
      • some stress hormones boost learning and retention
  • 24. Storage- Long Term Memory
    • Amnesia - the loss of memory
    • Explicit Memory
      • memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
      • hippocampus - neural center in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
    • Implicit Memory
      • retention without conscious recollection
      • motor and cognitive skills
      • dispositions- conditioning
  • 25. Storage- Long Term Memory Subsystems Types of long-term memories Explicit (declarative) With conscious recall Implicit (nondeclarative) Without conscious recall Facts-general knowledge (“semantic memory”) Personally experienced events (“episodic memory”) Skills-motor and cognitive Dispositions- classical and operant conditioning effects
  • 26. Storage- Long Term Memory
    • MRI scan of hippocampus (in red)
    Hippocampus
  • 27. Retrieval- Getting Information Out
    • Recall
      • the ability to retrieve info learned earlier and not in conscious awareness-like fill in the blank test
    • Recognition
      • the ability to identify previously learned items-like on a multiple choice test
  • 28. Retrieval
    • Relearning
      • amount of time saved when relearning previously learned information
    • Priming
      • activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
  • 29. Retrieval Cues
    • Reminders of information we could not otherwise recall
    • Guides to where to look for info
      • Context Effects
        • memory works better in the context of original learning
  • 30. Retrieval Cues 0 10 20 30 40 Water/ land Land/ water Land/ water Different contexts for hearing and recall Same contexts for hearing and recall Land/ land Percentage of words recalled
  • 31. Retrieval Cues
    • Deja Vu - (French) already seen
      • cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience
      • "I've experienced this before"
    • Mood Congruent Memory
      • tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood
      • memory, emotions or moods serve as retrieval cues
      • State Dependent Memory
        • what is learned in one state (while one is high, drunk or depressed) can more easily be remembered when in same state
  • 32. Retrieval Cues
    • After learning to move a mobile by kicking, infants had their learning reactivated most strongly when retested in the same rather than a different context (Butler & Rovee-Collier, 1989).
  • 33. Forgetting
    • Forgetting as encoding failure
    • Information never enters the memory system
    • Attention is selective
      • we cannot attend to everything in our environment
    • William James said that we would be as bad off if we remembered everything as we would be if we remembered nothing
  • 34. Forgetting as Encoding Failure External events Sensory memory Short- term memory Long- term memory Attention Encoding Encoding Encoding failure leads to forgetting
  • 35. Forgetting
    • Forgetting as encoding failure
    • Which penny is the real thing?
  • 36. Forgetting
    • Ebbinghaus - forgetting curve over 30 days
      • initially rapid, then levels off with time
    1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 25 30 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 Time in days since learning list Percentage of list retained when relearning
  • 37. Forgetting
    • The forgetting curve for Spanish learned in school
    Retention drops, then levels off 1 3 5 9½ 14½ 25 35½ 49½ Time in years after completion of Spanish course 100% 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage of original vocabulary retained
  • 38. Retrieval
    • Forgetting can result from failure to retrieve information from long-term memory
    External events Attention Encoding Encoding Retrieval failure leads to forgetting Retrieval Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory
  • 39. Forgetting as Interference
    • Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other information
      • Proactive(forward acting) Interference
        • disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information
      • Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference
        • disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information
  • 40. Forgetting as Interference
  • 41. Forgetting
    • Retroactive Interference
    Without interfering events, recall is better After sleep After remaining awake 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Hours elapsed after learning syllables 90% 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage of syllables recalled
  • 42. Forgetting
    • Forgetting can occur at any memory stage
    • As we process information, we filter, alter, or lose much of it
  • 43. Forgetting Sensory memory - the senses momentarily register amazing detail Short term memory - a few items are both noticed and encoded Long-term storage - Some items are altered or lost Retrieval from long-term memory - depending on interference, retrieval cues moods and motives, some things get retrieved, some don’t Information bits
  • 44. Forgetting- Interference
    • Motivated Forgetting
      • people unknowingly revise history
    • Repression
      • defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
    • Positive Transfer
      • sometimes old information facilitates our learning of new information
      • knowledge of Latin may help us to learn French
  • 45. Memory Construction
    • We filter information and fill in missing pieces
    • Misinformation Effect
      • incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
    • Source Amnesia
      • attributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (misattribution)
  • 46. Memory Construction
    • Eyewitnesses reconstruct memories when questioned
    Depiction of actual accident Leading question: “ About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?” Memory construction
  • 47. Memory Construction
    • People fill in memory gaps with plausible guesses and assumptions
    • Imagining events can create false memories
    • Children's eyewitness recall
      • Child sexual abuse does occur
      • Some innocent people suffer false accusations
      • Some guilty cast doubt on true testimony
  • 48. Memory Construction
    • Memories of Abuse
      • Repressed or Constructed?
        • Child sexual abuse does occur
        • Some adults do actually forget such episodes
    • False Memory Syndrome
      • condition in which a person’s identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic experience
      • sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists
  • 49. Memory Construction
    • Most people can agree on the following:
      • Injustice happens
      • Incest happens
      • Forgetting happens
      • Recovered memories are commonplace
      • Memories recovered under hypnosis or drugs are unreliable
      • Memories of things happening before age 3 are unreliable
      • Memories, whether false or real, are upsetting
  • 50. Improve Your Memory
    • Study repeatedly to boost recall
    • Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material
    • Make material personally meaningful
    • Use mnemonic devices
      • associate with peg words- something already stored
      • make up story
      • chunk-acronyms
  • 51. Improve Your Memory
    • Activate retrieval cues- mentally recreate situation and mood
    • Recall events while they are fresh- write down before interference
    • Minimize interference
    • Test your own knowledge
      • rehearse
      • determine what you do not yet know