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Myers Chp. 12/13

Myers Chp. 12/13



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    Aggression Aggression Presentation Transcript

    • Aggression Motivation & Emotion
    • What is Aggression?
    • Aggression
      • Presenting an aversive stimulus to an unwilling victim
    • Types of Aggression
      • Hostile Aggression
        • Striking out against someone or something because of anger or frustration (e.g., road rage)
    • Types of Aggression
      • Instrumental Aggression
        • Desired results obtained through hostile means due to reinforced hostile behavior (e.g., a bully who gains respect of his/her peers)
    • Factors Increasing Aggressive Behavior
      • Neurological Factors
        • Activation of certain regions in the limbic system
      • Environmental Factors
        • Crowding and temperature
    • Theories of Aggression
    • Biological Perspective of Aggression
      • Hypothalamus prompts instinctive aggressive actions when electrically stimulated. In higher animals, however, the brain(cerebral cortex) seems to moderate the aggression (inhibit it).
    • Psychodynamic Perspective of Aggression
      • Reactions to the frustrations of daily life . Frustrations come from ungratified Id impulses, which, of course, can never be fully satisfied.
    • Cognitive Perspective of Aggression
      • We act aggressively if we choose to , based on our values, how we process information in the world; therefore, if we feel it is justified or not
    • Learning Perspective of Aggression
      • Acquired through principles of reinforcement . If aggression gets us what we want, it is reinforced and the behavior will increase.
    • Sociocultural Perspective on Aggression
      • Cultures foster aggression ( or not) The United States fosters competitiveness, independence, and differentiation allowing children to be “under-controlled”. The problem (side effect) arising from this is Aggression .
      • other cultures foster politeness and deference & their children tend to be “over-controlled”
      • This fosters side effects like sleep disorders, irrational fears, and physical problems… but NOT aggression .
      • You Get What You Foster
    • Definitions of Aggression Proposed by psychologists
    • Freeman (1982)
      • “Behavior intended to hurt another person”
    • McGee & Wilson (1984)
      • “Any behavior whose intent is to inflict harm or injury on another living being.”
    • Lefreancois (1982)
      • “Hostile or forceful action intended to dominate or violate.”
    • Atkinson, Atkinson & Hilgard (1983)
      • “Behavior that is intended to injure another person (physically or verbally) or to destroy property.”
    • Buss (1961)
      • “A response that delivers noxious stimuli to another organism.”
      • What does or does not constitute aggression?
      • Even the experts can’t agree
      • Approach-approach conflict: choosing between two positive or desirable alternatives.
      • Avoidance-avoidance conflict: choosing between two negative or mutually undesirable alternatives .
      • Approach-avoidance conflict : being attracted to and repelled bye the same goal.
      • Double approach-avoidance conflict : being simultaneously attracted to and repelled by each of two alternatives.