Aggression

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Myers Chp. 12/13

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Aggression

  1. 1. Aggression Motivation & Emotion
  2. 2. What is Aggression?
  3. 3. Aggression <ul><li>Presenting an aversive stimulus to an unwilling victim </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Aggression <ul><li>Hostile Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Striking out against someone or something because of anger or frustration (e.g., road rage) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Aggression <ul><li>Instrumental Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desired results obtained through hostile means due to reinforced hostile behavior (e.g., a bully who gains respect of his/her peers) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Factors Increasing Aggressive Behavior
  7. 7. <ul><li>Neurological Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activation of certain regions in the limbic system </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Environmental Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowding and temperature </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Theories of Aggression
  10. 10. Biological Perspective of Aggression <ul><li>Hypothalamus prompts instinctive aggressive actions when electrically stimulated. In higher animals, however, the brain(cerebral cortex) seems to moderate the aggression (inhibit it). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Psychodynamic Perspective of Aggression <ul><li>Reactions to the frustrations of daily life . Frustrations come from ungratified Id impulses, which, of course, can never be fully satisfied. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cognitive Perspective of Aggression <ul><li>We act aggressively if we choose to , based on our values, how we process information in the world; therefore, if we feel it is justified or not </li></ul>
  13. 13. Learning Perspective of Aggression <ul><li>Acquired through principles of reinforcement . If aggression gets us what we want, it is reinforced and the behavior will increase. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sociocultural Perspective on Aggression <ul><li>Cultures foster aggression ( or not) The United States fosters competitiveness, independence, and differentiation allowing children to be “under-controlled”. The problem (side effect) arising from this is Aggression . </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>other cultures foster politeness and deference & their children tend to be “over-controlled” </li></ul><ul><li>This fosters side effects like sleep disorders, irrational fears, and physical problems… but NOT aggression . </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>You Get What You Foster </li></ul>
  17. 17. Definitions of Aggression Proposed by psychologists
  18. 18. Freeman (1982) <ul><li>“Behavior intended to hurt another person” </li></ul>
  19. 19. McGee & Wilson (1984) <ul><li>“Any behavior whose intent is to inflict harm or injury on another living being.” </li></ul>
  20. 20. Lefreancois (1982) <ul><li>“Hostile or forceful action intended to dominate or violate.” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Atkinson, Atkinson & Hilgard (1983) <ul><li>“Behavior that is intended to injure another person (physically or verbally) or to destroy property.” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Buss (1961) <ul><li>“A response that delivers noxious stimuli to another organism.” </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>What does or does not constitute aggression? </li></ul><ul><li>Even the experts can’t agree </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>MOTIVALTION CONFLICT </li></ul><ul><li>Approach-approach conflict: choosing between two positive or desirable alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance-avoidance conflict: choosing between two negative or mutually undesirable alternatives . </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Approach-avoidance conflict : being attracted to and repelled bye the same goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Double approach-avoidance conflict : being simultaneously attracted to and repelled by each of two alternatives. </li></ul>

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