Presenting an aversive stimulus to an unwilling victim
Types of Aggression
Striking out against someone or something because of anger or frustration (e.g., road rage)
Types of Aggression
Desired results obtained through hostile means due to reinforced hostile behavior (e.g., a bully who gains respect of his/her peers)
Factors Increasing Aggressive Behavior
Activation of certain regions in the limbic system
Crowding and temperature
Theories of Aggression
Biological Perspective of Aggression
Hypothalamus prompts instinctive aggressive actions when electrically stimulated. In higher animals, however, the brain(cerebral cortex) seems to moderate the aggression (inhibit it).
Psychodynamic Perspective of Aggression
Reactions to the frustrations of daily life . Frustrations come from ungratified Id impulses, which, of course, can never be fully satisfied.
Cognitive Perspective of Aggression
We act aggressively if we choose to , based on our values, how we process information in the world; therefore, if we feel it is justified or not
Learning Perspective of Aggression
Acquired through principles of reinforcement . If aggression gets us what we want, it is reinforced and the behavior will increase.
Sociocultural Perspective on Aggression
Cultures foster aggression ( or not) The United States fosters competitiveness, independence, and differentiation allowing children to be “under-controlled”. The problem (side effect) arising from this is Aggression .
other cultures foster politeness and deference & their children tend to be “over-controlled”
This fosters side effects like sleep disorders, irrational fears, and physical problems… but NOT aggression .
You Get What You Foster
Definitions of Aggression Proposed by psychologists
“Behavior intended to hurt another person”
McGee & Wilson (1984)
“Any behavior whose intent is to inflict harm or injury on another living being.”
“Hostile or forceful action intended to dominate or violate.”
Atkinson, Atkinson & Hilgard (1983)
“Behavior that is intended to injure another person (physically or verbally) or to destroy property.”
“A response that delivers noxious stimuli to another organism.”
What does or does not constitute aggression?
Even the experts can’t agree
Approach-approach conflict: choosing between two positive or desirable alternatives.
Avoidance-avoidance conflict: choosing between two negative or mutually undesirable alternatives .
Approach-avoidance conflict : being attracted to and repelled bye the same goal.
Double approach-avoidance conflict : being simultaneously attracted to and repelled by each of two alternatives.