EOC REVIEW ENGLISH I Mrs. Janicki Central Academy of Technology and Arts
CONFLICT: struggle between character and opposing force <ul><li>Internal conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. man </li><...
CHARACTERIZATION: how writers reveal the traits of the character to the reader <ul><li>Character’s thoughts and feelings <...
POINT OF VIEW <ul><li>First person-  “I” </li></ul><ul><li>Third person- “he/she” narrator tells what happens  </li></ul><...
AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: reason the author writes <ul><li>To inform-  (nonfiction, presents info) </li></ul><ul><li>To persuade- ...
AUTHOR’S CRAFT: own style of writing <ul><li>Diction= word choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on topic and format </li><...
LITERARY DEVICES <ul><li>ALLUSION-  reference to a person, place, event from history, literature, religion, mythology, pol...
IRONY: contrast between expectation and reality <ul><li>Verbal: contrast between what is said and what is meant </li></ul>...
THEME: special insight about life / message <ul><li>Bravery is courage in the face of danger </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty mea...
MOOD AND TONE <ul><ul><li>MOOD = FEELING  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agitation, anxiety, excitement, </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Poetic Devices <ul><li>ALLITERATION- repeating same initial sound in two or more words in a row </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P et...
Poetic devices (con’t) <ul><li>METAPHOR- comparison between unlike things (NO like or as) </li></ul><ul><li>-love is a ros...
POETRY TERMS <ul><li>Stanza- groups of lines that break up a poem (like paragraphs break up stories) </li></ul><ul><li>Spe...
ELEMENTS OF DRAMA <ul><li>DIALOGUE- words spoken by characters </li></ul><ul><li>STAGE DIRECTIONS- tell actors how to act,...
Drama  (con’t) <ul><li>ACTS- divisions of a play </li></ul><ul><li>SCENES- divisions of the acts </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t f...
GENRES: type of literary work <ul><li>FICTION- imaginary stories </li></ul><ul><li>~novel, novella, short story </li></ul>...
COMPOSITION <ul><li>Read selections and find and correct the mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Combine sentences correctly </li><...
MODIFIERS: words that change the meaning of other words <ul><li>ADJECTIVES-modify nouns or pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>ADVE...
PARALLEL STRUCTURE: use the same phrasing in pair or series of words <ul><li>Repeat same verb tenses or constructions </li...
PUNCTUATION <ul><li>Quotation marks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers exact words  (end marks INSIDE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
COMMAS <ul><li>Indicates a separation or transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate items in a list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
COLONS <ul><li>Separate hours and minutes </li></ul><ul><li>1:00 P.M. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce a list </li></ul><ul><ul...
SEMICOLONS <ul><li>Separate two clauses that are linked when each forms a complete sentence on its own </li></ul><ul><li>E...
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT <ul><li>Singular subjects get singular verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Plural subjects get plural verbs </l...
S-V AGREEMENT <ul><li>If subject is COMPOUND (uses AND) then use PLURAL verb </li></ul><ul><li>My coat, scarf, and hat  ar...
S-V AGREEMENT <ul><li>NEITHER/NOR and EITHER/OR take the form of the subject CLOSEST to the VERB </li></ul><ul><li>Neither...
S-V AGREEMENT <ul><li>INDEFINITE PRONOUNS –depends on the noun to which it refers </li></ul>another anything No one anyone...
RUN-ON SENTENCES: have two or more main clauses (can stand alone)  <ul><li>Change it into two sentences </li></ul><ul><li>...
FRAGMENTS:  incomplete thoughts <ul><li>Jazz, rap, and rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Does it have a subject? </li></ul><ul><li>D...
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES <ul><li>Mrs. Janicki’s Moodle page </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>G...
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Eoc Review

  1. 1. EOC REVIEW ENGLISH I Mrs. Janicki Central Academy of Technology and Arts
  2. 2. CONFLICT: struggle between character and opposing force <ul><li>Internal conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. man </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. supernatural </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. CHARACTERIZATION: how writers reveal the traits of the character to the reader <ul><li>Character’s thoughts and feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Character’s words and actions </li></ul><ul><li>Character’s description- by narrator </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts/words/actions of other characters </li></ul>
  4. 4. POINT OF VIEW <ul><li>First person- “I” </li></ul><ul><li>Third person- “he/she” narrator tells what happens </li></ul><ul><li>Omniscient- narrator knows everything about all characters- thoughts/feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Limited omniscient- narrator knows everything about ONE character </li></ul>
  5. 5. AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: reason the author writes <ul><li>To inform- (nonfiction, presents info) </li></ul><ul><li>To persuade- (issues, editorials, “you should…I”) </li></ul><ul><li>To entertain- (tells story) </li></ul>
  6. 6. AUTHOR’S CRAFT: own style of writing <ul><li>Diction= word choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on topic and format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal to informal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition to create emphasis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive to add to mood </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. LITERARY DEVICES <ul><li>ALLUSION- reference to a person, place, event from history, literature, religion, mythology, politics, sports, science, or pop culture </li></ul><ul><li>SYMBOL- an object, event, person or animal that represents something else more meaningful </li></ul>
  8. 8. IRONY: contrast between expectation and reality <ul><li>Verbal: contrast between what is said and what is meant </li></ul><ul><li>Situational: contrast between what is expected to happen and what happens </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic: contrast between what a character thinks is true and what the audience knows to be true </li></ul>
  9. 9. THEME: special insight about life / message <ul><li>Bravery is courage in the face of danger </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty means being faithful </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship often involves valuing a relationship over personal gain </li></ul><ul><li>Lonelines often involves the pains related to being on one’s own </li></ul><ul><li>Love is blind </li></ul>
  10. 10. MOOD AND TONE <ul><ul><li>MOOD = FEELING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agitation, anxiety, excitement, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TONE = APPROACH author takes to create mood </li></ul><ul><li>How does the author want you to feel? Tone triggers your reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Tones: </li></ul><ul><li>tense, light, dark, mysterious, somber, sad, angry, exciting, serious </li></ul>
  11. 11. Poetic Devices <ul><li>ALLITERATION- repeating same initial sound in two or more words in a row </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P eter P iper p icked a p eck of p ickled... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PERSONIFICATION- giving humanlike qualities to something that is not human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The stars danced across the sky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIMILE- comparison of two unlike things using like or as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- She was as pretty as a daisy </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Poetic devices (con’t) <ul><li>METAPHOR- comparison between unlike things (NO like or as) </li></ul><ul><li>-love is a rose </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERBOLE- an exaggeration </li></ul><ul><li>I nearly died laughing </li></ul><ul><li>IMAGERY- language that appeals to the five senses </li></ul>
  13. 13. POETRY TERMS <ul><li>Stanza- groups of lines that break up a poem (like paragraphs break up stories) </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker- the persona or narrator of poem </li></ul><ul><li>Rhyme- same or similar sounds at the ends of words </li></ul><ul><li>Rhyme scheme- use a different letter to each final sound in a poem </li></ul><ul><li>aabba </li></ul>
  14. 14. ELEMENTS OF DRAMA <ul><li>DIALOGUE- words spoken by characters </li></ul><ul><li>STAGE DIRECTIONS- tell actors how to act, description of scenery </li></ul><ul><li>- usually italicized or in parenthesis </li></ul>
  15. 15. Drama (con’t) <ul><li>ACTS- divisions of a play </li></ul><ul><li>SCENES- divisions of the acts </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget to read the stage directions for clues about the characters </li></ul>
  16. 16. GENRES: type of literary work <ul><li>FICTION- imaginary stories </li></ul><ul><li>~novel, novella, short story </li></ul><ul><li>NONFICTION- factual </li></ul><ul><li>~textbooks, newspaper articles, manuals, </li></ul><ul><li>DRAMAS- stories written to be performed </li></ul><ul><li>POETRY- short lines in stanzas </li></ul>
  17. 17. COMPOSITION <ul><li>Read selections and find and correct the mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Combine sentences correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Re-organize the sentences or paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>Choose better words to revise meaning </li></ul>
  18. 18. MODIFIERS: words that change the meaning of other words <ul><li>ADJECTIVES-modify nouns or pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>ADVERBS- modify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs (how? when? where?) </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE SURE MODIFYING WORD IS CLOSE TO THE WORD IT IS MODIFYING!! </li></ul><ul><li>Jan saw the café walking home. </li></ul><ul><li>Walking home, Jan saw the café. </li></ul>
  19. 19. PARALLEL STRUCTURE: use the same phrasing in pair or series of words <ul><li>Repeat same verb tenses or constructions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary enjoys eating cake and to sing “Happy Birthday” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary enjoys eating cake and singing “Happy Birthday.” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. PUNCTUATION <ul><li>Quotation marks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers exact words (end marks INSIDE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Titles of minor works- poems, songs, short stories, articles, essays, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. COMMAS <ul><li>Indicates a separation or transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate items in a list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link two different ideas or phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow introductory words or phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Join two independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction (and, but, so, for) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate subordinate clause from main clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the situation, Bill took action. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. COLONS <ul><li>Separate hours and minutes </li></ul><ul><li>1:00 P.M. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce a list </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We still need: plates, napkins, and drinks. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. SEMICOLONS <ul><li>Separate two clauses that are linked when each forms a complete sentence on its own </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) Some people like icing; other like cake. </li></ul><ul><li>Use in lists to separate when other commas are used </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) Bobby needed a shirt, a tie and socks; Billy needed some pants, a jacket and a hat. </li></ul>
  24. 24. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT <ul><li>Singular subjects get singular verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Plural subjects get plural verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Jonah likes pizza. </li></ul><ul><li>Jonah and Mike like pizza. </li></ul>
  25. 25. S-V AGREEMENT <ul><li>If subject is COMPOUND (uses AND) then use PLURAL verb </li></ul><ul><li>My coat, scarf, and hat are on the table. </li></ul><ul><li>If compound subject acts as a UNIT, use SINGULAR verb </li></ul><ul><li>Beans and rice is my favorite dinner. </li></ul>
  26. 26. S-V AGREEMENT <ul><li>NEITHER/NOR and EITHER/OR take the form of the subject CLOSEST to the VERB </li></ul><ul><li>Neither my jacket nor my boots are in the closet. </li></ul><ul><li>Either the games or the doll is in the toy box. </li></ul>
  27. 27. S-V AGREEMENT <ul><li>INDEFINITE PRONOUNS –depends on the noun to which it refers </li></ul>another anything No one anyone many someone few every both each Plural Singular
  28. 28. RUN-ON SENTENCES: have two or more main clauses (can stand alone) <ul><li>Change it into two sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Add a comma and a conjunction between the two main clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Add a semicolon between the two main clauses </li></ul>
  29. 29. FRAGMENTS: incomplete thoughts <ul><li>Jazz, rap, and rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Does it have a subject? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it have a verb or predicate? </li></ul><ul><li>Add the missing element or combine properly with complete sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Replace period with comma, add joining word or coordinating conjunction and add fragment </li></ul><ul><li>Olivia likes many types of music, including jazz, rap, and rock. </li></ul>
  30. 30. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES <ul><li>Mrs. Janicki’s Moodle page </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar practice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EOC practice tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar Bytes: chompchomp.com </li></ul></ul></ul>

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