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  • 1. EOC REVIEW ENGLISH I Mrs. Janicki Central Academy of Technology and Arts
  • 2. CONFLICT: struggle between character and opposing force
    • Internal conflict
      • Man vs. man
    • External conflicts
      • Man vs. man
      • Man vs. environment
      • Man vs. nature
      • Man vs. machine
      • Man vs. supernatural
  • 3. CHARACTERIZATION: how writers reveal the traits of the character to the reader
    • Character’s thoughts and feelings
    • Character’s words and actions
    • Character’s description- by narrator
    • Thoughts/words/actions of other characters
  • 4. POINT OF VIEW
    • First person- “I”
    • Third person- “he/she” narrator tells what happens
    • Omniscient- narrator knows everything about all characters- thoughts/feelings
    • Limited omniscient- narrator knows everything about ONE character
  • 5. AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: reason the author writes
    • To inform- (nonfiction, presents info)
    • To persuade- (issues, editorials, “you should…I”)
    • To entertain- (tells story)
  • 6. AUTHOR’S CRAFT: own style of writing
    • Diction= word choice
      • Depends on topic and format
        • Formal to informal
        • Repetition to create emphasis
        • Descriptive to add to mood
  • 7. LITERARY DEVICES
    • ALLUSION- reference to a person, place, event from history, literature, religion, mythology, politics, sports, science, or pop culture
    • SYMBOL- an object, event, person or animal that represents something else more meaningful
  • 8. IRONY: contrast between expectation and reality
    • Verbal: contrast between what is said and what is meant
    • Situational: contrast between what is expected to happen and what happens
    • Dramatic: contrast between what a character thinks is true and what the audience knows to be true
  • 9. THEME: special insight about life / message
    • Bravery is courage in the face of danger
    • Loyalty means being faithful
    • Friendship often involves valuing a relationship over personal gain
    • Lonelines often involves the pains related to being on one’s own
    • Love is blind
  • 10. MOOD AND TONE
      • MOOD = FEELING
      • Agitation, anxiety, excitement,
      • Depression,
    • TONE = APPROACH author takes to create mood
    • How does the author want you to feel? Tone triggers your reaction
    • Tones:
    • tense, light, dark, mysterious, somber, sad, angry, exciting, serious
  • 11. Poetic Devices
    • ALLITERATION- repeating same initial sound in two or more words in a row
      • P eter P iper p icked a p eck of p ickled...
      • PERSONIFICATION- giving humanlike qualities to something that is not human
      • The stars danced across the sky
      • SIMILE- comparison of two unlike things using like or as
      • - She was as pretty as a daisy
  • 12. Poetic devices (con’t)
    • METAPHOR- comparison between unlike things (NO like or as)
    • -love is a rose
    • HYPERBOLE- an exaggeration
    • I nearly died laughing
    • IMAGERY- language that appeals to the five senses
  • 13. POETRY TERMS
    • Stanza- groups of lines that break up a poem (like paragraphs break up stories)
    • Speaker- the persona or narrator of poem
    • Rhyme- same or similar sounds at the ends of words
    • Rhyme scheme- use a different letter to each final sound in a poem
    • aabba
  • 14. ELEMENTS OF DRAMA
    • DIALOGUE- words spoken by characters
    • STAGE DIRECTIONS- tell actors how to act, description of scenery
    • - usually italicized or in parenthesis
  • 15. Drama (con’t)
    • ACTS- divisions of a play
    • SCENES- divisions of the acts
    • Don’t forget to read the stage directions for clues about the characters
  • 16. GENRES: type of literary work
    • FICTION- imaginary stories
    • ~novel, novella, short story
    • NONFICTION- factual
    • ~textbooks, newspaper articles, manuals,
    • DRAMAS- stories written to be performed
    • POETRY- short lines in stanzas
  • 17. COMPOSITION
    • Read selections and find and correct the mistakes
    • Combine sentences correctly
    • Re-organize the sentences or paragraphs
    • Choose better words to revise meaning
  • 18. MODIFIERS: words that change the meaning of other words
    • ADJECTIVES-modify nouns or pronouns
    • ADVERBS- modify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs (how? when? where?)
    • MAKE SURE MODIFYING WORD IS CLOSE TO THE WORD IT IS MODIFYING!!
    • Jan saw the café walking home.
    • Walking home, Jan saw the café.
  • 19. PARALLEL STRUCTURE: use the same phrasing in pair or series of words
    • Repeat same verb tenses or constructions
      • Mary enjoys eating cake and to sing “Happy Birthday”
      • Mary enjoys eating cake and singing “Happy Birthday.”
  • 20. PUNCTUATION
    • Quotation marks
      • Speakers exact words (end marks INSIDE)
      • Titles of minor works- poems, songs, short stories, articles, essays, etc.
  • 21. COMMAS
    • Indicates a separation or transition
      • Separate items in a list
      • Link two different ideas or phrases
      • Follow introductory words or phrases
      • Join two independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction (and, but, so, for)
      • Separate subordinate clause from main clause
      • Understanding the situation, Bill took action.
  • 22. COLONS
    • Separate hours and minutes
    • 1:00 P.M.
    • Introduce a list
      • We still need: plates, napkins, and drinks.
  • 23. SEMICOLONS
    • Separate two clauses that are linked when each forms a complete sentence on its own
    • Ex.) Some people like icing; other like cake.
    • Use in lists to separate when other commas are used
    • Ex.) Bobby needed a shirt, a tie and socks; Billy needed some pants, a jacket and a hat.
  • 24. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
    • Singular subjects get singular verbs
    • Plural subjects get plural verbs
    • Jonah likes pizza.
    • Jonah and Mike like pizza.
  • 25. S-V AGREEMENT
    • If subject is COMPOUND (uses AND) then use PLURAL verb
    • My coat, scarf, and hat are on the table.
    • If compound subject acts as a UNIT, use SINGULAR verb
    • Beans and rice is my favorite dinner.
  • 26. S-V AGREEMENT
    • NEITHER/NOR and EITHER/OR take the form of the subject CLOSEST to the VERB
    • Neither my jacket nor my boots are in the closet.
    • Either the games or the doll is in the toy box.
  • 27. S-V AGREEMENT
    • INDEFINITE PRONOUNS –depends on the noun to which it refers
    another anything No one anyone many someone few every both each Plural Singular
  • 28. RUN-ON SENTENCES: have two or more main clauses (can stand alone)
    • Change it into two sentences
    • Add a comma and a conjunction between the two main clauses
    • Add a semicolon between the two main clauses
  • 29. FRAGMENTS: incomplete thoughts
    • Jazz, rap, and rock.
    • Does it have a subject?
    • Does it have a verb or predicate?
    • Add the missing element or combine properly with complete sentence
    • Replace period with comma, add joining word or coordinating conjunction and add fragment
    • Olivia likes many types of music, including jazz, rap, and rock.
  • 30. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
    • Mrs. Janicki’s Moodle page
      • Resources:
        • Grammar practice
        • EOC practice tests
        • Grammar Bytes: chompchomp.com