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Components of the Climate System<br />Atmosphere<br />Ocean<br /><ul><li>Biosphere
Geosphere</li></ul>Image from NASA<br />
Atmosphere & Ocean Circulation<br />Atmospheric Circulation<br />Depends on density<br />Ocean Surface Circulation<br />De...
Why is Ocean Circulation Important?<br />Transport ~ 20% of latitudinal heat<br />Equator to poles<br />Transport nutrient...
Temperature Structure of Ocean<br />thermocline<br />
Ocean circulation patterns – Wind <br />
Ocean circulation patterns – Surface Currents<br />
Ocean Circulation <br />
Winds and Currents<br /><ul><li> How fast? A few miles/hr (Gulf Stream off of Miami = 4.5 mph)
 How much?Total water in ocean surface circulation = about 100 Amazon Rivers (20 million m3/s).  </li></li></ul><li>Atmosp...
Sea Surface Temperature<br />http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/dees/ees/climate/slides/sst_march.gif<br />
Ocean Salinity<br />http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/dees/ees/climate/slides/sal_march.gif<br /><ul><li>http://ingrid.ldgo.col...
Thermohaline circulation<br />The Great Conveyor<br />        The conveyor circulation transports heat to the North Atlant...
Thermohaline Circulation<br />North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW<br />15 million m3 of near surface water descend into the de...
Thermohaline Circulation - The Ocean Conveyor<br />
Equatorial to polar heat transport and water flow<br />
Ocean – Atmosphere Circulation<br />
ENSO<br />El Niño/Southern Oscillation<br />3-7 year cycle of warming in E. Pacific<br />
ENSO<br />El Niño/Southern Oscillation<br />NASA/Goddard Space Flight CenterScientific Visualization Studio<br />
ENSO<br />El Niño/Southern Oscillation<br />http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a000200/a000287/index.html<br />NASA/Godd...
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Ocean circulation

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Global ocean circulation patterns, adapted from Gilroy ECA presentation on ocean circulation.
Website: gilroyeca.blogspot.com

Published in: Education
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Transcript of "Ocean circulation"

  1. 1. Components of the Climate System<br />Atmosphere<br />Ocean<br /><ul><li>Biosphere
  2. 2. Geosphere</li></ul>Image from NASA<br />
  3. 3. Atmosphere & Ocean Circulation<br />Atmospheric Circulation<br />Depends on density<br />Ocean Surface Circulation<br />Depends on the wind<br />Deep Ocean Circulation<br />Depends on density<br />
  4. 4. Why is Ocean Circulation Important?<br />Transport ~ 20% of latitudinal heat<br />Equator to poles<br />Transport nutrients and organisms<br />Influences weather and climate<br />Influences commerce<br />
  5. 5. Temperature Structure of Ocean<br />thermocline<br />
  6. 6. Ocean circulation patterns – Wind <br />
  7. 7. Ocean circulation patterns – Surface Currents<br />
  8. 8. Ocean Circulation <br />
  9. 9. Winds and Currents<br /><ul><li> How fast? A few miles/hr (Gulf Stream off of Miami = 4.5 mph)
  10. 10. How much?Total water in ocean surface circulation = about 100 Amazon Rivers (20 million m3/s). </li></li></ul><li>Atmosphere & Ocean Circulation<br />Atmospheric Circulation<br />Depends on density<br />Ocean Surface Circulation<br />Depends on the wind<br />Deep Ocean Circulation<br />Depends on density<br />
  11. 11. Sea Surface Temperature<br />http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/dees/ees/climate/slides/sst_march.gif<br />
  12. 12. Ocean Salinity<br />http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/dees/ees/climate/slides/sal_march.gif<br /><ul><li>http://ingrid.ldgo.columbia.edu/</li></li></ul><li>Temperature-Salinity (density) Diagram<br />
  13. 13. Thermohaline circulation<br />The Great Conveyor<br />        The conveyor circulation transports heat to the North Atlantic. The sinking which takes place is susceptible to changes in surface salinity. If the surface of the North Atlantic gets too fresh, NADW won’t sink. <br /> Global warming could increasemelting of ice caps and sea ice, causing more fresh water to enter the Atlantic. Many models suggest that a shutdown of the conveyor would cause cooling over the North Atlantic and Europe. <br />  <br /> The conveyor has been off in the past during global cold periods, such as the last ice age and during the Younger Dryas. One hypothesis is that the shutdown of the conveyor, coupled with resultant atmospheric changes, is enough to throw the world into an ice age - or at least a cold snap. <br />
  14. 14. Thermohaline Circulation<br />North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW<br />15 million m3 of near surface water descend into the deep ocean each second.<br />
  15. 15. Thermohaline Circulation - The Ocean Conveyor<br />
  16. 16. Equatorial to polar heat transport and water flow<br />
  17. 17. Ocean – Atmosphere Circulation<br />
  18. 18. ENSO<br />El Niño/Southern Oscillation<br />3-7 year cycle of warming in E. Pacific<br />
  19. 19. ENSO<br />El Niño/Southern Oscillation<br />NASA/Goddard Space Flight CenterScientific Visualization Studio<br />
  20. 20. ENSO<br />El Niño/Southern Oscillation<br />http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a000200/a000287/index.html<br />NASA/Goddard Space Flight CenterScientific Visualization Studio<br />
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