Discussion of Bulleri and Chapman 2010


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Introduction of coastal infrastructure as a driver of change in marine environments by Elvis Torres Delgado, CIAM 6117 2013

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Discussion of Bulleri and Chapman 2010

  1. 1. The Introduction of coastal infrastructure as a driver of change in marine environments Elvis Torres Delgado September 11, 2013
  2. 2. Some Concepts • Intertidial zone – part of the shore that is above water at low tide and below the water at high tide. • Nearshore – area that extends seawards from the low water line.
  3. 3. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/67/World_population_density_1994.png
  4. 4. Urban Growth • High percentage of the population lives in the coast and they receive a lot of tourism. • Urbanization and coastal structures affect the ecosystem. • A lot of hard structures are added to “protect” the shores of erosion.
  5. 5. Cancun, Mexico http://viajesalcaribe.eu/wp content/uploads/2013/08/I
  6. 6. Isla Verde, Puerto Rico http://puertorico.co m.pr/wp- content/uploads/20 13/05/Isla-Verde- Beach-01.jpg
  7. 7. Ecological consequences of the introduction of artificial structure • Artificial structures affect the normal epibiota and fish assemblages. It’s worse with unnatural materials. • Sometimes the problem is not the material, but the structural change what affects biota development (ex. lack of rock pools).
  8. 8. Ecological consequences of the introduction of artificial structure • Unnatural structures may provide ideal conditions for the establishments of exotic species. • Can also affect the species richness or abundance.
  9. 9. SeawallsBreakwaters Jetties http://marineinsight.co m/wp- content/uploads/2010 /12/SeaWall_Japan.jpg http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/en gineering/hydraulics/images /h25_712.jpg http://www.choctawtra ns.com/ag7217c050016 /Breakwaters%20constr ucted.JPG
  10. 10. Ecological consequences of the introduction of artificial structure • It is believed that some of these structures may resemble better the natural ones after many years of weathering. • It has been shown that many of these artificial structures don’t support natural assembly even after many decades of exposition.
  11. 11. Effects on adjacent habitats • Differences in diversity of species has been found in rocky shores bordered by seawalls. • Biota living in artificial structures may be a food source for species nearby. • Some structures favor a shift from consumers domination to producers domination.
  12. 12. Regional or large-scale changes • Urbanization contributes to species homogenization. • Artificial structures can help connect separated populations. Reduces gene flow and genetic diversity.
  13. 13. http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/ex plorations/03mex/logs/sept21/me dia/dscn0011_600.jpg http://static.progressivemedi agroup.com/uploads/imageli brary/Rigs_Reefs_Six.jpg
  14. 14. Alternative management options • New solutions to fight coastal erosion without using hard structures are being considered. • In high wave energy a combination of natural and artificial elements may be needed (hybrid designs). • Hard structures that consider suitable habitat for species affected by urbanization processes, fishing, recreation, and education are starting to get used.
  15. 15. Intertidal seawalls http://cristinabump.files.wordpres s.com/2011/01/sydney_mcmahon s_point_seawall.jpg http://sydney.edu.au/science/bio/e icc/images/content/p_seawalls_est uaries2.jpg
  16. 16. Final thoughts • More interdisciplinary research is needed to understand the effects of urbanism on coastal ecosystem. • There is a need to explore new solutions to protect coastal structures affecting the ecosystem as less as possible.