The great depression 1929 1939


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The great depression 1929 1939

  1. 1. THE GREAT DEPRESSION 1929-1939• America’s economy dominates the world economy• Many countries affected by WW1 borrow large amounts of $$$from the U.S. to rebuild• Many middle class Americans begin investing their $$$ in stocks• Buying a stock, means you buy a small part of a company (invest)to help it grow, then when the company starts to make profitsthey share the profits with the investors• Companies in the U.S. were doing so good in the 1920’s, manypeople would borrow $$$ to buy stocks• In this situation, the value of the stocks was artificially high• When the stock prices went down, all the people that borrowed$$$ to buy stock could not sell the stock, or pay back the banksthat they borrowed the $$$ from
  2. 2. THE GREAT DEPRESSION 1929-1939• By 1930 American businesses were firing workers becauseconsumers were not buying the products these companiesmade …… cause massive unemployment• U.S. banks & businesses stop loaning and investing $$$ allaround the world making it a global depression• The countries that lost WW1 were especially in trouble• World trade drops sharply• Many people begin to believe in extreme new political ideas(rise of Fascism in Germany, Italy, Japan, East Europe, LatinAmerica)• America slowly recovers, tries many government workprograms that had mixed effects NEW DEAL• WW2 (1939-1945) eventually ends the depression
  3. 3. Rising political chaos, especially in EuropeMany strikes& riots byunemployed& factoryworkersMore poor&unemployed= moreangryproletariansMore angryproletarians= communistmovementgetsstrongerGrowingthreat ofcommunism,manypeople turnto fascism
  4. 4. Fascism• Extremely nationalist often believes in superiority over others• Extremely anti-communist• Accepts different class roles should exist, but advocates somesocialism• No privileges, must earn your place• Believes in unifying all classes of the nation for the purpose offocusing on making that nation stronger and better. Everythingshould be for this purpose.• Thus there is a need for propaganda, censorship, somegovernment control of economics . Usually a strong leader• Basically fascism still follows capitalist economic ideas (profit,private property, different economic classes, etc….)
  5. 5. Italy and Fascism• Italy after WW1 1919 had a bad economy• Italians were nationalist, and angry they did not win anythingafter WW1• Many Italians felt threatened by communism• Benito Mussolini promised to destroy communists, make Italystrong, and conquer new territory 1st real Fascist, he legalytakes power in 1922• censorship, propaganda, secret police, persecutes communist• Eliminates mafia, promotes industry, militarism, modernization
  6. 6. Mare Nostrum ‘our sea’• Promises to make Italy great like it once was during the RomanEmpire new conquest• Sees France, England, and communism as enemies• Rome-Berlin Axis …. alliance with Nazi Germany 1936
  7. 7. Italian Expansion• Italy invades Ethiopia in 1935, League of Nations protests, but does nothing• Helps the Fascist General Franco during the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939• Invades Albania in 1939• Declares war against France & England with Germany in 1940, attacks British inEgypt ……. Vey difficult, requires German assistance• Invades Greece 1940 …… very difficult, requires German assistance• Send many troops to help Germany fight Soviet Union 1941
  8. 8. Spanish Civil War 1936-1939• 1936 - Fascist (General Franco) aristocrats, army, Catholics, middle class• VS• Republican Alliance - communists, poor, artists, factory workers, navy• Fascist get help from Italy & Germany… Practicing with new weapons• Republican Alliance get help from Soviet Union, western European liberals• Fascist win, Franco stays in power from 1939-1975• Franco refuses to officially join Germany & Italy in WW2, but doesencourage Spanish volunteers to help Germany fight U.S.S.R.
  9. 9. Spanish Fascism Civil War-WW2-1975
  10. 10. Rise of Fascism in Germany• Adolf Hitler, born in Austria (a German country)• Lives as a desperate starving artist in Vienna for several years• Immigrates to Germany just before WW1 in 1912
  11. 11. Rise of Fascism in Germany• Hitler volunteers to join the German army in 1914, wins many awards forbravery, is injured by poison gas when the war ends in 1918
  12. 12. Rise of Fascism in Germany 1920´s – 1930´s• Like most Germans, Hitler was nationalist, and angry aboutthe Treaty of Versailles• Joins Nazi Party in 1919 and becomes its leader• Many extreme political parties in Germany during 1920´s• Attempted communist revolutions made Germans feelthreatened, they began to turn to Nazism• Hitler in jail after failed attempts to take over government ofBavaria in 1924 BEER HALL PUTSCH , in jail he wrote MEINKAMPF
  13. 13. Rise of Fascism in Germany 1920´s – 1930´s• Great Depression hurts Germany very bad in early 1930´s• Eventually Nazis win elections by promising to destroycommunists, restore order, and make Germany great again• Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germay in 1933, WW2 begins 1939• Nazification of Germany, remilitarization, economic comeback
  14. 14. Nazis Believe• Aryan Superiority – Aryans are 100% White Europeans, & are superior toother races, are the most advanced. Should not mix with other races• Lebensraum – ´living space´. Germany is too small & too crowded. Shouldconquer new territory in east europe and colonize it. Destroy the Slavs• Anti-Semitic – anti Jewish. Jews have their own racial agenda & want tomake Aryans weak. Jews control communism, the media, the banks, etc….
  15. 15. Rise of Nazi Power 1930´s• 1935 – Hitler stops following the Treaty of Versailles• 1936 – Germany re-occupies Rhineland with German army• 1936 – Rome-Berlin Axis alliance with Fascist Italy AXIS• 1936-1939 – Support for fascist General Franco in Spanish Civil War• 1938 – Germany and Austria are united Anschluss• 1939 – Germany takes over Czechoslovakia Munich Conference• 1939 – Germany & USSR sign a Non-Aggression Pact , they agree to dividePoland and eastern europe amoung themselves• The League of Nations does nothing, they believe Hitler only wants tounify all Germans and is not aggressive. appeasement• Everyone in Germany has a job during this time, the military is rebuilt & isthe strongest in Europe. The autobohn is built, the Volkswagen
  16. 16. Rise of Fascism in Germany 1930´s• Hitler comes into power in 1933 By 1936 every German has a job• German military is rebuilt with modern weapons• Autobahn is built, later copied by many countries• Volkswagen ¨peoples car¨ is mass produced• Germany hosts the 1936 Olympics
  17. 17. Europe, Just Before the Start of WW2 September 1 1939
  18. 18. WW2 Begins, September 1939• USSR wants territory that belonged to Russia before Treaty of Versailles………….. Finland, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia ´´eastern europe´´• Germany also wants Polish territory it lost in the Treaty of Versailles• England & France promise to help Poland if Germany attacks• Germany does not expect F & GB to fight over Poland, but Germanycannot risk a two-front war either• USSR does not trust F & GB, thinks its military is not yet ready to fightNazis because of the effects of the Great Purge• Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact – benefits Germany & USSR, agree todivide East Europe. USSR gives Germany raw materials for technology• Germany quickly conquers Poland in 2 weeks, Russia invades Poland too
  19. 19. Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, Invasion of Poland, GB & F declare war onGermany Sept 1939 USSR invades Finland & Baltic Countries 1940
  20. 20. Germany takes Austria & Czchekoslovakia, Munich Conference,Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact & the Invasion of Poland• Absent students should watch from 22:00 – 40:00• especially 32:00 – 34:45•
  21. 21. Blitzkrieg ¨lightning war¨ New Military Technology used by Germany• Mastering the use of modern technology the Germans suprise all theirenemies with speed and surround them• Airplanes – bombing enemy railroads & bridges to disrupt enemy troopmovements. Bombing cities to frighten the populations into surrender.Attacking enemy fortifications and ships from above where they do notexpect it. Droping infantry behind the front-lines (paratroops)• Tanks – ¨the tip of the spear¨ instead of spreading out the tanks with theinfantry, concentrate all tanks at the very front of the attack, followed byinfantry carried in trucks to keep up with the speed of the tanks(motorized infantry) you can quickly surround larger enemy this way• Motorized Divisions – all supplies, soldiers, & artillery are carried bytrucks in order to keep up with the tank spearheads rapid speed
  22. 22. Fall of France & Western Europe 1940• Autumn 1939 - England & France mobilize armies and put them on the borderwith Germany but are afraid to attack (phony war) do not want to reapeat WW1• Maginot Line – super trench built on the French-German border by France in1920’s & 1930’s all steel & concrete & underground. French army waits forGerman attack, but it never comes in this location• April 1940 - Germany invades Denmark & Norway in order to build bases tosurround and attack England with submarines & airplanes• May 1940 – Germany starts attacking Belgium & Holland• GB & F think the Germans are using the Schliefen Plan again and move theirarmies into Belgium. But they are moving into a trap• Main German attack thru the Ardennes Forest with motorized divisionssurround and destroy the British & French.• June 1940 – France surrenders, majority of British army destroyed (it only tookGermany 1 month) some British flee back to England by ships• Vichy France – the remainder of France submits to Germany for the rest of thewar. French are forced to surrender in the same railroad car & location theGermans had surrendered in for WW1. France must now pay Germany $$$
  23. 23. Fall of Western Europe & New German Military Strategy: Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, France• Absent students: you should watch this video•• Watch from 42:30 – 46:55 especially 44:50 – 45:20 or just watch theentire video if you have the time
  24. 24. The useless Maginot Line on the border of France & Germany. France& Britain: defensive Germany: offensive with new weapons
  25. 25. Battle of Britain 1940-1941 Luftwaffe VS Royal Air Force• 80% of British army is destroyed in France, Germany is about to invadeEngland• Only the British Air Force can stop the invasion, navy is vulnerable toGerman airplanes & is also spread around the world protecting empire• Britain is attacked by the larger German Air Force & submarines fromFrance & Norway• Great Britain has developed good radar technology that helps them shootdown attacking German airplanes• Many British factories, railroads, airports, sea ports, and cities damagedor destroyed by German Air attacks• British are able to shoot down so many German airplanes that theGermans give up the idea of invading England to focus in other places
  26. 26. Battle of Britain 1940-1941• Absent students should watch 1:55 – 4:55 and 11:20 – 15:25•
  27. 27. War in North Africa 1940 - 1943• Sept 1940 - Italy attacks British Egypt from the Italian colony of Libya• The Italian invasion does not go very well even though the Italians have abigger force• March 1941 – Hitler sends Erwin Rommel with a small tank force to helpItaly. Against great numbers pushes into Egypt towards Suez Canal• British use large colonial army from Australia, New Zealand, India, &several African countries to stop Rommel. Much equipment comes fromthe U.S.A. Battle of El Alamein• Fighting in N. Africa continues until 1943
  28. 28. Invasion of the Balkans & Russia Phase 1 1941• Italy invades Greece and soon requires German help• With their allies Hungary, Rumania, & Bulgaria, Italy & Germany invadeYugoslavia & Greece• This invasion of the Balkans delays Hitler’s planned invasion of USSR by 1month & will have serious effects on the outcome of the invasion of USSR
  29. 29. Europe Just Before the German Invasion of USSR June 1941
  30. 30. Invasion of the USSR June 22, 1941• WHY? Great Britain was not yet completely defeated & was starting toget material help from the U.S.A.• Fighting still happening in North Africa• Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact meant that Germany was getting manyraw materials & food from USSR• REASON: USSR military still appeared weak from the Great Purge of1937-1938. USSR had many problems attacking Finland such a smallcountry in 1940• USSR was beginning to protest German aggression in the Balkans & alsodemanding more territory in East Europe• Hitler still obsessed with lebensraum Hitler/Fascism goal is to destroycommunism, rule the Slavs, colonize East Europe• Thought that defeating USSR would make Great Britain finally quitbecause it would finally take away the possibility of a 2 front war thatBritain was still hoping for
  31. 31. Operation “Barbarossa” Hitler invades USSR June 1941• German Army surprises the USSR, Stalin has a nervous breakdown• Huge Soviet armies are surrounded, destroyed, or surrender• Majority of USSR industry & good farmland in West Russia is captured• German army advances so fast it is hard to keep enough supplies at the front ofthe German attack• Racial Holy War Einsatzgruppen ‘special squads’ follow behind the Germanarmy & start killing communists, Jews, Gypsies, Asiatics, taking food fromcivilians, moving slaves to Germany to work in the factories killing allinferiors …. Start of holocaust millions of Russians dead• By October 70% of USSR army is destroyed, USSR starts scorched earth policy• By December Moscow & Leningrad almost captured ………. Winter arrives andstops the Germans just in time• U.S.A. will start sending USSR supplies, now Hitler has a two front war
  32. 32. Operation Barbarossa, German Invasion of USSR 1941• why we fight russia very long• Better , barbarossa in color Absent students watch this one•
  33. 33. • The poisonous mushroom book• Why we fight 10min sudetenland – czech …. Nazi-soviet pact …. Part 1 poland•• OR• Part 2• Norway 4:30 surround england 14:00 france 20:45 - 22:10 Holland 25:00 – 27:45• France 42:55 - 46:55 Best one france finished off 49:20 - 53:20•• OR• Battle of Britain 1:55 – 4:55 11:20 – 15:25• OR•
  34. 34. United States Just Before WW2
  35. 35. United States 1930´s• Suffering from Great Depression• Majority of Americans Isolationist• Many Fascist sympathizers• Congress passes neutrality laws• suspicious of Japan
  36. 36. Great Britain & Empire WW2 1939-1945
  37. 37. Great Britain & Empire WW2 1939-1945Strength• Strong Navy & airforce• Large colonial Empire• Modern industry – technology• Material support from U.S.A. LEND-LEASE AIDWeakness• Many Nazi sympathizers at first• Suffering from Great Depression• Vulnerable to GermanSubmarines & Airplanes• Small army• Empire is spread thin• Some colonial rebellion(Gahndi in India)
  38. 38. France, 1930’s – 1940’sStrengths• Colonial Empire• Modern Industry• Help of Allies (British)• Free French (Charles De Gaulle)fight on after France is conqueredWeaknesses• Defeatist attitude• Great Depression• Faith in Maginot Line• Many French collaborate withGermans (Vichy France)
  39. 39. U.S.S.R. 1930’s – 1940’sStrengths• Largest military in the world• Becoming major industrial power• Lots of space• Lend – Lease Aid from U.S.A.• Does not fight Japan• Determination to winWeaknesses• Looses most industry to Germans• Major shortages of materials• Military suffers from Great Purge• Heavy military & civilian losses
  40. 40. Germany 1939 – 1945 ww2Strengths• Greatest military in the world• Efficiency, order, productivity• Great industry – high technology• Invents new tactics Blitzkreig• Cooperation of allies• Submarine warfare againWeaknesses• Outnumbered• Eventual loss of resources• Hitler interferes too much withmilitary decisions at the end• Allies sometimes weak & stupid