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Seminar at the University of Milan / Course in Cyberlaw / January 19, 2012

Seminar at the University of Milan / Course in Cyberlaw / January 19, 2012

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  • 1. Università degli studi di milano BicoccaCiclo di seminari 2011-2012 in DIRITTO E TECNOLOGIE 19 gennario 2012 Open Data in Italia:le sperimentazioni e le iniziative a livello locale e nazionale Lorenzo Benussi, TOP-IX Consotium lorenzo.benussi@top-ix.org 1
  • 2. About me Public policy & Innovation TOP-IX Consortium Fellow, NEXA Centre for Internet & Society Polytechnic of Turin Fellow, Department ofEconomics University of Turin 2
  • 3. agenda1. Background2. Definitions I. Open Knowledge Definition II. Open Data Licenses III. Pricing models IV. Formats3. Examples4. Open Data in Italy5. Open data tools and issues6. Wrap-up 3
  • 4. Ref: National Geographic http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/big-idea/14/augmented-reality Background 1 - WEB squared 4
  • 5. WEB(squared)1.Redefining Collective Intelligence:New Sensory Input2.Cooperating Data Subsystems3.How the Web Learns: Explicit vs.Implicit Meaning4.Web Meets World: The"Information Shadow" and theInternet of Things5.The Rise of Real Time: A CollectiveMindRef: Tim O’Reilly and John Battelle (2009), Web Squared: Web 2.0 Five Years On.http://www.web2summit.com/web2009/public/schedule/detail/10194 5
  • 6. Background 2- Big data 6
  • 7. BIG DATA stylized facts 1• $600 to buy a disk drive that can store all the worlds music.• 5 billion mobile phone in use in 2010.• 30 billion pieces of content shared on Facebook every month.• 40% of projected growth in global data generated per year VS 5% growth in global IT spending.• 235 terabytes data collected by US Library of Congress in April 2011.• 15 out of 17 sectors in the United States have more data stored per company than the US Library of Congress McKinsey: Big Data:The next frontier of innovation, competition and productivity. (may 2011) 7
  • 8. BIG DATA stylized facts 2 $300 billion potential annual value of US health-care data; more than X2 total annual health care spending in Spain.• €250 billion potential annual value to Europes public sector administration - more than GDP of Greece.• $600 billion potential annual consumer surplus from using personal location data globally.• 60% potential increase in retailers operating margins possible with big data.• 140.000-190.000 more deep analytical talent position and 1.5 million more data-savvy managers needed to take full advantage of big data in the USA. McKinsey: Big Data:The next frontier of innovation, competition and productivity. (may 2011) 8
  • 9. The value of metrics • Data Hal Varian, Google’s Chief Economist • Information • Knowledge • Value 9
  • 10. DATA as a SERVICEA. Data on-demand: data are not closed inside applications but they are consumed on-demand as a serviceB. Data as web resources: RESTful API make possible to access data as a web resource (trough URI) 10
  • 11. PSI (public sector information) mines• The Public Sector produces and manages huge amount of data, opening PSI information in EU produces economic growth. 140 billion € / year (aggregate)• Public Data are the raw material to create new products and services COURTESY/RON WHEELER. The 8,000-foot deep Homestake Gold Mine in South Dakota is the site where scientists, including UC Berkeley researchers, plan to construct the worlds deepest research center. 11
  • 12. Raw data now!"... give us the unadulterated data, we want the data, we wantunadulterated data. We have to ask for raw data now."Tim Berners-Lee, advisor data.gov.uk 12
  • 13. WHY : (digital) market• Innovation• Competition• Digital commons 13
  • 14. WHY : civil society• Accountability• Tansparency• Collaboration• Participation 14
  • 15. data.gov “Openness will strengthen our democracy and promote efficiency and effectiveness in Government” Transparency and Open Government Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies (2009)“We recognise that transparency and opendata can be a powerful tool to help reformpublic services, foster innovation andempower citizens.David Cameron - Letter to Cabinet Ministers(2011) 15
  • 16. Legislation in EU, Italy and PiedmontEUROPEDirective 2003/98/CE - november 17, 2003(under revision)ITALYDecreto Legislativo n. 36 / January 24, 2006 and L. 96/2010.PIEDMONTLegge Regionale n.24 / December 23, 2011 16
  • 17. data.gov: leading examplesUSA - data.gov UK - data.gov.uk Australia - data.gov.au 17
  • 18. data.gov: worldwide examples Africa (Kenia)France Spain 18
  • 19. Open Data: definitions 19
  • 20. open (the) data Open Data is a model to extract value from public sector information by using the data to build new tools and to create innovative services 20
  • 21. Open Knowledge Definition v.1.1 by OKF A work is open if its manner of distribution satisfies the following conditions:1. Access2. Redistribution 8. No discrimination (fields or endeavor)3. Reuse 9. Distribution of license4. Absence of technologicalrestriction 10. License must not be specific to a package5. Attribution 11. License must not6. Integrity restrict the distribution of other works7. No discrimination(persons or groups) 21
  • 22. The Definition - A work is open if its manner of distributionsatisfies the following conditions:1. ACCESSThe work shall be available as a whole and at no more than a reasonablereproduction cost, preferably downloading via the Internet without charge. Thework must also be available in a convenient and modifiable form.2. REDISTRIBUTIONThe license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the work eitheron its own or as part of a package made from works from many different sources.The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale or distribution.3. REUSEThe license must allow for modifications and derivative works and must allowthem to be distributed under the terms of the original work. 22
  • 23. Open Data:standard licenses 23
  • 24. Open Data license 1 (ODC) Open Data Commons licences1. Public Domain Dedication and License (PDDL) — “Public Domain for data/databases”2. Open Data Commons Attribution License (ODC- By) — “Attribution for data/databases”3. Open Data Commons Open Database License (ODC-ODbL) — “Attribution Share-Alike for data/ databases” Ref: http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/ 24
  • 25. Open Data licenses 2 (CC e IODL) Creative Commons Licenses (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/)1. CC Zero2. CC by - Atribution3. CC SA - Share alike4. CC BY-SA - Attribution and Share alike IN ITALY: Italian open data license (http://www.formez.it/ iodl/)• IODL - Italian Open Data License (BY-SA) 25
  • 26. Open Data: prices 26
  • 27. The price of PSI: the “free data” approach• The peculiar cost structure of digital data collecting, processing and delivering (high fixed costs, zero marginal cost) strongly influences the possible pricing strategies to be adopted by PSI holders.• Pollock (2008): a price that equals marginal costs (i.e. PSI free of charge) is socially optimal provided that elasticity of demand and positive externalities overcome a given threshold. ✓ Empirics: those conditions are likely to be verified in most of the PSI domains. 27
  • 28. The price of PSI: Externalities & Policy• All pricing strategies encompass potential risks of inefficiency for PSI holders (due to lack of incentives in reducing costs and/or improving quality)• The importance of the re1gulatory framework• The Central Role of Externalities 28
  • 29. Open Data: formats 29
  • 30. Linked open data With linked data, when you have some of it, you can find other, related, data. (by Tim Berners-Lee) 1. Use URIs as names for things 2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. 3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL) 4. Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things. Ref: http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/ LinkedData.html 30
  • 31. Data as a RDF graph 31
  • 32. The Vision - A globalinterconnected database 32
  • 33. Linked data - hands onDBPedia provide information of wikipedia as Linked Data.Example, Turin airport: http://dbpedia.org/page/Turin_Caselle_Airport 33
  • 34. examples 34
  • 35. 2 groupsI. TransparencyII. Information services 35
  • 36. Transparency• Public assembly (parliament, councils)• Public Budget and expenses• Public procurement 36
  • 37. Ref: http://traintimes.org.uk/map/tube/Info services• Transportation• Environment• Cultural heritage 37
  • 38. open data in italy backgrounditaly is more than a single nation is a network of cities is a complex system 38
  • 39. The first example in Italy - dati.piemonte.it 39
  • 40. dati.gov.it data.gov: IT examples dati.istat.it dati.emilia-romagna.it 40
  • 41. apps4italy• All EU citizens can participate (!!) & 40K€ in cash prizes• Building useful, innovative projects based on italian public data (not only open data)• Four main categories (growing): 1. Ideas 2. Apps Ref: appsforitaly.org 3. Visualization 4. Datasets 41
  • 42. Open data: tools and issues42
  • 43. 3 tools to do open dataI. Guidelines to define: legislative framework, administrative process, licenses, prices.II. Data Portal: the platform for data distribution and community building.III. Contests to engage companies, associations, citizens. 43
  • 44. 3 issuesto face doing open dataI. Data quality influences re-useII. Data explanation is necessary / Data StorytellingIII. Data are just the first step 44
  • 45. wrap-upOpen Data needs perspective:1. it changes information management (big data and linked data);2. it changes markets structure (innovation and competition);3. it changes the limits between public administration and citizens (wikicrazia and government as a platform). 45
  • 46. thankslorenzo.benussi@top-ix.org 46

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