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BIOCHEMISTRY
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  • 1. The Chemistry of Life What are living creatures made of? Why do we have to eat?Regents Biology 2006-2007
  • 2. Elements of Life  96% of living organisms is made of:  carbon (C)  oxygen (O)  hydrogen (H)  nitrogen (N)Regents Biology
  • 3. Molecules of Life  Put C, H, O, N together in different ways to build living organisms  What are bodies made of?  carbohydrates  sugars & starches  proteins  fats (lipids)  nucleic acids  DNA, RNARegents Biology
  • 4. Why do we eat?  We eat to take in more of these chemicals  Food for building materials  to make more of us (cells)  for growth ATP  for repair  Food to make energy  calories  to make ATPRegents Biology
  • 5. What do we need to eat?  Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy  for building & running bodies  carbohydrates  proteins  fats  nucleic acids  vitamins  minerals, salts  waterRegents Biology
  • 6. Don’t forget water  Water  65% of your body is H2O  water is inorganic  doesn’t contain carbon  Rest of you is made of carbon molecules  organic molecules  carbohydrates  proteins  fats  nucleic acidsRegents Biology
  • 7. How do we make these molecules? We build them!Regents Biology 2006-2007
  • 8. Building large molecules of life  Chain together smaller molecules  building block molecules = monomers  Big molecules built from little molecules  polymersRegents Biology
  • 9. Building large organic molecules  Small molecules = building blocks  Bond them together = polymersRegents Biology
  • 10. Building important polymers Carbohydrates = built from sugars sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar Proteins = built from amino acids amino amino amino amino amino amino acid – acid – acid – acid – acid – acid Nucleic acids (DNA) = built from nucleotides nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotideRegents Biology
  • 11. How to build large molecules  Synthesis  building bigger molecules from smaller molecules  building cells & bodies  repair  growth  reproduction + ATPRegents Biology
  • 12. How to take large molecules apart  Digestion  taking big molecules apart  getting raw materials  for synthesis & growth  making energy (ATP)  for synthesis, growth & everyday functions + ATPRegents Biology
  • 13. Example of digestion ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP starch glucose ATP  Starch is digested to glucoseRegents Biology
  • 14. Example of synthesis amino acids protein Proteins are synthesized by bonding amino acids amino acids = building blockRegents Biology protein = polymer
  • 15. Any Questions? Penguins gone bad!Regents Biology
  • 16. Old Food PyramidRegents Biology
  • 17. New Food PyramidRegents Biology