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Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
Role of the Library in Student Retention
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Role of the Library in Student Retention

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Presentation from Ontario Library Association Superconference 2010 …

Presentation from Ontario Library Association Superconference 2010
Session # 606 - Thurs., Feb 25.
Description:
This session will familiarize participants with the literature on the academic library’s role in student retention. Suggestions for future directions in library service will be offered based on how the library “fits” into different models of student integration. Current initiatives to combat attrition will be discussed, and ideas for gathering evidence to assess your library’s impact or prove your role in this campus-wide issue will be offered. Areas requiring further research will also be highlighted. Come learn more how your library can support student retention in a competitive post-secondary environment!

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  • 1. Academic Libraries & Student Retention Presentation with full speaker notes also available for download at: http://www.accessola.com/supercon ference2010/showSession.php?lses sion=606 LORELEI HARRIS OLA CONFERENCE 2010 UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN LORELEIH@UMICH.EDU Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 2. Student Retention…  University of Lethbridge (Alberta):  28% attrition rate of all first time undergraduate students enrolled 1997 (2004 Report, seven years after enrollment)  Canada-wide:  Average long term attrition rate ~40% (Canadian Millennial Scholarship Foundation 2003 Report, based on five or six year period; Canada & USA) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 3. “A high rate of attrition is indicative of a failure on the part of an institution to achieve its purpose.” Elizabeth Mezick, 2007 ( L o n g I s l a n d U n i v e r s i t y, B r o o k v i l l e , N Y ) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 4. Agenda  Student Attrition & Why it’s a Big Deal  Student Retention as a Topic for Library Research  Why is this important for Libraries?  Issues around Retention Research  Barriers to comparison; Definition of terms  Reasons why Students Leave  Psychological models  How Libraries Fit  Aspects of library service related to student retention  Current Activities & Potential for Future Research Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 5. Outcomes  By the end of the session, you will…  Have a greater understanding of the issues surrounding student retention  Gain appreciation for the factors impacting student attrition  Be able to identify certain library services or activities that support retention  Articulate how your library “fits” in supporting the broader institutional mission Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 6. This presentation is NOT…  About teaching strategies to enhance students’ ability to retain knowledge of skills or class content  A presentation of new research Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 7. This presentation IS…  A discussion of existing student retention literature, as it relates to libraries  Meant as a starting point; a way to start thinking about re-framing activities your library may already do or be considering  Focused on postsecondary education, with emphasis on 4-yr undergraduate universities Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 8. “Student Retention is one of the biggest concerns currently in higher education.” K a y F o s t e r, 2 0 0 3 ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Te e s s i d e , U K ) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 9. “There is growing pressure on all academic library managers to be more accountable for how they use limited resources and to achieve institutional outcomes perceived as important by college and university stakeholders…. One such outcome is student persistence.” Elizabeth Mezick, 2007 ( L o n g I s l a n d U n i v e r s i t y, B r o o k v i l l e , N Y ) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 10. Student Attrition  Why is student attrition big deal?  Not in line with our “goals & priorities”  Possible detrimental effect to students  Financial cost for all involved  Okanagan University College (1996) estimated $4,230 was lost by the institution for each student who did not continue into second year  Yorke (1999) estimated the average annual cost of student attrition in the UK = £100 Million (GBP) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 11. “The library benefits from taking a leadership role in contributing to a campus-wide approach to retention. S t a n l e y W i l d e r, 1 9 9 0 (Louisiana State University) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 12. Student Retention as a Topic for Library Research  Why should this be an important area for libraries?  Helps us tie-in with institutional goals and objectives  Helps to integrate the library with other departments & faculties  May open increased funding opportunities  Helps us better serve the needs of our users, students Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 13. “The academic library in general, and a c a d e m i c l i b r a r i a n s i n p a r t i c u l a r, p l a y s a pivotal role in the education and retention of students.” M a u r i e C a i t l i n K e l l y, 1 9 9 5 (University of Illinois, Chicago) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 14. “There remains a glaring lack of research on the effect the library environment has on students’ educational gains or outcomes.” L e m u e l W. Wa t s o n , 2 0 0 1 ( C l e m s o n U n i v e r s i t y, W e s t L a f a y e t t e , I N ) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 15. Student Retention Literature  Library studies mainly focus on:  Statistically significant relationships between library expenditures, or staffing levels and student retention  E.g. Hiscock, 1986 Hamrick, Schuh, & Shelley, 2004 Mezick, 2007 Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 16. Student Retention Literature  Relationships between library use (collections) and student retention  Student who borrowed books = more likely to persist  E.g. Kramer & Kramer, 1968  Impact of information literacy instruction  Students involved in library skills programs showed lower attrition rates  E.g. Knapp, 1966 Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 17. Student Retention Literature  Some on library involvement in first year experience programs; specific programs for “at risk” groups  NOT proven to have significant effect  E.g. Hollis, 2001 Colton, et al, 2002 Aguilar & Keating, 2009 Love, 2009 Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 18. Student Retention Literature  Relationship between Library employment & retention  Higher completion rate among library student workers  E.g. Wilder, 1990 Rushing & Poole, 2002 Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 19. Student Retention Literature  Significance of Library facilities  Looked at campus facilities, including Libraries; had slight impact on retention  E.g. Mallinckrodt ,1987 Lau, 2003 Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 20. Retention Research: Lack of Consistency Attrition Retention Persistence Completion Graduation Rates  Frequently confused terms  Different time periods covered  Different student types included/excluded Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 21. Student Retention Concepts  Institutional Retention  Enrolling & graduating from the same institution  Program Retention  Enrolling & graduating with the same major or in the same school/department as initially selected  System Retention  Students who leave one institution yet continue and complete post-secondary studies elsewhere Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 22. Related Measures of Retention  Persistence  From first to second year? Entry to graduation?  Completion  From entry to graduation? (Student goals?)  Graduation Rates  What about transfers? Time period?  Attrition  Leaving institution? Leaving the system? Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 23. Further Retention Concepts  Stopout  Leave postsecondary education with the intention (and action) of returning later to complete a program  Dropout  Leave postsecondary education with the intention (and action) of NOT returning  Transfer  Change institutions yet still persist in higher education  May change type of institution  Voluntary Attrition?  Involuntary Attrition? Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 24. “Non-completion of courses is by no means always negative for the students concerned.” K a y F o s t e r, 2 0 0 3 ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Te e s s i d e , U K ) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 25. Why Students Leave: Theoretical Models  Students’ decision to leave University is influenced by many personal factors  Financial reasons  Family responsibilities  Lack of academic ability  Poor fit, etc.  Foundational Theories from Education / Psychology:  Tinto’s “Model of Student Integration” (1975)  Bean’s “Model of Student Attrition” (2000)  Bean & Eaton “Model of Student Retention” (2003) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 26. Tinto’s Model of Student Integration  Vincent Tinto (University of Syracuse, NY)  Initial model in 1975; revised in 1987 & 1994  Focuses on importance of social and academic integration  Looks at “pre-entry” conditions, how experiences at school affect initial goals & values Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 27. Tinto’s Model of Student Integration (1975) Grayson & Grayson, 2003 (http://www.millenniumscholarships.ca/images/Publications/retention_final.pdf)
  • 28. Tinto’s Model of Student Integration  Pre-entry Characteristics:  Family background (socioeconomic status)  Degree of High school preparation  Individual Skills & Abilities Important: Social Integration & Academic integration  Initial Goals and Commitments  Career goals Experiences lead to modified goals (student leaves) or  Education goals consistent with beliefs  Commitment to the institution (student stays)  Experiences in the Academic System  Grade performance  Interactions with faculty & peers Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 29. Tinto’s Model: Impact Students’ decisions to leave are based on two sets of conditions: 1) Internal to the student; pre-university conditions 2) External to the student; internal-to-the-institution conditions Criticisms of Tinto’s model: - most valid with white, middle class, residential campuses Bulk of Retention literature: - test, prove, refute, modify Tinto’s model Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 30. Testing Tinto’s Model  Ernest T. Pascarella (University of Illinois)  Pascarella & Terenzini (1979)  Support Tinto’s model for students living in residence halls  Pascarella et al (1981)  Applied to commuter students – found Tinto’s model was insufficient to predict attrition in this group (different variables affected them more strongly)  Pascarella, Duby, et al (1983)  In a non-residential campus, Tinto’s model only partly worked (social integration was less significant)  Grayson & Grayson (2003) provide a review of other tests of Tinto’s model. Failure to accurately predict attrition in a variety of campus settings prompted further development Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 31. “If strong linkages between libraries and student retention can be made, then the perceived value of the library may indeed rise.” Steven Bell, 2008 ( Te m p l e U n i v e r s i t y, P h i l a d e l p h i a ) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 32. Why Students Leave: Theoretical Models  J. Bean & B. Metzner: Model of Student Attrition (1985)  Focuses on 3 areas influencing student success:  Academic  Social-Psychological  Environmental (Pull factors)  More effective than Tinto re: non-traditional students  Also discusses sense of “self-efficacy” and “locus of control”  Taking personal ownership = greater success Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 33. Bean & Metzner: Model of Student Attrition (1985) Grayson & Grayson, 2003 (http://www.millenniumscholarships.ca/images/Publications/retention_final.pdf)
  • 34. Why Students Leave: Theoretical Models  J. Bean & S. Bogdan Eaton: Model of Student Retention (2001)  Revised model to include:  Focus on Intent  More options for direct influence  Focus multiple factors at a time  Added “intermediate” influences Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 35. Bean & Eaton: Model of Student Retention (2001) Bean, John and Shevawn Bogdan Eaton. “The Psychology Underlying Successful Retention Practices.” Journal of College Student Retention 3, no. 1 (2001): 73-89
  • 36. How Does the Library Fit?  In Tinto’s model… (Social & Academic Integration)  ACADEMIC: Pre-college prep  More involvement in “zero-level” courses?  More partnership with high school programs?  SOCIAL: Peer group interaction  Availability of group spaces?  Peer-to-peer research assistance?  Learning Commons environments?  Also: use of student workers? Minority outreach?  Active learning in sessions we teach  SOCIAL: Faculty interaction  One-on-one consultations (have a direct contact person)  Office hour availability? Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 37. How Does the Library Fit?  Bean’s model:  Pre-matriculation conditions – summer workshops, etc  Bean & Eaton’s model:  Self-efficacy  Teaching behaviors in Reference transactions help increase student confidence in their own abilities to succeed  Approach/Avoidance  Early library instruction helps overcome the avoidance response and empowers students  Service point staff attitudes  Looking for a consistent ‘message’ from the institution in order to feel they fit in with the institution Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 38. To b e s u c c e s s f u l , s t u d e n t s “ n e e d t o believe that they are effective academically and believe that they are in charge of their own outcomes.” John Bean and Shevawn Bogdan Eaton, 2001 (Indiana University / North Illinois University) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 39. How Does the Library Fit? (Academic & Social Integration)  Help students gain confidence in research abilities necessary for success  Group Study spaces meet “integration” needs  Assist student academic performance through better research & critical thinking skills  Staff attitudes and personal attention to students  Potential “first point of contact” = shape institutional fit Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 40. “Anyone and everyone on campus can affect these attitudes, and for this reason everyone on campus is responsible for retention .” John Bean, 2005 ( I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y, B l o o m i n g t o n ) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 41. Current Initiatives, Future Directions…?  Foster integration into academic community:  Support student orientation efforts  Engage in first year instruction  Target “at risk” programs (minority groups, non-traditional students, etc)  Provide Individualized instruction/assistance at service points  Offer some student employment positions Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 42. Current Initiatives, Future Directions…?  Offer Increased contact time with students  i.e. through holding departmental office hours  Provide contacts for distance learners  Serve as first point of contact for institution Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 43. “While librarians have fewer opportunities to connect with students than classroom faculty do, institutions could certainly be doing more to…heighten student feelings of connectedness.” Steven Bell, 2008 ( Te m p l e U n i v e r s i t y, P h i l a d e l p h i a ) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 44. Current Initiatives, Future Directions…?  Possibilities for future research  Try looking at graduation rates of students who completed a Library Science course vs. classmates in same disciplines?  Further research like Kramer & Kramer  [looked at book borrowing; found library users = more likely to persist]  perhaps book circulation is not as relevant anymore – can we track login stats (length of time? Number of click-throughs?) per student & compare these stats with graduation rates? Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 45. Current Initiatives, Future Directions…?  Comparison of completion rate at ‘like’ institutions with info commons library setting (lots of group interaction, etc) v.s. ‘traditional’? Look for data already available/easy to collect:  Sample of online reference users & graduation rates (already tracked…)  Look at retention in a department that has librarian office hours v.s. similar department that does not? Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 46. “Retention is quite measurable…but proving that a student stayed in school due to one program is practically impossible.” John Bean, 2005 ( I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y, B l o o m i n g t o n ) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 47. “Five Point Plan for Success” (Bell 2008)  “Emphasize delivery of individualized research assistance and personal attention”  “Focus on research skill building as a core contributor to student academic success” (marketing Info Lit)  “Provide data that links student persistence and satisfaction to the library’s services, resources, and people” (moving beyond traditional counting)  Fight for the library’s role in campuswide programming  Consider ways to engage parents Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 48. Recap…  Many things your library already does contributes to:  A sense of “fit” with the institution  Academic success  Social integration  Building relationships  Meeting individual needs  These are all directly related to models of student retention  Make a case for how your library “fits” in the mission and goals of your institution  You can back it up with theory  Explore options for further research on-the-ground Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 49. “ O n e w a y t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e l i b r a r y ’s contribution is to assess whether students’ experiences with the library directly or indirectly contribute to desired outcomes of college.” George D. Kuh & Robert M. Gonyea, 2003 ( I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y, B l o o m i n g t o n ) Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 50. Questions??  Are you currently engaged in (intentional) student retention efforts in your library?  What assessment methods have you used?  Can you think of other library programs or services not mentioned that may be related to student retention? Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 51. References  Aguilar, Paulita and Kathleen Keating. “Satellite Outreach Services Program to Under-Represented Students: Being in Their Space, Not on MySpace.” The Reference Librarian 50 (2009): 14-27.  Astin, Alexander W. And Leticia Oseguera. “Pre-College and Institutional Influences in Degree Attainment.” In College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success, edited by Alan Seidman, 245- 276. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005.  Bain-Greenwood, Fiona. “Tackling the Drop-Out Rates: Strategies to Improve Persistence in Three Ontario Community Colleges.” Webinar (Jan 20, 2010) from the Consortium for Student Retention Data Exchange (University of Oklahoma) (http://csrde.ou.edu)  Bean, John and Shevawn Bogdan Eaton. “The Psychology Underlying Successful Retention Practices.” Journal of College Student Retention 3, no. 1 (2001): 73-89. Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 52. References  Bean, John P. “Nine Themes of College Student Retention.” In College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success, edited by Alan Seidman, 215-243. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005.  Bell, Steven. “Keeping them Enrolled: How Academic Libraries Contribute to Student Retention.” Library Issues (Sep 2008).  Berger, Joseph B. And Susan C. Lyon. “Past to Present: A Historical Look at Retention.” In College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success, edited by Alan Seidman, 1-29. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005.  Braxton, John M. And Amy S. Hirschy. “Theoretical Developments in the Study of College Student Departure.” In College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success, edited by Alan Seidman, 61-87. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005. Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 53. References  Brunsden, Vivienne and Mark Davies. “Why do HE Students Drop Out? A Test of Tinto’s Model.” Journal of Further and Higher Education 24, no. 3 (2000): 301-310.  Carpenter, Susan and Lesley Andres. Today’s Higher Education Students: Issues of Admission, Retention, Transfer, and Attrition in Relation to Changing Student Demographics. Victoria: The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 1997. (online: http://www.bccat.bc.ca/pubs/today.pdf)  Colton, George M., Ulysses J. Connor Jr., Eileen L. Shultz, and Linda M. Easter. “Fighting Attrition: One Freshman Year Program that Targets Academic Progress and Retention for At-Risk Students.” Journal of College Student Retention 1, no. 2 (1999/2000): 147-162.  Dennis, Melissa. “Playing for Keeps: University Faculty and Staff Teaming Up for an Effective Student Retention Program.” Mississippi Libraries 71, no. 4 (2007): 89-92. Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 54. References  Foster, Kay. “Libraries and Student Retention: Some Thoughts about the Issues and an Approach to Evaluation.” SCONUL Newsletter 28 (2003): 12-16.  Foster, Kay. Libraries and Student Retention: Report of the Services and Learning Evaluation Project. Teesside University, http://lis.tees.ac.uk/research/researchkf.cfm undated.  Grayson, J. Paul and Kyle Grayson. Research on Retention and Attrition. Montreal: The Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation, 2003. (online: http://www.millenniumscholarships.ca/images/Publications/retention_final. pdf)  Gansemer-Topf, Ann M. And John H. Schuh. “Instruction and Academic Support Expenditures: An Investment in Retention and Graduation” Journal of College Student Retention 5, no. 2 (2003/04): 135-145. Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 55. References  Gohn, Lyle, James Swartz, and Sharon Donnelly. “A Case Study of Second Year Student Persistence.” Journal of College Student Retention 2, no. 4 (2000/01): 271-293.  Hagedorn, Linda Serra. “How to Define Retention: A New Look at an Old Problem.” In College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success, edited by Alan Seidman, 89-105. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005.  Hamrick, Florence, John Schuh and Mack Shelley. “Predicting Higher Education Graduation Rates from Institutional Characteristics and Resource Allocation.” Education Policy Analysis Archives 12, no. 19 (2004). http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v12n19/ .  Hollis, Leah P. “Service Ace? Which Academic Services and Resources Truly Benefit Student Athletes?” Journal of College Student Retention 3, no. 3 (2001/02): 265-283. Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 56. References  Kelly, Maurie Catlin. “Student Retention and Academic Libraries.” College & Research Libraries News (Dec 1995): 757-759.  Kramer, Lloyd A. and Martha B. Kramer. “The College Library and the Drop-Out.” College & Research Libraries 29, no. 7 (1968): 310-312.  Kuh, George D. and Robert M. Gonyea. “The Role of the Academic Library in Promoting Student Engagement in Learning.” College and Research Libraries (Jul 2003): 256-282.  Landrum, R. Eric. “The Responsibility for Retention: Perceptions of Students and University Personnel.” Journal of College Student Retention 3, no.2 (2001): 195-211.  Lau, Linda K. “Institutional Factors Affecting Student Retention.” Education 124, no. 1 (2003): 126-136. Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 57. References  Lindauer, Bonnie Gratch. “Defining and Measuring the Library’s Impact on Campuswide Outcomes.” College and Research Libraries (Nov. 1998): 546-563.  Love, Emily. “A Simple Step: Integrating Library Reference and Instruction into Previously Established Academic Programs for Minority Students.” The Reference Librarian 50 (2009): 4-13.  Ma, Xin and George Frempong. Reasons for Non-Completion of Postsecondary Education and Profile of Postsecondary Dropouts. Gatineau: Human Resources and Social Development, 2008.  McLaughlin, Gerald W., Paul V. Brozovsky and Josetta S. McLaughlin. “Changing Perspectives on Student Retention: A Role for Institutional Research.” Research in Higher Education 39, no. 1 (1998): 1-17.  Mezick, Elizabeth M. “Return on Investment: Libraries and Student Retention.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 33, no. 5 (2007): 561-566. Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 58. References  Mortenson, Thomas G. “Measurements of Persistence.” In College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success, edited by Alan Seidman, 31-60. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005.  Mueller, Richard E. “Access and Persistence of Students in Canadian Post-Secondary Education: What We Know, What We Don’t Know and Why It Matters.” In Who Goes? Who Stays? What Matters? : Accessing and Persisting in Post-Secondary Education in Canada, edited by Ross Finnie, et al., 31-61. Kingston: Queen’s University, 2008.  Nora, Amaury, Elizabeth Barlow and Gloria Crisp. “Student Persistence and Degree Attainment Beyond the First Year in College: The Need for Research.” In College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success, edited by Alan Seidman, 129-153. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005. Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 59. References  Oseguera, Leticia and Byung Shik Rhee. “The Influence of Institutional Retention Climates on Student Persistence to Degree Completion: A Multilevel Approach.” Research in Higher Education. (2009) 50: 546-564.  Pierard, Cindy and Kathryn Graves. “The Greatest Problem with Which the Library Is Confronted: A Survey of Academic Library Outreach to the Freshman Course.” In Making the Grade: Academic Libraries and Student Success, edited by Maurie Caitlin Kelly and Andrea Kross, 71- 90. Chicago: American Library Association, 2002.  Pike, Gary R., George D. Kuh, and Robert M. Gonyea. “The Relationship Between Institutional Mission and Students’ Involvement and Educational Outcomes.” Research in Higher Education 22, no. 2 (2003): 241-261. Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 60. References  Primary Research Group. The Survey of Student Retention Policies in Higher Education. New York: Primary Research Group, 2008.  Potts, Glenn and Brian Schultz. “The Freshman Seminar and Academic Success of At-Risk Students.” College Student Journal 42, no. 2 (2008): 647-658. (html version; unp)  Rowley, Jennifer. “Retention: Rhetoric or Realistic Agendas for the Future of Higher Education.” International Journal of Educational Management 17, no. 6 (2003): 248-253.  Rushing, Darla and Deborah Poole. “The Role of the Library in Student Retention.” In Making the Grade: Academic Libraries and Student Success, edited by Maurie Caitlin Kelly and Andrea Kross, 91-101. Chicago: American Library Association, 2002.  Seidman, Alan. “Where We Go From Here.” In College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success, edited by Alan Seidman, 295-316. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005. Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 61. References  Tinto, Vincent. “Epilogue: Moving from Theory to Action.” In College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success, edited by Alan Seidman, 317-333. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005.  Tinto, Vincent. “Forward.” In College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success, edited by Alan Seidman, ix-xiv. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005.  Tinto, Vincent. “Research and Practice of Student Retention: What Next?” Journal of College Student Retention 8, no. 1 (2006): 1-19.  Tinto, Vincent. “Taking Student Retention Seriously,” Annual Recruitment and Retention Conference, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. Austin, TX, 19 June 2001. Retrieved 4 Jan 2010 from http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/fsd/c2006/docs/takingretentionseriou sly.pdf Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 62. References  Titus, Marvin A. “An Examination of the Influence of Institutional Context on Student Persistence at 4-year Colleges and Universities: A Multilevel Approach.” Research in Higher Education 45 no 7 (2004) 673-699.  University of Lethbridge. “Goals and Performance Measures.” 2006- 07 Annual Report to Alberta Advanced Education and Technology. http://www.uleth.ca/vpadmin/Documents/Annual%20Report_06- 07_Ver%201.0_Jan%207-08%20FINAL.pdf  University of Lethbridge. “Record of Success.” Accountability. http://www.uleth.ca/accountability/record.html.  Watson, Lemuel W. “How do Students’ Perceptions of their Library Usage Influence Their Educational Outcomes?” College Student Journal (Sep 2001). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCR/is_3_35/ai_80744649/print. Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010
  • 63. References  Weiner, Sharon. “The Contribution of the Library to the Reputation of a University.” Journal of Academic Librarianship (Jan 2009): 3-13.  Whitmire, Ethelene. “Academic Library Performance Measures and Undergraduates’ Library Use and Educational Outcomes.” Library and Information Science Research 24 (2002): 107-128.  Wilder, Stanley. “Library Jobs and Student Retention.” College & Research Libraries News (Dec 1990): 1035-1038.  Zepke, Nick and Linda Leach. “Integration and Adaptation: Approaches to the Student Retention and Achievement Puzzle.” Active Learning in Higher Education 6, no. 1 (2005): 46-59. Lorelei Harris - Ontario Library Association Conference 2/25/2010

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