The Triple Alliance Italy • Italy and Germany are new countries in 1870s, therefore small and weak. • 1882= 32 Years before WW1 • Long term cause Triple Alliance 1882 • Alliance is due to needing military support/strength • Defensive agreementGermany Austria-Hungary Dual Alliance 1879
The Triple Entente Great Britain The Entente Cordiale betweenEntente Britain and France was a Anglo-Russian Entente FRIENDLY AGREEMENTCordiale 1907, NOT a military1904 alliance Britain= • Empire • Best NAVY • “Splendid Isolation” • Ran 25% of known world France Russia • Felt threatened by T.Alliance, joined France and Russia in Dual Alliance 1892 1907. (Friendly agreement) Military Agreement
Kaiser Wilhelm II Abused JealousWeltpolitik Empire
Kaiser Wilhelm II Abused…• The Kaiser’s childhood was very controlled• He was left handed due to his minor disability in his right hand• He was forced to ride a horse• He was forced to write with his right hand• As a result from this the Kaiser wanted to be HIS OWN BOSS.• He wanted his weak Germany to gain world recognition and respect= domination
Kaiser Wilhelm II Weltpolitik…• “Weltpolitik” means world politics• His aim was to win respect for Germany from the rest of the world
Kaiser Wilhelm II Jealous…• In 1888 HE CAME TO POWER• The Kaiser was jealous of his British cousins, George V etc.• GB had the biggest navy + empire• Dreadnoughts= NAVAL ARMS RACE 1906-14
Kaiser Wilhelm II Empire…• Wanted an EMPIRE like Britain’s• His “place in the sun”• The “sun never sets on the British Empire”• Policy of Imperialism- power, respect• Equality with GB + France
Mitteleurope• The Pan-German League wanted to make Germany the dominant empire in Europe• Long term cause• Social unrest, tension, factory workers wanted reform throughout Germany• Kaiser’s excuse for war: pulls Germany back together
The Naval Arms Race• 1906-1914• In 1900 GB had the BIGGEST navy in the world• Germany =jealous, started to build up own navy 1898• GB saw as challenge, due to joining entente in 1904 + triple in 1907• 1906, both sides building dreadnoughts• Peak in 1909-10=• GB pressurised Liberal Gov.:- “we want 8 and won’t wait”• GB won in 1914, 12 Dreadnought’s ahead of Germany
The Build up of armies• 1900-1914• Large armies throughout Europe unsettled peace• Military leaders argued big army= lower chance of invasion• Everyone but GB increased arm size• GB did not introduce conscription before 1914• Germany = 2nd largest army, PREPARED, EQUIPED• Russia= 1st largest army, UNPREPARED, UNEQUIPED• Russia fought Japan in 1904-05= weak
The Schlieffen Plan• The Schlieffen Plan was put in place in 1905 by Germany• They were concerned about being attacked on two fronts- by France and Russia• The Schlieffen Plan consisted of the German troops attacking France through neutral Belgium, then onto Russia in the East.• The plan in reality did not work, as moving large armies proved difficult in a small amount of time
THE SCHLIEFFEN PLAN Neutral Belgium• The Schlieffen Plan involved attacking France through neutral Belgium.• This invaded the TREATY OF LONDON of 1839 where Belgium signed for neutrality and to be left out of foreign affairs such as WW1• GB would also protect Belgium• Germany did not think GB was committed to keeping to the treaty so followed the plan.• However, Britain got ANGRY, and ordered Germany to leave, they refused, leading to GB declaring war on Germany.
The 1st Moroccan Crisis- 1905• Morocco was weak; France hoped to conquer it• In 1903 France based an army on the Moroccan border• In Feb 1905 France demanded control over the Moroccan army and troops, the Sultan refused• March 1905, the Kaiser visited Morocco and told the French agent that he wanted free trade for Germany in Morocco, Germany dismissed him before he could reply• The Kaiser gave a speech saying he would “defend Morocco as ‘free and independent’ – challenging France
The 1st Moroccan Crisis contd…• Both France and Germany threatened war• Britain encouraged a cowardly France NOT to back down• If Germany got Morocco that is their gateway to the sea :O• GB held a conference in Algeciras- tip of Spain 1906• GB and RUSSIA supported France, scared Germany• Germany backed down= HUMILIATED• France angry with Germany
The Bosnian Crisis- 1908• ‘Panslavism’- nationality of A-Hungary and Bosnia• Treaty of Berlin- 1878, Austria-H had the right to occupy and administer Bosnia• Turkey = sick man of Europe• 1908 AH fully annexed Bosnia• Serbia protested- wanted a strip of land to access Adriatic Sea• Russia supported, called for a conference• AH, Turkey and Germany said it was not necessary
The Bosnian Crisis contd…• RUSSIA + SERBIA = HUMILIATED• INTERNATIONAL CRISIS• Germany threatened war• Russia and Serbia forced to back down as Russia = weak after war with Japan (1904-05)• KAISER= SMUG, RESPECTED• He stood by Austria in ‘shining armour’• ‘Blank Cheque’ given to AH by Germany
The 2nd Moroccan Crisis- 1911• In 1910 France made a huge loan to Morocco and took control of customs and taxes• In March 1911 huge rebellion- France went to defend• July 11 Kaiser sent the Panther ship to Agadir, rescued ONE GERMAN• INTERNATIONAL CRISIS• Nov 1911- Treaty of BERLIN, Germany forced out of Agadir, given a useless piece of the Congo• Germany= Humiliated• France took complete control of Morocco• WAR FEVER
The BalkansThe first Balkan war• Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro attacked the Turkish Empire in 1912• Turkey= weak, gave up landsThe second Balkan war• 1913- Balkan League quarrelled-• Bulgaria went to war with Greece and Serbia• Turkey and Romania joined Greece and Serbia• Bulgaria was soon defeated• GB tried to keep peace, did not support Russia who supported Serbia- The Kaiser saw this as a weakness in the Triple Entente
Murder in Sarajevo- 1914• 28 June = Serbia’s national day• Franz Ferdinand + Sophia visited Bosnia 28 June 1914, (AH’s heir to throne) Serbia- insulted• Austria had asked for war with Serbia 25 times, wanted to unite (PANSLAVISM)• Serbia too weak for war- Balkans• The Black Hand- murdered FF + wife• Triggered WW1 (murder=excuse to attack)
WW1• A-Hungary declares war on Serbia on 28 July 1914• 29 July- Russia starts mobilising troops• Germany demands Russia to stop• 1 August- Germany declares war on Russia• 3 August- Germany declares war on France• 4 August Belgium’s neutrality invaded, GB declares war on Germany• 6 August- A-H declares war on Russia
The Treaty Of Versailles• Clause 231: War Guilt Clause;Germany had to admit to starting WW1• 28 June 1919 Palace of Versailles• 400 clauses• Alsace-Lorraine returned to France• Demilitarisation of the Rhineland• LON control the Saar• Germany forbidden to unite with Austria• 6 Battleships• 100,000 men, 15,000 naval men• 0 aircraft• Reparations= £6600 billion
The League of Nations• Wall Street Crash prevented countries from taking economic sanctions- 1929• USA never joined- Woodrow Wilson’s idea: 14 points didn’t want a repeat of WW1• No army at disposal• Manchuria – 1931• Abyssinia- 1935
Early League Successes• The League resolved several difficult situations over territorial claims- without fighting• It solved the dispute in 1921 between Germany and Poland over Upper Silesia• The dispute between Sweden and Finland over the Aaland Islands in 1921• The conflict when Greece invaded Bulgaria in 1925• It fought against slavery and tried to create better working conditions for people all across the world
The League faced problems in 1923 The Corfu Incident French Occupation of the Ruhr 1) Mussolini occupied the Greek 1) Germany failed to keep up with its island of Corfu in 1923 after the reparation payments murder of an Italian diplomat 2) Mussolini demanded financial 2) In retaliation, France invaded and compensation and an apology occupied and industrial region of from Greece Germany, the Ruhr, in 1923 3) The League demanded that the 3) The League did not intervene money should be paid to them, not Italy 4) Mussolini got the decision 4) The USA helped resolve the situation overturned and received the with the Dawes Plan money and the apology he France withdrew from the Ruhr in 1925 wanted. The League looked weak.
Manchuria• Japan had a large army and navy, wanted to rule China• Since 1905, Japan had owned Manchurian railway• Japan invaded Manchuria – Sept 1931• China appealed to the L.O.N• L.O.N sent Lord Lytton to assess situation, he went year later• League told Japan to leave China• Japan ignored- showed Hitler + Mussolini LON was weak and Mussolini took advantage• 1937 Japan invaded China- League did NOTHING• Economic sanctions not taken- USA = Japan’s main trading partner, USA- NOT IN LEAGUE
Abyssinia• Abyssinia defeated Italy in 1896, Italians wanted revenge• Mussolini saw Japan get away with Manchuria in 1931• Oct 1935, Italy sent troops to Abyssinia to invade• Imposed economic sanctions, delayed oil exports in case USA didn’t support them• May 1936 Italy had conquered Abyssinia
• Rome- Berlin axis 1936• Hoare-Laval Pact:French + GB foreign ministers saidMussolini could have the good part ofAbyssinia, Abyssinia could haverubbish part.• The public was outraged• Abyssinia Crisis- didn’t close Suez Canal
1924- Mein Kampf1933- Came to power1933- Left League1933- Disarmament talks1934- Germany Re-arm + Anschluss 11935- Anglo Naval agreement (Germany could have a navy 30% size of GB)1936- Remilitarisation of the Rhineland1938- Anschluss 229TH Sept 1938- last Munich agreement GB lets Germany take Czechoslovakia, without their consent,PREVENTING WARAugust 1939- Nazi-Soviet Pact, non aggression Pact – SHOCK TO WORLD! Germany DID NOT have to fight on 2 FRONTS Russia + Germany divided Poland between them - secret
AnschlussAnschluss= union• In 1934, Nazis marched into Austria- Mussolini stopped Hitler, he placed Italians troops on Austrian border- scaring his ally• 15th March 1938- Anschluss 2, Hitler entered Vienna to proclaim the Greater German Reich• Austria and Germany were UNITED
Munich• May 1938, Hitler threatened war• Sept 1938 Chamberlain negotiated with Hitler- Hitler soon changed his mind and on 1st Oct Nazis “rescued” Sudeten Germans.• GB mobilised troops• 29th Sept 1938, Munich Agreement- Hitler could take Sudetenland but leave the rest of Czechoslovakia- Appeasement= pleasing war hungry leaders to avoid war.• Chamberlain= HERO!
The Outbreak of War• In March 1939 Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia• In May 1939, Germany signed the “Pact of Steel” with Italy. They promised to support each other if war was declared• GB and France did nothing- it was clear the appeasement policy had failed. Hitler had broken his promises and taken non-German lands• Once the Nazis had taken the rest of Czech, GB abandoned appeasement and made an agreement with Poland to support it in case it was invaded
The Outbreak of War• After Munich, Stalin decided to negotiate with Germany to protect the USSR• The Nazi-Soviet Pact was signed in August 1939• They promised not to attack each other and planned to carve up Poland• They agreed that if Germany invaded Poland, the USSR would get Latvia, Estonia, Finland and East Poland- but Hitler never intended to keep this promise
On 1st September 1939 Hitler invaded PolandBritain and France ordered him to leave He ignored them
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