OSI Model <br />By<br />SyedMunawer Hassan<br />
Introduction<br />ISO International Standard Organization Established in 1947 Multinational body dedicated to worldwide agreement Standard of international level Covers all aspects of network communications <br />It is Open System Interconnection MODELAllow two different Machines to connect without change in hardware and softwareIt is model for understanding and designing a network architecture <br />
The Model<br />Layered framework Designed for communication across all types of computer system 7 separate but related layer Each defines segment of process of moving information across network.<br />
Why we need OSI Model<br />To allow different types of network hardware and software to communicate with each other<br />Avoidable duplication of equipment resources<br />To breaks network communication into smaller, simpler parts that are easy to develop<br />To facilitates standardization of network components to allow multiple – vendor development and support<br />
1. Physical Layer<br />Physical characteristics of interfaces and medium.<br />Representation of bits.<br />Physical topology.<br />Line configuration.<br />Data rate.<br />Synchronization of bits.<br />Transmission mode.<br />
2. Data Link Layer<br />Framing.<br />Physical addressing.<br />Flow control.<br />Error control.<br />Access control.<br />
Summary<br />The International Standards Organization created a model called the Open Systems Interconnection, which allows diverse systems to communicate. <br />The seven-layer OSI model provides guidelines for the development of universally compatible networking protocols. <br />The physical layer coordinates the functions required to transmit a bit stream over a physical medium. <br />The data link layer is responsible for delivering data units from one station to the next without errors. <br />The network layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of a packet across multiple network links. <br />The transport layer is responsible for the process-to-process delivery of the entire message. <br />The session layer establishes, maintains, and synchronizes the interactions between communicating devices. <br />The presentation layer ensures interoperability between communicating devices through transformation of data into a mutually agreed upon format. <br />The Application Layer Enable user, (human or software) to access the network and Provides user interface and support for services (email, Remote file access, shared database management system).<br />
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