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Biomassa energética, plantações florestais, biocombustíveis, segurança alimentar e novas tecnologias a partir da biomassa florestal, por Lynn L. Wright da University of Tennessee
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Biomassa energética, plantações florestais, biocombustíveis, segurança alimentar e novas tecnologias a partir da biomassa florestal, por Lynn L. Wright da University of Tennessee

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MADEIRA 2008 - Congresso Internacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico Sustentável da Indústria de Base Florestal e de Geração de Energia, 10 e 11 de Dezembro, Hotel Plaza São Rafael, Porto Alegre, RS.

MADEIRA 2008 - Congresso Internacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico Sustentável da Indústria de Base Florestal e de Geração de Energia, 10 e 11 de Dezembro, Hotel Plaza São Rafael, Porto Alegre, RS.


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  • Blue components are added processes, gray boxes are deleted processes
  • Repurposing scenarios were all biochemical hydrolysis and fermentation, but differences involved type of wood. Repurpose A was same as for pulp production – a mixture of hardwood and pine chips. Repurpose B1, same as A with 10% additional wood throughput, Repurpose B2 was 100% pine chips and pine residuals, Repurpose B3 was 100% hardwood chips plus hardwood residuals. Plant size and enzyme costs assumed to be the same for all scenarios. Hardwoods are much easier to hydrolyse than pines with the chosen technology
  • I want to share with you some ideas about transportation options that are not included in the National Biofuels Action Plan of the US government, however, many private sector groups are showing much interest. That is the idea that renewable electricity used to fuel hybrid vehicles and all electric vehicles should be a bigger part of the alternative fuels plans in the U.S.
  • A preliminary analysis which I helped to prepare shows that current electric vehicles are significantly more efficient to operate than gasoline or ethanol fueled vehicles. Also future electric vehicle technology is expected to much more efficient than even the best technology using the most efficiently produced alternative biofuels. The electricity can come from many renewable sources and it is extremely unlikely that 20 million acres of U.S. land would ever be planted to hybrid poplars. However, corn used for ethanol is already grown on 20 million acres, so that amount of land is used for the comparison. Efficiently produced wood converted in efficient biomass power facilities to electricity and used in efficient electric vehicles could theoretically supply all power needed for all vehicle miles currently traveled in the U.S.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Madeira 2008 December 10, 2008 Lynn Wright, WrightLink Consulting, Adjunct Faculty, University of Tennessee [email_address]
    • 2.
      • US biofuels market/current ethanol production
      • Status of cellulosic biofuels production and technology development
      • Cost targets and current estimates of cellulosic biofuels costs with examples
      • Feedstock supply requirements, costs, new technology
      • Alternative advanced transportation biofuel
    • 3.
      • The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Mandates :
        • 2008 Ethanol Production: 9 Billion Gallons
        • 2022 Total Biofuels Target: 36 Billion Gallons
        • 2022 Advanced Biofuels Target: 21 Billion Gal.
          • Cellulosic Biofuels target: 16 Billion Gal.
    • 4. Feedstocks include : Corn starch – 99% Wheat starch Milo starch Barley starch Cheese whey Potato waste Brewery waste Wood waste * Sugar Cane Bagasse * * Two demo facilities are currently producing up to 3 mgy of cellulosic ethanol Total capacity is 11,051 million gallons per year (mgy) at 180 refineries Source: Renewable Fuels Association: www.ethanolrfa.org
    • 5. 48 cellulosic projects total;29 projects are currently receiving US or Canadian federal and state support as of December 2008 Both US and Canada have recently announced new programs to assist advanced biofuels commercialization. Source: Lynn Wright survey of biomass information sources in 2008 Commercial Demonstration Pil0t Completed none 3 7 Under Construction 1 2 2 Plans Announced 14 13 6 Total 15 18 15
    • 6.  
    • 7.
      • BioEnergy Science Center: Oak Ridge National Laboratory and partners:
      • cell-wall deconstruction
      • consolidated bioprocessing microbes
      • poplar and switchgrass engineering
      • Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center: Univ. of Wisconsin / Michigan State University and partners:
      • new crops (e.g. Miscanthus)
      • increasing plant production of starches and oils
      • sustainable systems
      • Joint BioEnergy Institute: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and partners:
      • rice and Arabodopsis plant models
      • microbal-based synthesis of Biofuels
    • 8. DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol, LLC and the University of Tennessee broke ground on October 14, 2008 for an innovative pilot scale biorefinery. The feedstocks will be corn cobs, corn fiber and switchgrass grown by Tennessee farmers Ethanol production is anticipated by end of 2009
    • 9. Technology Product (s) Commercial projects Demo & pilot projects Thermochemical (Gasification/catalysis) FT liquids 4 4 Thermochemical (Gasification/fermentation) Ethanol, other chemicals 3 5 Biochemical (enzymatic hydrolysis – yeasts, various pretreatments) Ethanol & electricity from lignin 4 7 Biochemical (ICB and other) Ethanol 3 8 Fractionation & separation Sugars + fiber + lignin 1 2 Fermentation of Citrus peels ethanol 1 Combined thermo + bio processes and other Ethanol & chemicals 6
    • 10. Based on reports Aug 2008 conference, both biochemical and thermochemical processes show similar estimated costs in $1.50 to $2.50/gallon range Graph from US National Biofuels Action Plan published October 2008: available from www.brdisolutions.com Some companies are already claiming new technologies with potential ethanol production price of < $1.00 per gallon Biochemical biofuels costs and 2012 targets
    • 11. Ponderosa Mill – Base Case Biochemical Ethanol Process Substituted Source: Phillips, Jameel & Clark (NC State University), Aug 2008, TAPPI International Bioenergy and Bioproducts Conference Presentation “Technical and Economic Analysis of Repurposing a Kraft Pulp and Paper Mill to the Production of Ethanol”
    • 12. Source: Phillips, Jameel & Clark (NC State University), Aug 2008, TAPPI International Bioenergy and Bioproducts Conference All cases assume $0.30 enzyme cost
    • 13. Source: Koch et al (Georgia Institute of Technology), August 2008, TAPPI International Biomass and Bioenergy Conference. Effect on Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP) = MESP $2.21 = MESP $1.89 = MESP $1.57 Feedstock cost significantly affects ethanol cost Key assumptions: total alcohol yield/dry ton ~92.5 gal (ethanol ~ 78 gal; higher alcohols ~ 14.5 gal); feedstock is bark and residue of southern pine; steam from gasifier used for pulping processes.
    • 14. Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 3 results in adequate feedstocks to meet 2022 mandate, at lowest price ~ $45 per dry ton. Inclusion of 4 Billion Gallons per year of biofuel imports reduces residue use more than energy crop production.
    • 15. Most wood residue captured at < $30/dry ton (roadside) All types of forestland wood, is captured at < $50/dry ton (roadside) Source: Report by Biomass Research and Development Board entitled: “Increasing Feedstock Production for Biofuels”. Released Dec 2008. www.brdisolutions.com
    • 16. Source; Report by Jake Eaton of GreenWood Resources at Aug 2008 Short Rotation Crops Meeting Poplar Biomass Production Costs 1 1 Growing costs reported as NPV (6.5% discount rate) per dry ton, inclusive of the cost of land rent, site preparation, planting stock, planting, and crop care through the rotation Region Farm Cost $/dry ton Harvest Cost $/dry ton Total Cost $/dry ton Pacific Northwest 31 32 63 North Central 30 30 60 Mississippi Valley 24 28 52
    • 17. Energy Performance Systems patented technology www.energyperformancesystems.com
      • Cuts, accumulates & loads trailer
      • Cuts 1 tree/second w/o stopping
      • Field transports up to 90 tons
      • Travels up to 12 MPH empty
      • Handles large size range of trees
      • Size: 50 ft long, 16 ft wide, 28 ft tall
      Whole Tree Harvester for Planted Trees Status: prototype harvester fabrication nearly complete GPS guided, 6 row, high-speed tree planter
      • Tree injection operates by hydraulics
      • 6 trees injected in ground every 1.5 seconds
      • Optimum rate at 5ft x 5 ft spacing = 8.3 ac/hr
      • No. injection positions/spacing can vary
      Status – tested in 2007 Design improvements ongoing.
    • 18.  
    • 19. Source: Yang and Wyman, Aug 2008, TAPPI International Biofuels &Bioenergy Conference
    • 20. Source: Draft paper by Ragland, Ostlie and Wright entitled “Electric Vehicles Compared to Ethanol-Fueled Vehicles (paper still in review as of Dec 2008) Estimated Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) using 20 million acres of land. 1 20 million acres of land is currently used to produce corn grain for ethanol fuels 2 Current total vehicle miles traveled in US is 2.69 trillion * US Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires consideration of indirect land-use effects Vehicle Type Biomass Type Miles/acre Total VMT % U.S. VMT 2 Ethanol (current technology) Corn grain 4,640 93 billion 3.5% All-electric (current technology Hybrid poplar 34,000 688 billion 26% Biogasoline (new technology Hybrid poplar 34,000 660 billion 25% All-electric (new technology Hybrid poplar 134,000 2.68 trillion 100%
    • 21.
      • N.A. cellulosic biofuels market are/will be large. Government support strong.
      • Many projects started/planned, one near commercial start.
      • Cost range of $1.00 to $2.50/gal.
      • Feedstocks include plantation grown wood
      • Feedstock and equipment engineering will reduce plantation wood costs
      • Biomass electric/ electric vehicle technology should be considered.
    • 22. Ask me later about my hybrid poplar project in Minnesota

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