19th Century Timeline 1865-1895 Kathreen Lopez U.S. History H Mr. Buchanan Period 3 March 17th, 2013
Several Southern states Frederick Law Olmsted added the Grandfather Spearheaded the Clause. The clause movement for planned stated that even if a man urban parks. In 1857, failed the literacy test Olmsted, along with or could not afford the English born architect poll tax, he was still Calvert Vaux, helped draw entitled to vote if he, his up a plan for father, or his grandfather “Greensward,” which was had been eligible to vote selected to become before January 1, 1867. Central Park, in New York. 1848 1857 1866 1867Karl Marx Buffalo Soldiers In 1867, Oliver HudsonGerman philosopher who Originally were Kelley started the Patronsadvocated communism. members of the U.S. of Husbandry, anIn 1848, he and Friedrich Calvary Regiment of organization for farmers thatEngels published The the United States became popularly known asCommunist Manifesto, Army, formed in the Grange.which outlined the theory September 21, 1866of class struggle. Which at Fort Leavenworth,was later used by Eugene Kansas.Debs and other laboractivists to solve problemsfaced by workers.
In 1870, at age 21, Jacob The 1st Transcontinental Riis left his native Denmark for the U.S. Riis found work Railroad in the United as a police reporter, a job States was built in the that took him into some of 1860s, linking the well New York Citys worst developed railway slums, where he wasTammany Hall network of the Eastern shocked at the conditions in coast with the rapidlyNew York City’s powerful the overcrowded. Airless, growing California. TheDemocratic political filthy tenements, Riis used main line was officiallymachine. Headed by William his talents to expose the completed on May 10,M. Tweed, better known as hardships of New York Citys 1869.Boss Tweed, in 1868. poor. 1868 1869 1870Political Machine Between 1869 and 1871, John D. Gilded Age was during Boss Tweed led the Tweed Rockefeller the 1870s and theAn organized group that 1880s where the U.S. Ring, a group of corrupt established thecontrolled the activities of a economy rose at the politicians, in defrauding the Standard Oilpolitical party in a city, it also fastest rate in its history. city. One scheme, the Company which tookoffered services to voters During this time, construction of the New a different approachand businesses in exchange patronage became a York County Courthouse, to merges withfor political or financial controversial issue. involved extravagant gaft. trusts. In 1870,support. The project cost taxpayers Rockefellers $13 million, while the actual Standard Oil Social Darwinism, construction cost was $3 Company of Ohio emerging in 1870s, a million. The difference went processed 2 or 3% of philosophy that grew into the pockets of Tweed the countrys crude out of the English and his followers. It was oil. In a decade it naturalist Charles finally broken in 1871. would control 90% of Darwins theory of the refining business. biological evolution.
Jim Crow Laws are racial segregation, Andrew Carnegie left his separation of whites and blacks, laws passed by job at the Pennsylvania Southern States. They Railroad when he received were put into affect in dividends from buying stock. Alexander Graham schools, hospitals, parks, He then entered the steel Bell invented the and transportation business in 1873 and by 1899, the Carnegie Steel telephone with systems throughout the Thomas Watson in South. Company manufactured more steel than all the 1876. Opening the way factories in Great Britain. to a worldwide communication network. 1871 1873 1876Chief Joseph assumed Battle of Little Big Horn,his role as chief of the also called Custers LastNez Perce. Best known Stand, was an engagementfor his resistance to the between the combinedU.S. Governments forces of the Lakota andattempt to force his tribe Northern Cheyenne tribesonto reservations. against the 7th Calvary of the U.S. Army. The most famous of all the Indian Wars, the remarkable victory for occurred over 2 days on June 25-26, 1876 near Little Bighorn River in eastern Montana Territory.
George Pullman, in 1880, Thomas Alva Edison, built a factory for in 1876 became a pioneer manufacturing sleepers and of the new industrial other railroad cars on the frontier in Menlo Park, Illinois prairie. Pullman Nez Perce New Jersey. There he residents lived in clean, were forced perfected the well-constructed brick out of their incandescent light bulb- houses and apartment tribal lands patented in 1880 and later buildings with at least one in Wallowa invented an entire system window in every room. In County, for producing and addition, the town offered Oregon. distributing electrical services and facilities such power. as doctors offices, shops, and athletic fields. 1877 1879 1880 Bessemer Process RagtimeNational Farmers In 1879, Dumbbell developed around 1850s. By originated in theAlliance was first Tenements were built. 1880, American 1800s in thefounded in 1877. Sparked by the increasing manufacturers were using saloons of theAlso known as the shortage of adequate this method to produce more South. A blend ofSouthern Alliance. housing for New Yorks than 90% of the nations African-American poor immigrants and a new steel. spirituals and law that established that European musical every inhabitable room forms. must have at least one window for fresh air to come in.
Mugwumps were Republican political Settlement houses activists who in the United States supported were founded by Democratic Charles Stove and candidate Grover Stanton Coit in New Cleveland in the York City in 1886. U.S. Presidential They are communitySitting Bull election of 1884. centers in slumsurrendered neighborhoods thatto the federal provided assistance togovernment in people in the area,1881. especially immigrants. 1881 1883 1884 1886 Booker T. Joseph Pulitzer, George Colored Washington, a a Hungarian Westinghouse, an Farmers prominent African- immigrant who had inventor who added Alliance American educator bought the New innovations that made organized by R.M. who believed that York World in electricity safer and Humphrey in racism would end 1883, pioneered less expensive. His firm 1886, in Houston, once blacks acquired popular faith in the alternating- Texas. Consisting useful labor skills and innovations, such current system led to of about 250,000 proved their as a large Sunday the founding of the African-American economic value to edition, comics, Westinghouse Electric farmers of the society. By 1881, he sports coverage, Company in 1886. South. headed the and womens Tuskegee Normal news. Samuel Gompers led and Industrial the Cigar Makers Institute, now called International Union to Tuskegee University join with other craft in Alabama. Unions in 1886.
In 1887, Congress passed theDawes Act aiming to Until about In 1890,“Americanize” the Native 1890, police ShermanAmericans. The act broke up the forces were Antitrust Actreservations and gave some of the Jane Adams, hired and made it illegalreservation lands to individual fired by to form a trust one of the mostNative Americans. The political that interfered influentialgovernment would sell the bosses to with free trade members of theremainder of the reservation to settlement house prevent graft- betweensettlers, and the resulting income movement, the illegal use states or withwould be used by Native founded Chicagos of political otherAmericans to buy farm Hull House in influence for countries.implements. 1889. personal gain. 1887 1888 1889 1890Congress passed In 1888, Urbanization- December 28,the Interstate growth of cities 1890, the 7th GeorgeCommerce Act in caused by the Calvary wounded Eastman technological about 350 starving1887. It introduced hisreestablished the boom in the 19th and freezing Kodak camera.right of the federal century and it Sioux and tookgovernment to happened mostly them to camp atsupervise railroad in the regions of Wounded Knee.activities and the Northeast andestablished a 5- Midwest.memberInterstateCommerceCommission(ICC) for thatpurpose.
Ellis Island was the chief The Pullman Company immigration station from Ida B. Wells moved to laid off more then 3,000 1892 to 1924 in the United Memphis int the early of its 5,800 employees States. America was 1880s to work as a and cut the wages of the becoming a melting pot teacher. Later became an rest by 25 to 50%, as new immigrants began editor in a local paper with without cutting the cost arriving. a Radical justice theme in of employee housing. A her reporting. The events strike was called in the of March 9, 1892 turned Spring of 1894, when the Omaha Platform that theme into a crusade Pullman Company failed was the official when 3 African-American to restore wages or Populist Party businessmen were decrease rent. Known as platform as of July lynched. the Pullman Strike. 4, 1892. 1892 1894Plessy vs. Ferguson, in Eugene V. Debs July 2, 1892, a1892 Homer Plessy was attempted to form and Populist Partyarrested, tried, and industrial union with Convention inconvicted for breaking skilled and unskilled Omaha, Nebraska,Louisianas segregation laborers. In 1894, the new demanded reforms tolaw. Plessy appealed. union (American Railway lift burden of debtSupreme Court handed Union (ARU)) won a from farmers anddown its decision on May strike. other workers and to1896. Court ruled that give the people aseparate but equal greater voice in theirfacilities for blacks and government.whites did not violate theConstitution
W.E.B. Dubois was the1st African-American toreceive a doctorate fromHarvard in 1895. In 1905, Orville andDubois founded theNiagara Movement, which Wilbur Wright,insisted that blacks should on December 17, 1903, at Kitty By 1910 about 10seek a liberal arts hawk, North million Americanseducation so that the Carolina, had their shopped by mail-African-Americancommunity would have first successful order catalog.well-educated leaders. flight. 1895 1896 1903 1910William Randolph William Jennings Bryan Immigrants whoHearst, a wealthy man delivered the “cross of arrived on the westwho purchased the New gold speech” on July 9, coast gainedYork Morning Journal in 1896 at the Democratic admission at1895 and was Joseph National Convention in Angel Island inPulitzers main competitor. Chicago. The issue was San FranciscoHearst, who already whether to endorse the free Bay. Betweenowned the San Francisco coinage of silver at a ration of 1910 and 1940,Examiner, sought to out do silver to gold of 16 to 1. After about 50,000Pulitzer by filling the his speech, women and men ChineseJournal with exaggerated screamed and waved their immigrantstales of personal scandals, hats and canes. The next day entered the Unitedcruelty, hypnotism, and he was nominated for States througheven an imaginary President on the 5th ballot. Angel Island.conquest of Mars.